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Publication numberUS3542976 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 24, 1970
Filing dateAug 18, 1967
Priority dateAug 18, 1967
Publication numberUS 3542976 A, US 3542976A, US-A-3542976, US3542976 A, US3542976A
InventorsMoray Forest J
Original AssigneeMoray Forest J
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Distributor cap and rotor combination with completely removable stationary electrode and broad contact face movable electrode
US 3542976 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)


DISTRIBUTOR CAP AND ROTOR COMBINATION WITH COMPLETELY REMOVABLE STATIONARY ELECTRODE AND BROAD CONTACT FACE MOVABLE ELECTRODE Filed Aug. 18, 1967 v INVENIOR. #06557 J MOP/1V A rroeA/EV United States Patent US. Cl. 200-24 12 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE The cap and rotor electrodes have overlapping electrode faces of large area, such as intenfitting grooves and flanges, interfitting cups and cylinders and opposed facing plates which facilitate current transfer. The distribu'tor cap electrodes can be solid or of sheet structure. The Wires can be attached to terminals integral with the distributor cap electrodes. Alternatively, terminals on such wires can snap into sockets in the cap electrodes. The wire ends can be secured to the terminals or electrodes by lugs crimped against the wire ends or such wire ends may be inserted into sockets of the electrodes or terminals.

Conventional internal combustion engine ignition systems have not transmitted electric current efiiciently from the ignition coil to the spark plugs of internal-combustion engines which has been one of the factors responsible for inefiicient eng'me operation. Such inefliciency resulted from insufficient opposing areas at gaps in the secondary circuit across which current passes.

It is a principal object of the present invention to provide a distributor structure for reducing the number of gaps in the secondary circuit and for improving the transfer of electricity across unavoidable gaps, such as from the distributor cap to the rotor, by increasing the electrode area at opposite sides of such gaps, for producing an ignition spark of higher intensity energy.

The result of such improved electrode and electrodeconnection structure is to decrease leakage of high-voltage electricity to ground and provide a more intense spark across the spark plug gaps so as to cause combustion of the fuel in the engine cylinders to be completed more quickly. Also the sparks are more uniform from cylinder to cylinder. As a result, the noise and vibration of the engine is reduced, the engine produces more power and it operates more economically.

A further object is to prevent corona leakage from the distributor cap to ground through the conventional capretaining spring.

FIG. 1 is a central vertical transverse section through a preferred type of distributor cap and rotor combination,

' a terminal and electrode unit being shown in exploded relationship, and FIG. 2 is a detail section taken on line 22 of FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is a top perspective of a wire terminal and electrode structure showing the parts in exploded relationship.

FIG. 4 is a fragmentary central vertical section through an alternative type of rotor structure.

FIG. 5 is a central vertical section through an alternative type of side electrode structure and FIG. 6 is a top perspective of a portion of such electrode structure.

FIG. 7 is a top perspective of a fragmentary portion of an electrode and FIG. 8 is a central vertical section throuhg an electrode utilizing structure of the type shown in FIG. 7.

FIG. 9 is a transverse section through such structure taken on line 99 of FIG. 8.

FIG. 10 is a detail vertical section through a portion of a side electrode structure of a difierent form.

FIG. 11 is a central vertical section through a distributor cap and rotor combination, a terminal and electrode unit being shown in exploded relationship, of a type different from that illustrated in the preceding figures.

FIG. 12 is a fragmentary vertical section through a different type of terminal structure.

FIG. 13 is a central vertical section through another type of electrode structure. FIG. 14- is a transverse section taken on line 14-14 of FIG. 13.

FIG. 15 is a detail vertical section through another form of side electrode structure.

FIG. 16 is a side elevation of still a different form of terminal and electrode, with parts broken away, and FIG. 17 is a transverse section through such terminal taken on line 1717 of FIG. 16.

FIG. 18 is a central vertical section through another type of terminal.

FIG. 19 is a transverse section through still a different terminal.

FIG. 20 is a fragmentary side elevation of a portion of a terminal showing another type of structure.

FIG. 21 is a transverse section through a terminal showing still another type of structure.

The distributor base 1 and cap 2 may be of the type conventionally used for automotive purposes, such 'as automobile engines, except for the structure provided for receiving the supply and distribution wires and transferring electricity between them. In order to provide a secure and effective connection between a supply or distribution wire and a distributor cap electrode, a terminal 3 may be provided into which the end of a wire 4 and its insulation 5 can be inserted, as indicated in FIGS. 1, 2 and 3. The wire end can be placed in position between wireengaging lugs *6 and such lugs can be crimped toward each other to pinch the end of wire 4 tightly between them by inserting suitable tools through apertures 7 in the opposite sides of the terminal 3. To solder the connection the tools may be heated.

Such terminal can be inserted into the appropriate bore of the distributor cap by sliding the terminal axially of such bore, in which bore a metal liner 8 has been installed. One side of such liner has a keyway 9 for receiving a projection 9 of the terminal constituting a key. Interengagement of the projecting key 9 in the keyway 9 will insure that the terminal 3 is positioned in the proper rotative relationship in the particular distributor cap before in which it is inserted. Each terminal can be secured in its bore by a spring leaf detent 10 engaging in a recess 11 in the liner 8. The engagement of such detents and recesses will, of course, not hamper appreciably intentional withdrawal of a wire and its terminal from a bore of the distributor cap.

It is preferred that the terminal and the electrode for each wire be formed as an integral structure. One type of construction, according to this principle, is utilized for the central supply wire in FIG. 1. In this figure the electrode 12 is formed simply as a tubular cylindrical extension of the terminal 3 so that when the terminal is inserted fully into the central bore of the distributor cap, the electrode will project a substantial distance downward below the inner surface of the cap into the electrode cup 13 mounted in the distributor rotor 14 on the upper edges of supporting fins 15 molded integrally with the bottom of the rotor cavity. Preferably, the cup 13 is of annular channel shape having an inner upstanding cylindrical wall 13' of sheet structure the principal faces of which are parallel to and concentric with the axis about which the rotor rotates and the inner wall of which is spaced from the outer wall of the cup so that the cylindrically tubular stationary electrode 12 fits down into the annular cup spaced approximately equidistantly from the outer cup wall andthe inner cup wall 13', providing facing areas generally parallel to therotors axis.

From the electrode cup 13 a conductor strip 16 extends. radially outward along the arm of the distributor rotor to which such strip is secured by .a split rivet 17, the head of which is embedded in the molded plastic material of which the distributor rotor is made. The outer end of such strip is turned upwardly to form an electrode flange 18 of sheet structure including a narrow top edge joiningopposite upright broad side faces which are substantially parallel to the axis about which the rotor rotates. The opposite faces of this flange are in opposed facing relationship to the opposite sides of a slot 19 in each distributor cap side electrode 20 through which the rotor electrode flange passes edgewise as the rotor rotates. Engagement of the keys 9 in the key'ways 9 of the side terminal assemblies will maintain the slots 19 oriented circumferentially of the distributor cap so that the rotor electrode flange can pass through the slots in such fashion.

More effective transfer of electricity may be effected if the electrodes are of solid construction rather than being of sheet metal construction. In the type of structure shown in FIGS. 1 and 3, the side electrodes 20 are shown as being of cylindrical shape with the slots 19 being cut in their lower ends. Their upper ends are reduced to form a plug 21 of a size to fit within the hollow cylindrical end of a terminal 3. The reduction in size be tween the lower and upper portions of such side electrodes corresponds to the exterior and'interior dimensions of the tubular end 12' of the terminal 3 so that such tubular end can fit over the electrode plug 21 and abut the shoulder 22 at its base. Such tubular terminal end 12' and electrode plug 21 can be bonded together to form an integral structure such as by soldering or a copper-brazing procedure. Consequently, when the terminal 3 of a side distribution wire 4 'is pulled out of the distributor cap 2, not only the terminal 3 but also the electrode 20 will be withdrawn from the distributor cap.

The alternative type of central supply-electrode structure shown in-FIG. 4 includes the same type of hollow cylindrical distributor cap supply electrode 12, as shown in FIG. 1, but in this instance the electrode could, if desired, be of solid structure. The central rotor electrode 13', in this instance, is formed simply as a tube 13" on the end of the rotor arm conductor strip 16 into which the distributor cap electrode 12 fits in overlapping relationship. It will be evident that there is still a large area of closely adjacent overlapping electrode faces between which electricity can flow from the distributor cap supply electrode 12 to the distributor arm conductor electrode 13", although the opposed transfer area of the electrodes is considerably less than in the structure shown in FIG. 1 The modified type of side distributor cap electrode shown in FIGS. and 6 also provides an overlapping electrode transfer area considerably less than afforded by the structure of FIGS. 1 and 3, but the area is still much "greater than in conventional distributor structures. In this construction; the overlapping electrode transfer area is ing the slot 19 to provide electrode surfaces opposite both sides of the rotor electrode flange. The electrode can ,be mounted in a terminal 3 in the manner explained in .connection with FIGS. 1 and 3 so that the electrode would be integral with the terminal.

a supply or distribution wire is shown in which the wire end 4 would be attached directly to an electrode instead of being attached to a terminal which, in turn, is attached to an electrode. In this instance, a wire-receiving socket 24 is formed integral with the reduced end 21 of the electrode. The upper end of such tube has a flared opening25 to facilitate reception of the. wireend. Suchtube can be crirnped onto the wire end through openings 7' in the opposite sides of the terminal 3', if desired, or an aperture 26 may be provided in one side of the tube through which solder cairbe' supplied to bond the wire end to the socket 24. The electro'd eusingfthis type of 'wire' attachmentcould be either a central' electrocle or a side electrode. If it were a central electrode 20" of'solid type, as shown in FIG.'8, a cavity.27 could be provided in its lower'end to save' metal and't'o enable such an electrode to be'lused With an electrode of-the annular cup type, such as 13,13 shownin FIG. 1, if desired. Alternatively, of course, such an electrode could be used with the type of electrode 13", as shown in FIG. 4.

In FIG. 10 the same type of distributor cap side electrode Z3 as described in connection 'witli'FIGS. 5 and 6 is shown, but in this instance the. construction ofthe rotor 14 is modified so that the conductor strip 16,.is mounted higher than in the types shown in: FIGS. 5 In this instance, the end of the. arm-conductor strip1 is-bent downward to form an end flange 18 disposed in overlaping relationship alongside the distributor cap side electrode 23, both surfaces being generally .parallel tothe rotors axis.

; -;Th e"distributor cap 2 can be held on thedistributor body 1 in conventional fashion by 'providing'a metal rein; forcing ring 2-. encircling the lower edge of the distributor cap. A locating pin 28 projects inward from the ring 2' at a position to fit "into a registering notch 29 in the upper edge'of the distributor base. The cap can=then be secured into-place by at least one," and preferably three, lock screws 30 threaded through the metal -ring;2. so that the inner-,end of the screw or,-.serews will engage; in v a retaining recess or recesses 31. Such lock screws canb e held in place by --a plastic pellet 32 receivedina cavity in the screw thread to prevent it from-becomingrloosened ad t y- 1; -j .5.

In FIG. 1'1 an'alternative-.type of terminal construc tion is shown in which the wire terminalsareseparable from the distributorcap electrodes instead jof thosetwo components being} integral, as discussed in connection with FIGS. 1 to 10. It should be understood, however,

= that the electrode structure 'shownlin FIGS. 1,3; 4, 5,6,

, face relationship for transmissionof'electricitys'fhe eleceration of the structure'.=. f .r 'In'-'FIG.*"11"all'of the-distributor cap..-.electrode .structrode areas are stated-"to be =generally-para1lel :to-Jthe rotors axis of rotation because it will .bei-evidentflthat such surfaces might be inclined to a greater or lesserextent relative to the rotors axis -without alterin pthe'opr tures are'shown as being solid. Thus, the sideelctrode's 20' are of the bifurcated oraslotted type,*sucli as shown in FIGS. 1' and 3, and'the central electrodec33isof the solid cylindrical type generally likerthat' shown in FIG. 8. The difference in construction between-the-distributorof FIG; 1 and-the'distributor"of'FIGl 1l"resides principally the separability of *the': .wire" terminals" and such :electrodes and the permanent mounting of th-elec'trodes in the'distribu'tor cap'inste'ad of such electrodes be'in gii/ith- InFIGS. 7, 8 and 9, another type of connection for 36 on such terminal being engaged in an annular groove 37 in the liner portion of the electrode. In order to provide good electrical conduction between such terminal 35 and the liner 34, in which it is inserted, the fit between such terminal and such liner should be quite snug.

The central electrode 33 could fit into a rotor electrode 13" of the type shown in FIG. 4, if desired. In FIG. 11, however, the cup electrode 38 is shown as having a bottom in it, although a scavening hole 39 is provided in such bottom through which dust particles may fall to keep the cup bottom clean. A hollow 40 can be provided in the solid electrode 33 to save some metal, while preventing dirt and moisture from entering the distributor cap; or, alternatively, the electrode structure shown in FIG. 8 could be used in which the cavity opens downward, but still a moisture barrier for the lower end of the terminal-receiving socket is provided.

In FIG. 12 a dilferent arrangement for securing a terminal is separate from or integral with the electrode. In this instance, the upper end of the terminal has a flange 41 which fits on a seat 42 formed by the upper end of the liner, the neck 43 of the distributor cap bore has a female thread 44 with which the male thread 45 of a securing collar 46 can engage. Rotation of such securing collar will cause the interengaged threads to draw the inner end of such collar against flange 41 to press the terminal firmly into the distributor cap and hold it in lace.

p The electrode of FIG. 13 can be used with a terminal of the type shown in FIG. 1. The wire 4 is shown in this instance, however, as' being received in 'a tube 24, such as illustrated in FIG. 7. The electrode 20'. can then be secured to a terminal 3, as shown in'FIG. 8. A carbon button is fitted slidably in the downwardly opening cylindrical cavity 27. In this construction, the lower end 27' of the electrode 20" can be rounded and shortened to provide a greater space between its lower end and conductor strip 16 in rotor 14. Such conductor strip can be supported on insulating ribs or fins 15 upstanding from the bottom of the rotor cavity. The carbon'button or plunger 47 is urged downward by a spring 48 to assure good electrical contact between the plunger and the conductor strip. The lower end of such spring can be secured to a projection on the upper end of the plunger and the upper end of the spring can be flared to secure thespring in the cavity 27.

The side electrode in the arrangement of FIG. 15 can either'be integral with the terminal as shown in FIG. 1 or separable from the terminal as shown in FIG. 11. The lower end of the electrode 20' is formed as a flattened projection 23 similar to the projection 23 shown in FIGS. and 6, but in this instance the radially inner and outer sides are substantially flattened or concentric about the rotors axis. The arm of rotor 14 has a shelf 14 projecting from the lower portion of its end to support a channelshaped electrode 18" formed on the end of the rotorconductor strip 16. The depression between the sides of such channel is of a width sufficient to receive closely the electrode 23' projecting downward from the distributor The electrode and terminal structure shown in FIGS. 16 and 17 is best adapted for use in a distributor con struction where the terminal and the electrode are integral in each instance. The terminal 3" has a key 9', as shown in FIGS. 1 and 3, but only a single side aperture 7". The reduced upper portion 21 of the electrode 20", such as shown in FIG. 8, can be fitted into the lower end of the terminal and be bonded to it. In the upper end 49 of such electrode is a socket 24 adapted to receive the end of a connecting wire. Pressure can be inserted through the aperture 7" onto the side of the electrodes upper end 49 to crimp such electrode end against the wire or the'wire end can be soldered in place. In the latter case, an aperture 26', as shown in FIG. 17, can be provided 6 in the side of the socket 24' through which solder can be supplied.

FIG. 18 shows an electrode and terminal arrangement providing a wire end socket 24 with a flared opening 25 generally like that shown in FIGS. 7 and 8. The terminal 3' can have apertures 7' in its opposite sides, as described for FIG. 8. In this instance, however, instead of the electrode being of solid construction, as shown in that figure, the electrode 50 is of shell or tubular structure having an upper reduced portion 51 which fits into and is bonded to the lower end of the terminal 3'. This type of electrode is similar to the hollow cylindrical electrode 12 of FIGS. 1 and 4 and can be used in installations of those types.

The electrode structure of FIG. 19 can be like that of FIG. 8 or 18. In these latter figures, however, a tool of special construction would be required to crimp the wirereceiving socket 24 tightly against the wire. By adding bosses 52 to the opposite sides of the wire-receiving socket 24, use of such a special tool is made unnecessary. Structure of this type enables the jaws of ordinary pliers to be moved through the opposite apertures 7' of the terminal 3' into engagement with such bosses for squeezing the tube 24 into flattened shape pressed against the wire in the socket.

FIG. 20 shows a terminal structure for holding the insulation of a supply or distribution wire as well as the wire end. The terminal otherwise may be of the type shown in FIGS. 1 and 3, for example. In this instance, three or more longitudinal slots 53 extend inward from the upper end of the terminal 3 to form tabs 54 between them. The ends of these tabs can be bent inward to bite into the insulation.

Where the wire insulation 5 is smaller than the interior of a terminal 3 or where it is desired to clamp the insulation in a manner different from that accomplished by the construction of FIG. 20, the terminal can be creased longitudinally at locations spaced circumferentially. Thus, in FIG. 21 the grooves 55 located at an angu lar spacing of are formed by pressing the terminal inward locally to provide internal longitudinal ribs pressing against the wire insulation. The types of construction shown in FIGS. 20 and 21 can be utilized either with terminals of the type shown in FIGS. 1 and 3, for example, or with terminals of the type shown in FIG. 11.

It will be understood that for any particular distributor various structural features described above can be selected, but usually it would not be desirable to make one peripheral terminal integral with its peripheral from its peripheral electrode and another peripheral terminal separable from its peripheral electrode in the same distributor. It would not be objectionable, however, to have all of the peripheral terminals integral with their respective peripheral electrodes and the central terminal separable from its electrode.

I claim:

1. In an automotive distributor including a body, a rotor in the body, means mounting the rotor for rotation about an axis relative to the body, a movable electrode carried by the rotor and stationary electrodes carried by the body and arranged in cooperative relationship to the movable electrode, the improvement comprising the movable electrode having an electricity conducting portion of sheet structure including a narrow edge joining opposite broad side faces and disposed with one of its broad side faces generally parallel to the axis about which the rotor rotates, and at least one of the stationary electrodes having a broad face generally parallel to the axis about which the rotor rotates and disposable in axially overlapping, closely adjacent face-to-face relationship to said broad side face of said movable electrode sheet structure disposed generally parallel to the rotors axis of rotation when such movable electrode broad side face is in registry with said stationary electrode broad face but spaced radially therefrom, for transmission of high voltage electricity between such closely adjacent broad faces of said electrodes through the intervening gap.

L 2 The'combination defined in claim 1, in which one of the electrodes includes a collar coaxial with the rota tive axis of the rotor, and another electrode has a cylin- 'drical portion received within and spaced radially from said collar, said collar and said cylindrical portion being relatively rotatable. j

I 3. The combination defined in claim 2, in which the cylindrical electrode portion has a solid end.

4. The combination defined in claim 2, in whichthe cylindrical electrode portion has a tubular open end.

. 5. The combination defined in claim 4, and an inner wall located concentrically within and connected to the collar and forming therewith an annular trough into which the tubular open end of the cylindrical electrode portion projects in radially spaced relation both to the collar and to said inner wall. l I

6. The combination defined in claim 1, in which one of the electrodes has an arcuate slot concentric with the rotor axis and opening axially, and a cooperating electrode, has a blade element movable circumferentially through said slot in radially spaced relationship to the walls thereof by rotation of the rotor.

7. The combination defined in claim 6, in which the cooperating electrode having the blade element is stationary and the electrode having the channel-shaped slot is rorated by 'the rotor.

8. The combination defined in claim 6, in which the electrode having the channel-shaped slot is stationary and the cooperating electrode having the blade element is ro tated by the rotor.

9. In an automotive distributor including an interiorly hollow body, a rotor in the interior hollow of such body, means mounting the rotor for rotation about an axis relative to the body, a movable electrode carried by the rotor and stationary electrodes carried by the body and arranged in the interior hollow of the body in cooperative relationship'to the movable electrode, the improvement comprising one of the stationary electrodes being removable from the body, a terminal integral with said removable stationary electrode, and a wirevinte'grally connected to said terminal, said removable stationary electrode, said terminal and said wire forming an integral structure, the distributor body having a bore therethrough between its exterior and its interiorhollow' of a size for reception'of 'said removable stationary electrode and said terminalinto the exterior end of said bore and for axial movement through said bore a distance sufficiently great to slide said stationary electrode out of the interior end of said bore into a position projecting therebeyond for cooperation with the movable electrode, said bore further being of a size for withdrawal of said stationary electrode and said terminal therefrom by reverse sliding of said electrode and terminal outward through said bore. I a 10. The combination defined in claim9, in which the removable stationary electrode is the central electrode and cooperates with the movable electrode carried by the rotor. 1? 11. The combination defined in claim 9 and lugs on the terminal engageable with opposite sides of the wire.

12. The combination defined in claim 9 and means releasably'securing the'termin'al in a predetermined position in the bore distributor body. 1 a

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,267,671 5/1918 Lang. 2,347,019 4/1944 Arthur 20019 2,464,533 3/1949 Shearer 20019 XR 3,001,035 9/1961 Butts 200 -19 2,482,997 9/1949 Anderson 200 155.); 2,721,911 10/1955 Patla 200 -X 2,760,016 8/1956 Kandoign et al. 200 .153 X 2,876,303 3/1959 Alford zoo-153x 3,062,928 11/1962 Machado ZOO- -11 X 3,107,334 10/1963 Harges ZOO- 153,18 X

Y 1 FOREIGN PATENTS 455,747: 4/ 1949 Canada.

539,631 4/1957 Canada. 7 "1,095,568 I 6/1955 France.

' 693,383 7/1953 Great Britain.

ROBERT K. SCHAEFER,'Primary Examiner R. A. VANDERl-IYE, Assistant Examiner I j U.'s. C1. X.R. 200166,28;123--146.5


Inventor(s) Forest J Moray It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

Column 8, line 15, after "9 insert a comma; line 17,

after "9" insert a comma; line 1.9, cancel "born distributor body" and insert "distributor body bore-.

more {Mia CiLi'ILED FEB. 9,1971

M Am

Mmmm h. m

mm, hflestmg Officer llllisa'ionar or P t

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3789168 *Jan 10, 1973Jan 29, 1974Chrysler CorpIgnition distributor device with insulative shutter type rotor
US3894202 *Nov 23, 1973Jul 8, 1975Gen Motors CorpIgnition distributor for rotary internal combustion engines
US4165726 *Oct 5, 1977Aug 28, 1979Chrysler CorporationLow mass breakerless ignition distributor
US4293744 *Dec 14, 1979Oct 6, 1981Ford Motor CompanyAlignment devices for removable spark plug terminals in an ignition commutation distributor
US4295014 *Dec 14, 1979Oct 13, 1981Ford Motor CompanyIgnition distributor with integral common electrode, shaft bearing and high voltage terminal connector
US4304972 *Dec 14, 1979Dec 8, 1981Ford Motor CompanyRemovable spark plug terminal for an ignition commutation distributor
US4403579 *Aug 24, 1981Sep 13, 1983General Motors CorporationInternal combustion engine ignition distributor drive arrangement
US4632077 *Oct 1, 1985Dec 30, 1986Chrysler Motors CorporationWindow-in-vane interrupter and switch plate assembly for ignition distributor
US4764646 *Sep 14, 1987Aug 16, 1988Hanning H ChrisDistributor cap with adjustable contacts
US5070221 *Apr 3, 1990Dec 3, 1991Kautt & Bux KgSwitch device
US5416292 *Aug 22, 1990May 16, 1995Doduco Gmbh And Co.Ignition distributor for internal combustion engines
DE3743940A1 *Dec 23, 1987Jul 6, 1989Bayerische Motoren Werke AgIgnition distributor for internal combustion engines
EP0414217A1 *Aug 22, 1990Feb 27, 1991DODUCO GMBH + Co Dr. Eugen DürrwächterIgnition distributor for combustion engines
WO1991002899A1 *Aug 22, 1990Mar 7, 1991Doduco Gmbh + Co. Dr. Eugen DürrwächterIgnition distributor for internal combustion engines
U.S. Classification200/19.1, 200/284, 123/146.50A
International ClassificationF02P7/02, F02P7/00
Cooperative ClassificationF02P7/022
European ClassificationF02P7/02A1