US 3540545 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Inventors William N. Herleman Sycamore, Illinois; Richard G. Myrland, Elkhart, Indiana Appl. No. 614,209 Filed Feb. 6, 1967 Patented Nov. 17,1970 Assignee The Wurlitzer Company Chicago, Illinois a corporation of Ohio HORN SPEAKER 4Claims, 7 Drawing Figs.
US. Cl 181/31; 84/1.01, 84/1.09, 84/l.27; 179/1 Int. Cl. Gl0h l/00, G10h 3/00,G10h l/02 Field of Search 84/ 1 .01,
1.04,1.06,1.09,A, 1.27;179/1E,1M,1.2, 1.3; 340/388,389; 181/31  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 222,118 12/1879 Adler 340/388 1,213,803 1/1917 Cahill..... 84/1.01 2,072,743 3/1937 Findley 84/1.06 2,074,875 3/1937 Voigtlander 84/1 .01 3,045,522 7/1962 Markowitz et a]. 84/1.27 1,295,691 2/1919 Cahill 84/1.06
FOREIGN PATENTS 748,718 1/1945 Germany 179/l.2
Primary Examinerl-1erman Karl Saalbach Assistant Examiner-T. Vezeau Attorney-Olson, Trexler, Wolters and Bushnell ABSTRACT: An electric organ or other musically amplified sound source is provided with the usual wide range loudspeaker. ln addition, there is provided a superefficient horn speaker which emphasizes certain musical voices and a particular range of tones, corresponding particularly to those of a trumpet or other brass instrument.
HORN SPEAKER In many types of music, including symphonic music and dance band music, it is fairly common practice to use a trumpet or other brass wind instrument to carry a solo at a higher intensity than any other instrument, and indeed often at a higher intensity than the rest of the orchestra combined. Such use of a brass solo part can be very effective.
Electronic musical instruments have been refined to a rather high level. High quality electronic organs can reproduce the sound not only of first rate pipe organs, but also of many orchestral instruments. However, such instruments have, in the past, been deficient in capability of producing an overriding solo, such as ofa brass wind instrument for at least two reasons. In the many voices of an electronic organ, efforts occasionally have been made to allow for the playing of one voice as a solo, being at a higher intensity level than other voices. However, for any given available amplifier power or volume setting, it has not been possible to make the power of the solo voice greater than the whole, or even appreciably greater than any other one voice. Furthermore, part of the effect of a brass wind solo is psychological in that the sound emanates substantially from a point source. This may also be physiological, depending on the orientation ofthe listener.
It is widely recognized that one disadvantage of an electronic organ as compared with a pipe organ is that all of the tones emanate from the same place, namely a loudspeaker. It is recognized that a plurality of loudspeakers can be used at different locations, but still all of the sounds emanate from the same locations. In a pipe organ it will be recognized that the various ranks of pipes are positioned differently, and hence a solo on one rank or the other may move physically in space, depending on which rank is used for the solo.
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide an auxiliary sound emanating means in combination with an existing sound source for producing solo effects, particularly of the trumpet or other brass wind instruments.
More specifically, it is an object of the present invention to provide a very high efficiency horn speaker in combination with an existing electric sound source for producing solo effects, particularly of the brass wind variety.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a solo sound source in combination with an existing electrical sound source which is physically displaced from the existing source, and which can be brought into play whenever desired by-a musician.
A particular object of the present invention is to provide an improved horn speaker.
Other and further objects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following description when taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIG. I is a block diagram of a sound system in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of our new born speaker in combination with an electronic organ;
FIG. 3 is a side view showing details ofthe horn speaker;
FIG. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view on an enlarged scale through a portion ofthe horn speaker;
FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view taken substantially along the line 5-5 in FIG. 4;
FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view taken substantially along the line 6-6 in FIG. 4; and
FIG. 7 is a perspective view ofthe end of the speaker bell.
Turning first to FIG. I, there will be seen a tone source 10. This tone source must be one producing or providing electric oscillations corresponding to musical tones. It can be the generator system of an electronic organ, it can be an electric guitar, it can be any other electronic or electric musical instrument, or it can simply be a microphone or the like associated with conventional mechanical or acoustic musical instruments. The tone source 10 is connected to an amplifier 12, and the amplifier is, in turn, connected to a speaker system 14. Intermediate the amplifier and speaker system a connection is made to a foot switch 16, and the foot switch is connected to the horn speaker 18. The foot switch incorporates a preferably single-pole, singlethrow electric switch, and it preferably is of the push-on, push-off type.
Reference now should be had to FIG. 2 for one exemplification of the system illustrated in block diagram in FIG. 1. Thus, there is shown an electronic organ designated generally by the numeral 20. The organ may be of any known or conventional type, and details therefore need not be described at the present time. However, it will be understood that the organ conventionally includes one or more tone sources, one or more amplifiers, andone or more speakers, a speaker system 14 being indicated in phantom at the front of the organ. The speaker system 14 is designed for more or less uniform response over the gamut of the organ. Connection is made by means of a flexible wire 20 to the amplifier of the organ, and most commonly this is done by means of a plug on the end of the wire 20 (not shown) received in ajack (not shown) in the organ. Many organs are today provided with such jacks as standard equipment for connection to auxiliary loudspeaker systems, and a jack can be readily added to any organ that does not have one by even a moderately skilled electrical technician. The foot switch 16 then isconnectcd by means of another flexible wire 22 to the horn speaker 18. As will be understood, the wires 20 and 22 may be of any suitable or desirable length, and preferably are provided with separable connectors, such as plug and jack connectors, allowing extensions to be added if considered desirable.
The general construction of the horn speaker 18 may be seen quickly with continued reference. to FIG. 2. Thus, there is a stand 24 having an upright post 26 vertically adjustable at 28 and provided at its lower end with three legs in a tripod construction.
The horn speaker 18 includes a driver housing 32 in the form ofa cup-shaped casting, having a cylindrical side wall 34 and a rear or end wall 36 closing the housing at one end. The casting is open at the other end, and is closed by structure to be described hereinafter. An integral downward extension bracket 38 is provided with ratchet teeth 40 on one face thereofin a circular pattern, and a tapped aperture or bore lies on the center line of the circle of ratchet teeth 40. The bracket 38, and particularly the teeth 40 thereon, cooperates with a swivel head 44 of complementary shape mounted at the top of the upright post 26. The swivel head 44 is provided with ratchet teeth 46 complementary to the ratchet teeth 40, also in circular pattern, and is provided with a smooth bore 48 lying on the center line or axis of the tooth circle. A swivel screw or bolt 50 having a knurled head extends through the. bore 48 and is threaded into the tapped aperture 42. As will be appreciated, upon loosening of the screw 50, the housing can be tipped up or down to any desired position, and then can be locked in place by tightening ofthe screw 50.
The driver housing 32 is provided internally at the closed end thereof with three triangular flanges or gussets 52 equally angularly spaced about the center axis of the driver housing and integrally connected both to the side wall 34 and to the end wall 36, running diagonally between the side wall and the end wall. A horn driver 54 of generally known construction is received within the housing, and is of generally cylindrical shape, having a side wall 56 with a front enlargement or band 58 of maximum diameter which is somewhat less than the internal diameter ofthe housing 32. The rear or inner end of the horn driver 54 is rounded at 60, and this rounded or curved surface is pulled into abutting relationship with the flanges or gussets 52 by means of a screw or stud 62 extending axially from the rear end wall 64 of the horn driver through an aperture 65 in the end wall 36 of the housing. An acorn nut 66 is turned down on the stud 62 and abuts the end wall 36 to pull the horn driver tight against the flanges or gussets 52. It will be observed that the horn driver forwardly of the rounded rear surface 60 has a step at 68 which also engages the flanges or gussets 52. Thus, the flanges or gussets 52 center and position the horn driver on the central axis of the driver housing 32.
tension or boss 70 having a front ly larger central The front of the horn driver 54 is provided with a central exface 72 thereon. The boss 70 is provided with a central aperture 74 communicating with the interior of the horn driver, the latter including an electroacoustic transducer of known design for converting the amplified electric oscillations supplied thereto into acoustic energy, generally musical tones. The front of the horn driver 54 also is provided with three longitudinally extending bosses 76 which are circumfercntially disposed at equal arcuate angles to one another. The bosses 76 are provided with front faces 78 lying on a common plane with the front face 72 of the relativeboss 70. The bosses 76 are axially bored and tapped from the faces 78.
The horn speaker includes a-bell adapter80. The bell adapter has a circular end plate 82 which is received within the side wall 34 of the driver housing 32. The end plate has an inner face 84 which abuts the front faces 72. and 78 of the respective bosses 70 and 76. Screws 86 (preferably of the beveled head type) pass through complementary apertures in the end plate 82 and are threaded into the tapped apertures in the bosses 76 to hold the inner face 84 of the end plate 82 against the boss faces 72 and 78.
Thebell adapter further includes a forwardly extending boss or socket member 88 of somewhat tapering, elongated construction having a lesser outer diameter at its outer end than at its base end. The socket member 88 is provided with a central bore 90 which extends from one end to the other thereof, and which is slightly conical in configuration, tapering out to a larger diameter at the outer end than at the base or inner end. As will be understood, this central bore is in direct communication with the central bore 74 of the central boss 70. The horn speaker 18 further includes a born 92 seen best in FIGS. 2 and 3. The horn is of metal construction, preferably brass, and is.constructed very similar to the exit portion of a trumpet, trombone, or other brass wind instrument, but particularly trumpet, and is, ineffect, a brass horn. The horn includes an outwardly tapering body 94, flaring out at the exit end at a bell 96. The rear, inner or entrance end of the horn body 94 is provided with a cork ferrule 98 which is cemented or otherwise adhesively secured to the horn body. The dimensions and tapers of the inner bore 90 of the socket member of the bell adapted and the outside of the horn body are so correlated to one another, bearing in mind the thickness of the cork ferrule 98, that the horn body readily can be slipped into the bore 90 of the bell adapter, and will be held tightly, but removably, in place.
in connection with the removability, it is contemplated that the born 92 should be replaceable, and that there should be horns provided of at least two different lengths, as shown in solid and broken lines in FIG. 3. By way of specific example, we contemplate that a long horn of approximately 2l inches in length will be supplied along with an alternative short horn of 9-% inches. The long horn produces a somewhat narrow concentration of sound, and the formant characteristics of the long horn are such as to produce a relatively mellow tone. On the other hand, the short horn has a more dispersed sound, and the formant characteristics thereof are such as to produce a relatively treble sound. The two can be used alternatively according to the desired results.
The'horn driver 54 is such as to have an electroacoustic efficiency on the order of 30percent as compared to about percent for relatively efficient cone speakers in the operating frequency range of the horn. Thus, it will be appreciated that the acoustic sound emanating from the horn driver is approximately six times as great as from the accompanying speaker system 14. It will be appreciated immediately that this makes the sound emanating from the horn speaker stand out from the sound emanating from the speaker system [4. This, coupled with the brass wind type of formant effect of the horn itself,
and with the beaming or directional characteristics thereof, make the sound from the horn speaker truly distinctive.
The horn speaker has a smooth, rising response between 250 cycles and 15,000 cycles. The horn speakerprovides morepower in the mid range and treble, and provides better transient response. A sharper attack thus is possible, and the original harmonic structure is altered, thus better-to simulate a brass wind instrument, and to.produce the highly desirable brass solo effect. it will be appreciated that this is contrary to the usual concept of production of loudspeakers in which the various speakers of a system are correlated to one another so that an overall smooth response is produced, with no one speaker standing out. H
The use of the foot switch, which'can be placed in any convenient position, such as adjacent the organ 20in FIG. 2, can be actuated to bring in the sound of the brass wind instrument whenever desired. Since the horn speaker is at a different physical location from the speaker system 14 a rather marked stereo illusion is produced by utilization of the horn speaker upon actuation of the foot switch. It will be appreciated that this also produces results more closely akin to a pipe organ when one rank of pipes is used as sole.
The horn speaker can be pointed in any desired direction horizontally, or can be tilted up or down over an extended range, as may be desired for any particular installation. Removability of the born from the socket of the adapter provides for enhanced portability as well as allowing the attainment of different acoustic effects in accordance with the size and shape of horn used.
It will be appreciated that the showing of an organ for the tone source, amplifier, and speaker system is only by way of a preferred example. An electric guitar and amplifier could be used, a disc or tape recording and playing apparatus could be used, any other type of electrical or electronic musical instrument could be used, or a conventional band or orchestra could be used in combination with a microphone, amplifier, and loudspeaker system.
Thus,'it will be understood that the specific example of the invention as herein shown and described is for illustrative purposes only. Various changes will no doubt occur to those skilled in' the art, and will be understood as forming a part of the present invention insofar as they fall within the spirit and the scope of the appended claims.
l. A musical sound system comprising a cup-shaped loudspeaker housing open at one end, a loudspeaker driver unit mounted in said housing and having a sound emitting opening in the same direction as said housing, means closing the open end of said housing and providing a socket forming an extension of said driver housing, and a horn removably received in said socket and extending axially therefrom, and means securing said closing means against the front of said driver unit and within said housing.
2. A musical sound system as set forth in claim 1, wherein said driver unit includes a central boss surrounding the sound emitting opening, and further includes a plurality of tapped bosses circumfercntially disposed about said central boss, all of said bosses having front faces lying in a common plane, there being bolts extending through said closing means into said tapped bosses to hold said closing means against the front faces of said bosses.
3. A musical sound system as set forth in claim I, wherein .said housing has a circumferential side wall and an end closure wall, and obliquely disposed positioning means extending from said end wall to said circumferential side wall, and screwthreaded means pulling said driver unit against said obliquely disposed positioning means.
4. A musical sound system as set forth in claim 3, wherein said drive unit comprises a central boss having said sound emitting opening therein, said driver unit further having a plurality of tapped bosses circumfercntially disposed about said central boss, all of said bosses having front faces lying in a common plane, the means for securing the closing means againstthe front of said driver unit comprising a plurality of bolts extending through said closing means and into said tapped bosses.