|Publication number||US3543770 A|
|Publication date||Dec 1, 1970|
|Filing date||Nov 21, 1966|
|Priority date||Nov 21, 1966|
|Publication number||US 3543770 A, US 3543770A, US-A-3543770, US3543770 A, US3543770A|
|Inventors||Snider John F|
|Original Assignee||Snider John F|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (5), Classifications (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Waited States Patent 72] Inventor John F. Snider v 491 l lloagland St., Fort Wayne, Indiana 46807  Appl. No. 602,441  Filed Nov. 21, 1966 Continuation-impart oi Ser. No. 346,281, Feb. 20, 1964, abandoned.  Patented Dec. 1, I970 [54} APPARATUS FOR TREATING "AIR 1 Claim, 15 Drawing Figs.
[5 2] 11.5. C1...... 132/7 [51 1 int. Cl. A45d 8/40  Field ofSearch 132/7, 9, 36,1-2, 52, 48. 337; 128/346, 334, 335, 335.5; 24/255; 267/53  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,187,285 6/1916 Dreyer 132/52 3,056,408 10/1962 Brown 128/325 2,818,074 12/1957 Mach 132/9 2,957,480 10/1960 Widoff et al. 132/7 3,270,753 9/1966 Cook et al. 132/9 3,304,945 2/1967 Anderson 132/9 Primary Examiner-F. Barry Shay Assistant Examiner-Gregory E. McNeill Attorney-Hood, Gust and Irish ABSTRACT: The apparatus of the invention comprises a cap and a plurality of clips. The cap is made of flexible and resilient sheet material. The cap is also impervious to liquids. The cap has a plurality of spaced apart openings therein, the openings being generally evenly distributed over an area covering at least a portion of that part of a human head covered by hair when the cap is worn. The cap has integrally Patented Dec. 1, 1970 sheet 1 of s INVENTOK Jo/zn FISn/a/Gr', BY M WQM Patentd Dec. 1, 1970 Sheet 2 013 WVENTOR, John/ 75M 86)",
Patented Dec. 151970 3,543,770
l/VVENTOR JOHN F.SN|DER BY/ MM/W A T TOR/VE Y8 APPARATUS FOR TREATING HAIR This is a continuation-in-part of US. Pat. application Ser. No. 346,281, now abandoned, filed Feb. 20, 1964 and bearing the title Method and Apparatus for Treating Hair."
The present invention relates to a hair-treating method and apparatus, and more specifically, to apparatus for treating a preselected portion of the hair growing on a persons head without affecting the remaining portion.
Bleaching and otherwise coloring the hair in order to achieve desired attractive effects is well-known by cosmetologists. For certain attractive arrangements of the hair, it is often desired merely to bleach, color or otherwise treat only selected strands of the hair rather than the entire head of hair. Such treatments may be known to the cosmetologists by tipping, frosting, feathering, or some similar term. In normal practice, chemicals are used for treating the segregated strands of hair;-some of which may be very harmful to the skin. Therefore, in order to perform such special hair treatments, a trained cosmetologist must carefully select strands desirably to be colored and must be extremely careful not to permit the treating material to come in contact with the untreated portions of the hair or the scalp so as not to subject the individual to any undesirable appearing hair treatments or to the undesirable effects of the chemicals he uses. While each strand or tuft of hair may be segregated from the remaining portion of hair by merely extending that tuft away from the head and brushing the remaining hair flat, it can be appreciated that such a procedure is extremely time consuming-and that the application of chemicals to such tufts or strands of hair would be extremely painstakingly difficult. Further, in many of these treatments, it is highly desirable to color the whole strand of hair from the root outward; and by the method just outlined,
this is practically impossible without likewise coloring, at
some time during the treatment, adjacent hairs which are desirably left untreated. This leads to a blurred effect which in some such treatments may be undesirable.
It is therefore highly desirable to provide an improved apparatus for segregating preselected strands of hair and coloring them independently of the remaining hair on a persons head. It is further desirable to providean apparatus for selectively coloring preselected strands of hair independently of the remaining hair on a persons head which can be easily and safely used by a nonprofessional in performing the improved method of hair treating disclosed herein at home.
It is therefore an object of my invention to provide an improved apparatus for segregating selected strands of hair on a persons head and coloring the strands of hair independently of the remaining hair.
' It is another object of my invention to provide an improved cap that can be worn by a personhaving their hair treated by which selected strands of hair may be placed exterior of the cap and sealed from the remaining hair beneath the cap.
, It is yet another object of my invention to provide an improved clip or clamp for sealing openings in the material ofthe cap of my inventionain which the selected strands of hair desirably treated can be placed thereby to segregate and isolate said strands from the remaining hair beneath the cap.
lt is still another object of my invention to provide an improved apparatus by which selected strands of hair may be segregated from adjacent hairs and treated selectively in a shorter time than heretofore possible.
It is a still further object of my invention to provide an improved apparatus for selectively treating predetermined strands of hair independently of the remaining portion of hair on a persons head that can be easily and safely used in the performance of my method, by a nonprofessional, at home.
Further objects and advantages of my invention will become apparent with reference to the following description and the accompanying drawings, and the features of novelty which characterize my invention will be pointed out with particularity in the claims annexed-to and forming a part of the specificanon.
Throughout this specification, the terms coloring and treating will be meant to include bleaching, partially bleaching,
coloring, partially coloring, lightening, and partiallyligh'tcning.
In accordance with the broader aspects of' my invention a flexible moistureproof cap isprovided which at least covers that portion of a persons head normally-covered by hair and which has a plurality of perforations spaced over the entire area of the cap, each of which communicates with the interior surface and the exterior surface of the cap by means of-a substantially cylindrical nipple which is integrally molded on the cap and protrudes externally therefrom. Further within the broader aspects of my invention, a clip is provided which when placed upon one of the nipples, protrusions or-tubes of the cap resiliently deforms the tube and provides a liquid-tight seal between the opposite portions of the interior surface of the tube. I
In accordance with the use of my invention, preselected strands of hair that are to be desirably treated are segregated from the remaining hair on a persons head, a partition is in- I serted between those preselected strands and the remaining strands so as to place the preselected strands on one side of the partition and the remaining strands on the other, sealing the partition to the preselected strands, coloring the preselected strands, removing the partition, and artistically arranging the hair thereby to as aesthetically produce a hair styling having strands of hair treated independently of the remaining hair.
In the drawings:
FIG. I is a perspective view, partly in phantom, of a person wearing the flexible cap of my invention illustrating the protuberances having tufts of hair projecting therefrom, several of which are sealed by means of a spring clamp;
FIG. 2 is a side view ofthe preferred spring clamp to be used with the apparatus illustrated in FIG. 1 in performing the method of my invention;
FIG. 3 is atop view of a second embodiment of a spring clamp to be used with the apparatus in performing the method of my invention;
FIG. 4 is a side view of a third embodiment of a spring clamp which may be used with the apparatus in performing the method of my invention;
FIG. 5 is a top view of a single integrally molded protuberance of the cap of my invention with the spring clamp illustrated in FIG. 2 surrounding the same;
FIG. 6 illustrates a specific method of selecting strands of hair and drawing them through the protuberances of the cap of my invention;
FIG. 7 is a top view of an integrally molded protuberance of the cap of my invention with a preferred spring clamp squeezing the same into sealing position;
FIG. 8 is a view similar to FIG. 6 further illustrating the specific method of selecting strands of a hair and drawing them through the protuberances of the cap of my invention;
FIG. 9 is a fragmentary, cross-sectional view of a second and preferred embodiment of the flexible cap of my invention showing one of the protuberances or tubes integrally molded to the cap and the area surrounding the same;
FIG. 10 is a fragmentary top view of the cap embodiment shown in FIG. 9 illustrating one of the tubes integrally molded to the cap and the area surrounding the same;
FIG. 11 is a top view of the fourth embodiment of a clamp which is preferred for use with the cap of FIG. 9 and which may be used with the apparatus of my invention in performing the method of my invention;
FIG. 12 is a side view of the clamp illustrated in FIG. 11;
FIG. 13 is a view similar to FIG. 10 diagrammatically illustrating the method of positioning the clamp illustrated in FIGS. 11 and 12 onto the tubes of the cap illustrated in FIGS. 9 and 10;
H0. 14 is a view like FIG. 9 with the clamp illustrated in FIGS. 11 and 12 positioned on the tube shown; and
FIG. 15 is a view similar to FIG. 10 also showing the clamp illustrated in FIGS. 11 and 12 positioned on the tube.
Referring to FIGS. 1, 5, 6 and 7, the improved cap of my invention is shown. Cap 10 may be made of any moistureproof flexible material that can be inexpensively formed, such as polyethylene, polypropylene, rubbers, dacron, other plastics and the like. The cap extends over the head of a person from just above the eyebrows 12 to beneath the chin l4 and from cheek to cheek thereby covering all of the area of a person's head upon which hair normally grows. Cap 10 has a cord 16 which can be tied under the chin 14 to draw cap 10 fairly snugly over the head and to provide for a seal at the cap periphery 18.
At spaced apart positions on cap lQ-a plurality of perforations 20 are located so as to substantially cover the whole area of the cap. Perforations 20 are preferably generally circular but may be merely slits or of any other shape that can be easily manufactured. lntegrally molded on cap 10 and surrounding each perforation 20 is a tubular protrusion 22 which is flexible and self-supporting. Each protrusion 22 has a passageway 24 extending therethrough which is a in registry with the perforation 20 thereby providing a means-for communicating from the exterior surface of the cap into the airspace between the cap and the head without removing the cap. Protrusions 22 are preferably substantially cylindrical and passageways 24 are likewise preferably substantiallycircular in cross section; however, like the shape of the perforations, the protrusions 22 and the passageways 24 can be of any shape that is easily manufactured. The protrusions 22, being flexible, can be easily squeezed so as to engage opposite interior wall portions 26, 28 thereby forming a seal. By using a spring clamp 30, such as one of the three which will hereinafter be described, the seal between wall portions 26 and 28 may be made'moistureproof thereby preventing liquids that are applied to the exterior of cap 10 from contacting any portion of the head that is covered.
The preferred spring clamp 30 for use with the cap 10 is shown in FIGS. 2, and 7. The preferred spring clamp 30 is made on any conventional wirebending machine of bent wire which is resistant to chemical attack..While clamp 30 is made of a single length of wire, it comprises two oppositely facing clamping portions 32 and 34 at one end which are mounted on opposite sides of a spring 36 and two handle portions 38 and 40 which are substantially extensions of members 32 and 34, respectively at the other end.
A second embodiment of a preferred clamp 30 is shown in FIG. 3. This second embodiment comprises a bent length of wire, which is also resistant to chemical attack, being substantially U-shaped. This second embodiment of clamp 30 comprises a straight elongated portion 42 which has a distal end 44 and an opposite end 46 which leads into the U-shaped bend 48, and an S-shaped portion 50 having two bent portions 52,
54, one of which leads from the U-shaped bend 48 toward the distal end 44 and the other of which rests against elongated portion 42. There is therefore provided in this second embodiment of spring clamp 30, two portions 54, 42, between which protrusion 22 may be clamped.
A third embodiment of spring clamp 30 is shown in FIG. 4. This embodiment is formed of stamped sheet metal which is resistant to chemical attack; the metal is stamped into two allochiral members 53 having opposite ends 55 and 56 at which there are clamping portions 58 and handle portions 60, respectively. Members 53 are joined together at a position intermediate ends 55 and 56 by a pivot 62 which is inserted through an opening 64 in upper and lower portions of members 53 which extend between members 53 and which secure members 53 together in scissorslike fashion. A spring, not shown, similar to spring 36 is coaxially supported on pivot 62 between the members 53 thereby to force clamping portions 58 together when no forceisapplied to handle members 60.
In the preferred specific embodiment, protrusions 22 are approximately one-eighth inch long and approximately three thirty-seconds inch in diameter; cap is approximately onesixteenth of an inch thick; and there are approximately 100 protrusions equally spaced over the area of the cap. The
length of the preferred specific embodiment of the spring clamp 30 is approximately three-quarters of an inch and has clamping portions 34, 32, 44, 54 and 58. of at least three-sixteenths of an inch long.
In operation, the hair, a portion of which is to be treated. is brushed in the direction of natural growth causing it to lay relatively flat against the head. The improved cap 10, of my in vention, is then snugly fit over the head and secured under the chin 16 by means of cord 14. Cap 10, in this position, is spaced from the head by the hair laying inbetween, thereby forming an airspace. The cap 10 is then adjusted to bring the peripheral perforations 20 in alinement with the hairline. A check is made to make sure that there is a proper seal between the head and the periphery of the cap 18.
A conventional crochet hook 65 is then in inserted through oneof the protrusions 22 and the perforation 20 is registry therewith, so as to place the hook portion 67 of the crochet hook 65 into the airspace 63 between the cap 10 and the head. By manipulating the crochet hook 65 one can select certain strands of hair that are desirably to be treated. The crochet hook 65 is then pulled through the perforation 20 and the protrusion 22 with at least one ofthe selected strands 66 thereon, thereby drawing the strand 66 through the protrusion 22 and segregating the same from the remaining hair on the head. By repeatedly inserting crochet hook 65 through the same protrusion 22 and perforation 20 a plurality of strands 66 may be drawn through protrusion 22 so as to form a tuft of hair that is segregated from the remaining hair on the head. The above-described process for lifting the selected strands of hair 66 through the protrusions 22 is repeated for each and every protrusion 22 in the area of the head which is desirably treated. (See FIG. 6.).
Each protrusion 22 is then closed by attaching a spring clamp 30 .to its outer surface in a manner which compresses the protrusion 22 out of shape and forces the opposite interior surfaces 26, 28 together. Sandwiched between surfaces 26 and 28 is thetuft of hair; surfaces 26, 28 form a seal around each strand 66.
A hair-color mixture is now applied to the selected strands 66 by applying the mixture to the whole head by any conventional means heretofore practiced by cosmetologists. The nature of the chemicals used is not a great worry as the seal pro- "vided by the deformation of each protrusion 22 by spring clamp 30 is moisturetight and no seepage will occur from the exterior of the cap to the hair or scalp beneath. Likewise, the
seal around the periphery 18 of the cap prevents the seepage of any hair-treating solution or mixture under the cap 10 thereby making it easyto keep the forehead and adjacent parts of the head wiped clean of any treating material. The hair-treating mixture is maintained in contact with the selected strands 66 for a preselected period of time until the desired treatment is achieved. During this time the cosmetologist randomly checks the strands for progress, and applies more hair-treating mixture as needed so as to keep the hair treating mixture in intimate contact with each of the selected strands 66.
Whenever the desired treatment is achieved, the head is thoroughly rinsed with the cap 10 still in place in a solvent of the hair-treating mixture to remove the mixture from each and every strand 66. The hair-treating mixtures of this invention may be bleaches, lighteners, tints, permanent wave lotions, and the like. The preferred hair-treating mixture for use with my invention is a water-soluble mixture, so that the rinsing of the treated tufts to remove the mixture may be accomplished with water which is readily available and relatively inexpensive. I
Clamps 30 are now removed from each and every protrusion 22 thereby breaking the seal between strands 66 and wall portions 26, 28. Because of some natural resiliency in the protrusions 22, the protrusions 22 regain substantially their now shampooed in a conventional manner, if desired. The hair is then artistically arranged in a conventional manner thereby to aesthetically produce a hair styling having the strands of the hair being independently and individually treated. This arrangement step may include curling of the hair in a conventional manner.
While any of the three spring clamps 30 described in the above disclosure can be used in performing the method of this invention, it is intended that either the spring clamp as shown in FIG. 2 or the third embodiment of the spring clamp as shown in FIG. 4 will be used by the trained cosmetologist as such clamps are designed to withstand repeated use. However. the second embodiment of the clamp 30 shown in FIG. 3 is purposefully designed for a single treatment use such as that use visualized in the home without a professional cosmetologist assisting.
Whenever the desired hair treatment includes the use of a bleach, it is preferable to cover the cap with a relatively thick insulating material after the bleach has been applied to each of the strands 66. This step is preferred since the bleaching process is somewhat exothermic and the rate of color change is increased in proportion to the temperature. By insulating the strands 66 which are in intimate contact with the bleach and the airspace surrounding them from heat loss, the bleaching process may be speeded up considerably without losing control of the color change. The wrapping of a 1 conventional towel, such as that found in most homes and beauty salons, over the cap 10 is sufficient to provide the desirable effect above-mentioned. The addition of heat by a conventional hair dryer, while it would further hasten the portion of the exterior cap surface 72 in registry with the por tion 77 curves downwardly and radially outwardly at 79 from each of tubes 22a. The curved surface portion 79 smoothly merges with exterior'cylindrical tube surface 80 and the flat portion of surface 72 remote from tubes 22a and together with the surface 80 defines a tapered exterior tube surface 84. Surfaces 72 and 78 only are substantially parallel remote from tubes 22a The thickness of the cap material within the bounds of the reinforcements 76 decreases'radially outwardly from each of tubes 220 from a maximum thickness of cap material immediately adjacent the exterior surface 80 of tubes 22a to the thickness of the cap material remote from tubes 22a. At the peripheral boundary 83 of reinforcements 76. the thickness of the cap material abruptly changes from the minimum thickness of the cap material within the bounds of the reinforcements 76 to the thickness of the cap material remote from the tubes 22a. This boundary 83 is shown in FIG. 10 in dashed lines to be circular.
Each of the tubes 22a in the preferred construction 70 of the cap of this invention has an annular member portion 82 integrally molder to tubes 22a at a position axially spaced from exterior cap surface 72. In the FIGS, portion 82 is positioned adjacent to the distal ends of tubes 22a. Portion 82 extends from exterior tube surface 84 radially outwardly therefrom in a direction generally transverse to axis 74. Portion 82 has a peripheral edge 86 having a diameter which is larger than the outside diameter of tubes 22a. Extending between exterior bleaching process is not recommended and is not preferred as the bleaching process will usually progress out of control producing sometimes disastrous results.
By utilizing the devices shown in the drawings it is possible for a skilled cosmetologist to achieve the most desirable hairtreating effects in a time period which is substantially shorter than that heretofore known. It is also possible for a housewife to perform the method of the invention with devices herein disclosed in her home as she performs her regular daily chores without any inconvenience beyond that normally experienced with conventional home permanents. Furthermore, the selective coloring of strands 66 is made more controllable by the improved apparatus and method of this invention thereby providing hair treatments having clearer lines of demarcation between the treated hair and the untreated hair than ever before possible.
Referring now to FIGS. 9 and 10, there is shown a preferred cap structure for use in the performance of the method of this invention. This second embodiment 70 of the cap of this invention is identical with the first embodiment 10 abovedescribed' except as pointed out hereinbelow. Thus cap 70 is provided with apertures 20a and tubular protrusions 22a. Also, each protrusion 22a has a cross section taken transversely of the axis thereof which has a size and shape substantially identical with the perforations or openings'20. Both openings 20a and the cross-sectional shape of the protrusions or tubes 22a, in this preferred embodiment are roundish. Preferably, the cross section of the tubes 22a and the openings 20a are circular and the tubes 220 are cylindrical. Other shapes are thought to be less desirable for the reasons stated hereinbelow. Each tube 22a is made of the cap material and thus is both flexible and resilient. Tubes 22a extend axially outwardly of the exterior surface 72 of cap 70 as indicated by the axis 74 thereof as shown in FIG. 9.
Surrounding each of the tubes 22a is a circular reinforcement 76 made of the same material as cap and integrally molded to the cap. Reinforcements 76 provide a thickness of material adjacent to tubes 220 which is greater than the thickness of the material moreremote from tubes 22a. Within the bounds of reinforcements 76, an interior cap portion 77 extends from a maximum thickness of cap material adjacent to tubes 22a radially outwardly from tubes 22a and linearly towards the surface 78 to form a flat tapered'surface 75. The
is generally perpendicular to tube surface 84 and axis 74. Sur-.
face 88 defines a groove 90 with tube surface 84 and axis 74. Surface 88 defines a groove 90 with tube surface 84 and exterior cap surface 72 in each of the tubes 22a.
In a specific embodiment of the preferred cap 70 of this invention, tubes 22a have an inside diameter of one-eighth inch, an outside diameter of seven thirty-second inch, an axial length of three-sixteenth inch; the portion 82 has an outside diameter of one-fourth inch; reinforcements 76 have a peripheral boundary which has a diameter of about one-half inch and the cap material within this boundary varies in thickness from a maximum of about one-sixteenth inch to a minimum of about .015 inch. The cap material from which cap 70 is made can be any flexible, resilient, and heat-resistant material which can be formed as described herein. The cap material preferably is transparent and has a durability, in the presence of hair-treating chemicals and elevated temperatures, allowing the cap to be reused.
Referring now to FIGS. 11 and 12, there is shown a fourth embodiment of the clip of this invention. This fourth embodiment 100 is the preferred clip of this invention to be used with the cap 70 above described. Clip 100 comprises generally a sheet of substantially rigid material shaped in the manner shown in the above mentioned FIGS. Sheet 102, more specifi cally, has a head portion 104, a foot portion 106, and a neck portion 108. Neck portion 108 is disposed intermediate and separates head and foot portions 104, 106, respectively. Sheet 102 has oppositely facing surfaces 110, 112; surfaces 110 and 112 are generally parallel to each other.
The neck portion 108 has an elongated slot therein 114. Slot 114 has oppositely facing and parallel flat sidewalls 116, 118, respectively, and end wall 120. End wall is generally perpendicular to sidewalls 116 and 118; each of the walls 116 through 120 extend between the sheet surfaces 110 and 112 and are generally perpendicular thereto. The end wall 120 is positioned adjacent to the head portion 104. The distance between the sidewalls 116 and ll8is less than twice the wall thickness of the tube desirably closed by the clip.
The foot portion 106 has an enlarged slot entrance I22 therein. The entrance 122 has oppositely facing wall portions 124 and 126 which extend from the walls 116 and 118 to a boundary of sheet 102 thereby providing access to the slot 114. The entrance wall portions 124 and 126 also extend between sheet surfaces 110 and 112 and are generally perpendicular thereto. Entrance wall portions 124 and 126 further are respectively angularly disposed with respect to the wall portions 116 and 118 and extend outwardly fromthe respective wall portions 116 and 118 in opposite directions. Thus, the entrance 122 and the slot 114 form a single continuous slot in the sheet 102. To provide the leg portions 128 and 130 which respectively are positioned on opposite sides of the slot 114 and 122 with the desired rigidity, thetransverse width of the material between the slot 114 and 122 and the peripheral elongated edges 132 and 134 which define the neck portion 108, is greater than the thickness of the sheet 102.
lntegrally formed on the sidewall 118 of the slot 114 adjacent to its merger with the sidewall 126 of th the entrance 122, is a projection 136., Projection 136 extends from the wall 118 a portion of the distance between the walls 116 and 118 thereby partially closing the slot 114. The projection 136 is spaced from the end wall 120 a distance at least equal to the exterior dimension of a tube desirably closed by the clip 100.
The head portion 104 is shaped to have two ears 138 and 140 defining a depression 142 therebetween. Ears 138 and 140 extend in opposite directions outwardly and away from the sidewalls 116 and 118 of-the slot 114. Further, ears 138 and 140 are spaced apart from the end wall 120 in the longitudinal direction of the slot 114. Between the ears 138 and 140 there is provided a curved sheet end edge 144 which defines the depression 142. The depression 142 and the end edge 144 faces in a direction oppositely that to the end edge 120. The depression 142 further has a size and shape generally conforming to the size and shape of a finger end pad- 146 of a human forefinger 148.
In a specific embodiment of the clip 100 to be used with the cap 70 above described, the sheet 102 has a thickness of three thirty-seconds inch; is made of substantially rigid plastic material such as styrene which is a thermosetting rather than a thermoplastic material; the distance between the sidewalls 116 and 118 is one-sixteenth inch; the distance between the end wall 120 and the protrusion 136 is one-fourth inch; the distance between the sidewalls 116, 118 and the boundaries 132, 134, respectively are three thirty-seconds inch; and the depression 142 measures from ear 138 to ear 140 approximately five-sixteenths inch. The total length of the clip 100 in this preferred embodiment is approximately seventeen-six teenths inch.
In operation, the cap 70 and the clip 100 of my invention function identically as above described except in the following respects. First, in referring to FIGS. 6 and 8, it should be emphasized that both the openings 20 and the passageways 24 of the tubes 22 must both be large enough to accommodate the crochet hook 65 and the strands of hair desirably positioned therein or be resiliently expandable to such a size. This is a requirement of both of the cap embodiments of my invention. Tubes 22 and openings 20 of such a size allow the crochet hook 65 to be inserted therethrough such that certain strands of hair can be selected by the hook and pulled through the opening 20 and the protrusion 22. (See FIG. 6).
Referring to FIG. 8, it is seen that when the hook 65 is pulled through an opening 20 and its associated tube 22 the selected strands 66 of hair first emerge from the tube 22 in a folded over condition. Thus, both the openings 20 and the tubes 22 at a cross section taken transversely of the axes 74 must have a size, independent of the size of the crochet hook 65 at least equal to twice the cross-sectional area of the number of strands 66 desirably positioned therein. This lastmentioned size is required, of course, merely to pull the desired strands 66 through the opening 20.0f the tube 22.
If the respective sizes of the opening 20 and the tube 22 were smaller and were not easily resiliently enlarged to such a size, the strands 66 would be difficult to position within the tubes 22 and might break while attempting to pull the strands 66 through the tubes 22. For this reason, in the preferred embodiment 70 of the cap of this invention, both the openings 20a and the tubes 22a have a size in at least equal to the crosssectional area of the number of strands 66 positioned therein, and further, can be resiliently expanded to a greater size.
A larger than necessary opening 20 and tube 22 is also preferred for two additional reasons. First, the probing through a tube 22 with a crochet hook 65 can be very uncomfortable for the wearer of the cap when either the openings 20 or the tubes 22 must be resiliently expanded by the crochet book 65. This is due to the fact that additional force must be applied to the hook 65 to expand the opening through which the hook must pass to select the strands 66. Such additional force usually results in the tip of the hook 65 gouging the scalp of the person wearingthe cap 70. Obviously, when pulling the hook 65 and the selected strands 66 through the same small opening, a similar additional force must be applied to expand the opening and this usually results in pulling the hair and causing discomfort to the person wearing the cap.
Secondly, the removing of the cap after the strands 66 are treated as desired can be very painful or result in breaking the strands 66 adjacent their roots if the openings 20 and the tubes 22 are not of appreciable size. The breakage of the strands 66 upon removal of the cap is emphasized due to the weakened condition of the strands 66 subsequent to the treatments normally given utilizing the apparatus of this invention. Especially when bleach is used, the strands 66 are very brittle, and only a minute tug on the strand 66 is needed to fracture the strand 66. Thus, pain, breakage of strands 66, or both, occur whenever the openings 20 and tubes 22 grip the strands 66 between the oppositely facing wall portions 26, 28 thereof after the strands 66 have been treated and the clips or clamps used to close the same are removed. To avoid this the openings 20a and tubes 22a are provided in a size substantially larger than the cross-sectional area of the strands 66 and both the openings 20a and the tubes 220 are resilient as formed such that the preferred size and shape thereof is resumed after the clamps or clips are removed.
Subsequent to positioning all of the strands 66 desirably treated preferentially to the hair remaining beneath the cap within a tube 22, each protrusion or tube 22 is closed by attaching a clamp to the outer surface of the tube 22. Clamp 100 is the preferred clamp to be used with the cap 70 of this invention. Prior to clamping each of the tubes 22a closed, preferably a spray or cream conditioner is applied to the strands 66 and the exterior surface 72 and 84 of the cap 70. This conditioner aids in the treatment of the hair in a manner well known to those cosmetologists skilled in the art, and further, lubricates each of the tubes 22a thus making it easier to apply the clamps or clips 100 thereto. Clips 100 can be easily applied by placing a tube 20a in the slot entrance 122 and placing the end pad 146 of a human forefinger 148 in the depression 142 and the thumb 150 adjacent the side of the tube 22a opposite that engaged by the clip 100 and squeezing the clip 100 onto the tube 220. (See FIG. 13). In this manner, each of the tubes 22a can be deformed by the clamp 100 so as to be positioned within'the slot 114 between the protrusion 136 and the end wall 120. In this deformed state, the opposite wall portions 26a and 28a are engaged to each other in a seal- I ing relation since the distance between the slot sidewalls 116 and 118 is less than twice the wall thickness of the tube 22a as above mentioned. The clip 100 so positioned on the tube 22a fits into the groove and between the exterior cap surface 72 and the surface 88 of the member portion 82. In this position, the protrusion 136 prevents the clip from being removed from the tube 22a unintentionally. (See FIG. 15).
Each of the tubes 22a having strands 66 therein must be closed by a clip prior to treating the strands 66 to seal the cap material to the strands 66 in a liquid-tight or moisturetight manner. Further, each of the tubes 22a not having strands 66 therein must also be similarly closed by a clip. Otherwise, the liquids used to treat the strands 66 will leak through the unclosed tubes 22a and the openings 20a associated therewith and treat the hair beneath the cap 70 which is not desirably treated. Further, many of the hair-treating liquids used to treat strands 66 can injure the scalp and/or damage the hair folli cles, and for this reason should be kept from the hair beneath the cap 70 and the scalp. For example, each of the bleaches sold under the Trademarks TClairol Basic White, Revlon Quick-Out, and Sybil lves Tip & Frost all recommend against the application thereof to either skin or scalp. By a liquid-tight or "moisture-tight seal as used herein, it is meant that the seal is such that if the cap were removed from the head and filled with liquid, the cap 70 would hold the liquid without leakage. Also within the meaning of liquidtight is the understanding of the properties of the liquid used to treat the strands 66. For example, bleach such as those above mentioned are exothermic in nature, and thus, give off heat and become warmer during use. Accompanying this rise in temperature in the bleach are a decrease in the viscosity and surface tension of the bleach. The liquid-tight" or moisture-tight seal above mentioned will not allow leakage of such liquids through the cap of this invention during use.
To effectuate such a seal, the sidewalls 26a and 28a of the protrusions 22a are both flexible and resilient and the clips or clamps of this invention are designed to exert force to the tubes 22a which deforms the tubes 22a. Also for this reason, each of the tubes 220 have a cross-sectional shape that is roundish, or in the preferred embodiment, is cylindrical. Tubes 22a which have elongated, cross-sectional shapes, are very difficult to seal. This is especially so at the opposite ends of the elongate shape where a larger force must be applied to deform the tube, i.e., to bend the tube wall, than at a position intermediate between the ends of the elongated shape where a force is only necessary to engage the opposite interior surfaces of the tube in a sealing relation.
A further sealing problem occurs when strands 66 are positioned within the tubes 22a. This is because strands 66 of hair are not resilient and therefore strands 66 are not compressible or deformable. Thus, any seal between the strands 66 and the opposite walls 26 and 28 of the tubes 22a must be derived from the resiliency and the deforming of the tube wall rather than the deformation of the strands 66. Further, since the strands 66 may locate at any position within the tubes 220 when deformed, i.e., either at the corners thereof or therebetween, the problem presents itself of sealing a tube by deforming the tube both at its corners and intermediate its corners with a noncompressible object variously positioned within the tube. This problem is solved by the structure of my invention. First, by making the openings a and the tubes 22a roundish or cylindrical, tubes 22a when deformed slightly will have a cross sectional shape which is elongated which when deformed further intermediate the opposite ends thereof, will further deform the tube adjacent the corners. Additionally, the tubes 22a will deform approximately the same no matter which direction is chosen to apply the deforming force. The clamp 100 is designed to apply a substantially equal force to the tube 22a transversely of a diametrical dimension of the tubes 22a such that the passageways 24a are sealed with a force which urges the opposite surfaces 26a and 28a into sealing relation. This substantially equal force is achieved by the rigidity of the clip 100 and the substantially parallel slot walls 116 and 118 above mentioned.
The method of applying the clip 100 to a tube 22a as above described and illustrated in FIG. 13, functions to substantially evenly distribute the strands 66 within the tube 22a. For example, as the clip 100 beings to slide into a tube 22a having strands 66 therein, the tube 22a adjacent an end of the elongated shape above mentioned is deformed between the protrusion 136 and the oppositely facing slot wall 116 while the remaining portion of the tube is not so deformed but, in contrast, is positioned within the entrance 122 of the clip 100. Thus, while a few strands 66 are squeezed between the walls 26a and 28a of the tube 22a and caught therebetween ad jacent to the one end of the tube 22a deformed by the clip 100, the remaining strands will be urged towards the remaining portion of the tube 220 which is not deformed. As the clip I00 continues to he slid onto the tube 22a. other strands 66 will be caught between the engaged wall portions 26a and 28a while still other strands 66 will be urged into the remaining and undeformed portion of the tube 22a. Thus, strands 66 will not be bunched together at any one place within the tubes 22a so as to make it difficult to seal the remaining portion of the tubes 22a; but, in contrast, each tube 22a will have strands 66 evenly distributed throughout thereby rendering a liquidtight seal more easily achieved.
Each of the tubes 22a are more easily deformed out of the roundish or cylindrical shape at a position axially spaced apart from the exterior surface 72 of the cap 70. This is due to the shape-retaining forces of the cap material surrounding the tubes 22a which act on the tube adjacent to the base of the tube 22a or the exterior surface 72 of the cap 70. It follows that a liquid-tight" seal is more easily obtained at a position on each tube 22a axially spaced apart from the cap surface 72.
For this reason, the cap surface 72 adjacent to each of the tubes curves downwardly and radially outwardly from the tubes. the cap material adjacent the tubes is thickest adjacent to the tubes 22a and the thickness decreases radially outwardly therefrom as above mentioned. The curved surface 79 adjacent each of the tubes 22a functions to urge the clips 100 axially away from the surface 72 and adjacent to the downwardly facing surface 88 of the portions 82 of the tubes 22a. In this manner, the structure of the cap 70 automatically positions the clips 100 in a position most susceptible to a proper seal between the cap and the strands 66 and the walls 26a and 28a of tube 220.
slipping off from the distal ends of the tubes 220. In the preferred embodiment illustrated in the drawings and above described the clips or clamps 100 position themselves adjacent to the downwardly facing surface 88 of the member portions 82 of the tubes 220 when in clamped relation therewith. In this position, a liquid-tight seal occurs between the surfaces 26 and 28 of each of the tubes 22a whether strands 66 of hair are positioned in the tubes or not. Thus, a liquid-tight seal always occurs in using the cap 70 and the clamps 100.
Since this liquid-tight seal is solely dependent upon the proper positioning of the clips or clamps [00 onto the tubes 22a of the cap 70, the cap need not tightly fit or snugly fit the head of the person wearing the cap. in fact, for hair stylings appearing different from those above mentioned, the cap may be purposely spaced apart from the scalp a substantial distance, for example, 3, 4 or 5 inches, such that only the most exterior portion of the strands 66 are so treated. This provides that the materials used in treating strands 66 stops adjacent to the clamps and the portion within the 3, 4 or 5 inch region adjacent the skull will remain untreated the same as those strands not selected to be treated.
The aforementioned curvature 79 of the surface 72 is one reason for providing the increased thickness of the cap material adjacent each of the tubes 22a as provided by the reinforcements 76. However, reinforcements 76 provide still other functions. The added cap material provided by the reinforcements 76-helps to urge the openings 20a and.the tubes 22a into the original size and shape thereof prior to being deformed by the clamps of this invention. Also, experience has shown that most of the failures of caps of this type occur around the openings 20a and the tubes 22a thereof. This, in other words, is an inherent weakness of such caps. The reinforcements 76 place additional cap material at this position of weakness to provide additional cap strength and durability.
The preferred cap 70 and the preferred clamp 100 of my invention provides a cap that can be worn loosely by a person desiring hair treatment such as that above described and that has openings large enough to eliminate painful probing during the sectioning of the strands 66 desirably treated. The cap 70 has openings 20a and tubes 22:: of a shape and size which can be sealed in a liquid-tight manner by the clamps 100. The clamps 100 can be applied to the tubes 22a in a manner which reduces the total treatment time using conventional apparatus appreciably. Also, the cap of my invention is easily removed from a person wearing the cap subsequent to treatment of the strands 66 without pain due to the shape, size and resiliency of the openings and the clearance between the strands 66 and the cap. Further, the cap 70 of my invention is highly durable due in part to the reinforcements 76, and thus, is reusable, Lastly, the cap 70 can be used in conjunction with the newly devised lamp-type" bleach machines or other heating apparatus without deleteriously affecting the cap.
While I have illustrated and described specific embodiments of my invention, further modifications and improvements will occur to those skilled in the art and l desire therefore in the appended claims to cover all modifications which do not depart from the spirit and scope of my invention.
1. An apparatus for selectively treating a portion of the hair i head when'worn', said cap having a plurality of spaced apart circular openings in said material, said openings being generally evenly distributed over the portion of said cap covering the above mentioned human head portion, a plurality of cylindrical tubes of said cap material integrally molded to said cap, each of said tubes being positioned to surround one of said openings whereby selected strands of hair desirably treated can be respectively positioned in said openings and tubes, each of said tubes being flexible and resilient, each of said tubes having an axis, each of said tubes extending axially outwardly of said exterior cap surface, each of said tubes having an interior passage which in cross sections taken transversely of said tube axes have a diametrical dimension equal to the diameter of said openings each of said clips having a pair of clasping portions, each of said clips being adapted to be positioned on one of said tubes with said tube being positioned between said clasping portions, whereby a liquid-tight seal is formed between said opposite tube portions of each of said tubes thereby preventing any leakage of hair-treating liquids through said cap.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4289150 *||May 21, 1979||Sep 15, 1981||Kimball David D||Protective cover and method for treating hair|
|US4658840 *||Feb 27, 1981||Apr 21, 1987||Mccosker Doris C||Strip for facilitating the selective coloring of hair|
|US4750500 *||Sep 3, 1986||Jun 14, 1988||Jerilyn Allen||Device for facilitating hair styling using plural tints|
|US5595199 *||Jan 30, 1995||Jan 21, 1997||Solomon; Charleen||Hair container|
|US5881736 *||Feb 10, 1997||Mar 16, 1999||Turner; Pamela J.||Apparatus and method for decorating hair|
|International Classification||A45D19/18, A45D19/00|