US 3545440 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent [111 3 ,545,440
 Inventors Sidney Mlshkin 2,936,757 5/1960 Trace 128/276 Roslyn; 3,051,175 8/1962 Nugent.. 128/276 Robert E. Bldwnll, Melville; Leonard D. 3,078,579 2/1963 Jones et al. l28/276X Kurtz,Woodmere; Edward J. l'lallsteln, 3,429,313 2/1969 vRomanelli 128/276 Smithtown,New York 3,410,268 11/1968 Leucci 120/227 PP 743,395 Primary Examiner-CharlesF Rosenbaum  Filed .luly9 1968 A Patented Dec. 1.970 tromey Larson,Taylor and Hinds  Assignee Deknatel, Inc.
Long Island, N.Y.
 SINGLE CHAMBER UNDERWATER DRAINAGE ABSTRACT: A one-chamber drainage bottle having a constant level underwater seal formed at the lower end of the tube extending from thecollection chamber inlet to an opening below the surface of the liquid in the collection chamber. The tube has a float attached thereto for causing the tube to follow the level of the liquid. and thereby keep the tube opening a fixed distance below the surface of the liquid. A housing is provided to support the bottle, which housing includes a vacuum gage, a vacuum pump, and means for connecting the collection chamber outlet to the vacuum pump and the thoracotomy tube.
PATENTED DEC 8 I976 sum 1 BF 2 nON II I
ATTORNEYS with glass bottles and tubes SINGLE CHAMBER UNDERWATER DRAINAGE APPARATUS This invention relates to drainage of fluids, and in particular, it relates to a new and improved apparatus for draining extraneous fluids and gases from a cavity.
BACKGROUND 7 DESCRIPTION OF THE PRIOR ART The basic three-bottle underwater drainage system has been known heretofore. The system includes a trap chamber for collecting liquids, a seal chamber for preventing atmospheric the cavity being drained, and a pressure regulator chamber. For a complete understanding of this system, especially when used to drain fluids from the pleural cavity, it is helpful to understand both the anatomy of the chest cavity and the nature of the breathing function. For purposes of brevity, reference is made to our previous U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,363,626 and 3,363,627, both issued Jan. 16, 1968, for this background information.
One disadvantage of the conventional three-bottle set up isthat it is difficult to set up correctly. If the tubes are connected incorrectly, the system may be inoperative; or even worse, the system may be capable of exploding, owing to the unexpected collection of explosive anesthetic gases in one of the bottles during an operation.
Consequently, to replace the conventional jar and tube three-bottle arrangement, a unitary one-piece drainage apdeveloped. Such apparatus is shown in our said previous U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,363,626 and 3,363,627.
Another approach to the problem of providinga simplified drainage apparatus has been to form a single chamber which doubles as a collection chamber and a seal chamber. To accomplish this; the tube from the cavity being drained is directed to a point beneath the surface of the collected liquid in the collection chamber such that this same body of collected liquid forms the underwater seal.
However, this arrangement has a major fault in that as the level of the collected liquid builds up in the collection chamber, the gases from the cavity being drained must work against a higher and progressively higher pressure head of liquid in order to escape. For example, assume in a given case the pressure in a patients pleural cavity is varying between +2 cm. of water 2 cm. of water as the patient exhales and inhales respectively. Now assume extraneous fluids collect in the.
pleural cavity of the patient and that it is desired to usethe natural positive buildup of pressure during expiration of the lungs to expel these gases through a tube and into the underwater drainage apparatus. However, as noted above, the tube from the pleural cavity terminates at a point below the surface of the liquid in the trap chamber. If the drainage process has been proceeding for sometime, it is very likely that the level of the collected liquid has risen to a level greater than 2 centimeters above the lower the pleural cavity. In this case it would be difiicult if not impossible to expel excess fluids from the pleural cavity beyond the bottom of the tube which leads into the trap chamber; and as result as the patient inhales, these fluids will be drawn back towards the pleural cavity.
Thus, existing simplified single-chamber underwater drainage systems suffer from a major disadvantage.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION point of the tube leading from new and improved single-chamber underwater drainage ap- T paratus which overcomes disadvantages which have existed in single chamber underwater drainage apparatus known heretofore. v I
According to the present in vention, there is provided a single-chamber drainage apparatus having located, at its upper end, an inlet passage for receiving fluids from the cavity being drained and an outlet passage for connection either to atmosphere or to a vacuum source, depending upon the in tended mode of operation of the device. A tube within the chamber is connected at one end to the said inlet for receiving the fluids which are delivered from the cavity being drained; and the tube has an opening at it other end for delivering these fluids into the chamber. The tube is long enough to reach to the bottom of the chamber and the said tube opening is provided at the lowermost point on the tube. The tube itself is flexible and includes a floating member attached to the end remote from the said chamber inlet; the arrangement being such that as the level of collected liquid in the chamber rises, the opening always remains at a fixed distance below the survacuum in the trap chamber.
Thus, it is an object of this invention to provide a new and improved underwater drainage apparatus.
It is another object of this invention to provide a true threebottle underwater drainage apparatus with all functions contained within a single chamber.
It is still another object of this invention to provide a singlechamber underwater drainage apparatus having a combined liquid collection chamber and underwater seal wherein the height of the liquid seal itself remains constant notwithstanding the height of liquid in the collection chamber.
Other objects and the attendant advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the detailed description to follow with the accompanying drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS There follows a detailed description, together with accompanying drawings, of a preferred embodiment of the invention. However, it is to be understood that the invention is capable of numerous modifications and variations apparent to those skilled in the art within the spirit and scope of the invention.
In the drawings:
, FIG. 1 is perspective view of a drainage system according to the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a front elevation view of the collection chamber of the present invention with the front cover plate shown as transparent.
FIG. 3 is a sectional view FIG. 4 is a separate view DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring now to the drawings wherein like numerals are used to designate like parts throughout the several views, there is shown in FIG. 1 the overall drainage: apparatus 10 including the housing member 13. The lower portion of the housing may contain a vacuum. pump as shown in the lower portion of the housing as shown in our previous U.S. Pat. No. 3,363,626. The drainage bottle 11 which is shown in detail in FIGS. 2 and 3, may be constructed in any convenient manner and may be formed of any convenient material. Preferably, the drainage bottle 11 would be formed of a relatively stiff, transparent, plastic material such as polyethylene or the like.
Referring now to FIGS. 2 and 3, the drainage bottle 11 intaken along line 3-3 of FIG. 2. of an element shown in FIG. 3.
be drained and an outlet opening 17 adapted to be placed in fluid communication either with a vacuum pump or with atmosphere (depending upon the intended mode: of operation of the apparatus). An elongated tube 18, which is shown separately in FIG. 4, as an elongated central portion which is connected to an upper portion 19 by a flexible elbow portion 20a and which is connected to a lower portion 21 by a lower flexible elbow portion 20b. As shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, the upper portion 19 is connected directly to the inlet passage 16 and the lower portion 21 terminates at a lower opening 22. A
floating element 23 is rigidly affixed to the lower portion 21 to.
cause the latter to rise as the level of the liquid in chamber rises. In FIG. 2 the arm 18 and itsassociated elements are shown in solid lines in the positions 'which they assume when the chamber. 15 is empty. As liquid enters and fills the chamber 15, however,'the float 23 will rise with the liquid. The position of tube 18 and its associated elements are shown in phantom line at the upper portion of the chamber which is the position that these elements would assume when liquid in the chamber has arisen to the level indicated by the line W. It
will be noted that when the elements are in the raised position,
the opening 22 islocated at a distance H beneath the surface level W'of the liquid. It is to be understood this distance H between the opening 22*and th'elevel of the liquid is maintained whatever be the level of liquid in the chamber except, of course, when the opening 22 rests on the bottom and the total level of liquid in the chamber is less than H. Before operation the device is filled with water to a level equal to the height H. v
Referring again to FIG. 1, the housing 13 is intended not only to support the drainage bottle 11 but also to house various control elements. As indicated, the lower portion of this housing may-contain -a vacuum pump as illustrated in our said previous U.S. Pat. No. 3,363,626. The pump would include a passage rising upwardly in the rear portion of the housing to opening 29 whereat the passagewould be connected to tube 17 leading from the collection chamber 15.
In addition, a vacuum gage 25 could be mounted on the housing; and this gage could connect with the tube 17 to read pressure gage 28 which would be connected either to the chamber 15 through suitable tubing to an opening in the tube of the chamber (not shown) or to the inlet passage 16 or the tube 18 in order to ascertain a rapid increase in the negativity of the. pressure in the cavity being drained. As explained in our said earlier U.S. Pat. No. 3,363,627, compliance," which is a rapid increase in the negativity of the pressure in the patient's I physician at a time'after the maximum had been reached.
The housing would include a reset dial 27 for resetting the maximum reading needle of the compliance pressure gage When this drainage system is operated with the tube 17 connected to the opening 29 and hence to the vacuum pump, it is necessary. at first to have this passage opened to the atmosphere through a bleeder valve. The pump is turned on while the bleeder valve is wide open. Then, the bleeder valve is gradually controlled thereby accurately controlling within fine limits the magnitude of the vacuum drawn through opening 17. For' this purpose a bleeder valve control valve 28 may conveniently be provided on the housing 13. The housing may also include a simple off-on switch for the pump.
The operation of the invention is as follows: The chamber 15 is first filled with a quantity of water sufficient to place the opening 22 at adistance H beneath the surface of the liquid. In a typical situation this may be 2 cm. The inlet passage 16 is then connected to the cavity being drained. In this example it will be assumed that the cavity being drained is the pleural cavity of the patient."The outlet passage 17 will then be connected directly to the atmosphere or to a vacuum source, depending upon the intended mode of operation of the system.
For example, if the patient's lung is working normally, the fluctuations in the pressure of the'pleural cavity which accompany normal breathing may be sufficient to expel extraneous fluids from the pleural cavity. Assume for example, thatthe normal fluctuations are between a pressure of +2 cm. of water (when the patient inhales). If no extraneous liquids have collected in the patients pleural cavity, then asth'e patient inhales and exhales, the level of the liquid in the 'tube 18 will fluctuate between a first level 2 cm. above the level of the liquid in the chamber, respectively. The latter level will correspond with the opening 22.
.Assume now that extraneous fluid collect in'theT'pleural cavity of the patient. As the patient exhales, the pressure in the pleural cavity will push the 2 cm. of water out of tube 18 and it will also push any excess gases which have collected in the pleural cavity out of the opening 22 andthese excess gases will rise upwardly in the body of liquid in the chamber 15,
while extraneous liquids in the body of liquid in the chamber 15 will simply collect and raise the level of liquid in the chamber l5.
If the opening from the tube were located at a point greater than 2 cm. below the level of liquid in the chamber, which situation would occur if the level of the opening 22 were fixed and the level of the liquid were raised then the pressure in the pleural cavity. of the patient would not besufficient to expel the extraneous gases from the tube 18. Consequently as the patient inhaled, these extraneous gases would be drawn back into thepleural cavity.
With the present invention, however, since the opening is I sary to connect the tube 17 to the vacuum source to create a I greater negative pressure in chamber 15 for drawing extraneous gases and liquids from the pleural cavity through tube 18.
In this case as in case where the tube 17 is connected to atmosphere, the negative pressure set by controlling the pump and the bleeder valve 28 will not be minimized by an increasing pressure head as the liquid in the chamber 15 rises Rather, the initial pressure will be maintained since the opening 22 will rise with the liquid and remain a fixed distance below the surface of the liquid.
Although the invention has been described in considerable detail with respect to apreferred embodiment thereof, it will be apparent that the invention is capable of numerous modifi-' cations and variations apparent to those skilled in the art.
We claim: i
1. An apparatus for draining fluids from a cavity comprising i a collection chamber having an inlet opening adapted, to be connected to a cavity to be drained and an outlet opening adapted to be connected to an environment other thah the cavity to be drained, a tube extending from said inlet opening in the collection chamber said tube having a tube opening for passing fluids which it receives from the cavity into the collection chamber and control means for maintaining the said tube opening at a substantially fixed distance below the surface of liquid in the collection chamber for any level of said liquid in the collection chamber above said fixed distance. 2. An apparatus as claimed in claim -1 wherein said tube includes at least one flexible portion permitting the tube opening to rise and fall in the collection chamber. 3. An apparatus as claimed in claim 2 wherein the said control means comprises a floating element connected to the: tube and arranged to float on the surface of the liquid in the collectionchamber, the location of the said tubular opening being fixed relative to said float so that the tube remains said fixed distance below the surface.
4. An apparatus as claimed in claim 3 wherein said tube inthe float attached thereto. an upper flexible portion connecting said upper and elongated portions together near the top of the collection chamber, and a second flexible portion connecting lower and elongated portions together at a point which is near the bottom of the collection chamber when no liquid is contained therein, wherein as the tube opening moves upwardly with the rising float. the tube bends about the upper flexible portion to rise in the chamber, and the tube bends about the lower flexible portion so that the lower portion of the tube retains its orientation relative to, as well as its distance from the surface of the liquid.
5. An apparatus as claimed in claim 4 wherein said collection chamber outlet is adapted to be connected to a vacuum source 6. An apparatus as claimed in claim 5 including means for measuring the pressure within said collection chamber.
7. A drainage system for draining fluids from a cavity comprising a collection chamber having an inlet opening adapted to be connected to a vacuum source, a housing having a recessed portion shaped to receive and hold the collection chamber, a vacuum pump in said housing, means for connecting said collection chamber outlet to said vacuum pump, a tube extending from said inlet opening into the collection chamber and control means for maintaining the tube opening at a substantially fixed distance below the surface of the liquid in the collection chamber for any level of said liquid above the said fixed distance.
8. An apparatus as claimed in claim 7 wherein said housing includes means for measuring the pressure in the collection chamber.