US 3545 A
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s. n. TILLMAN. Heat Rggulatob.
Patented Aprili 17, 1844.
SAMUEL D. TILLMAN, OF SENECA FALLS, NEW YORK.
APPARATUS FOR REGULATING THE HEAT OF STOVES.
Specification of Letters Patent No. 3,545, dated April 17, 1844.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, SAMUEL D. TIL AN,
of Seneca Falls, in the county of Seneca and a State of New York, have invented a new and useful machine and several modes of applying it for indicating and regulating changes of temperature, which machine when usedfor the purposeof regulating the action of caloric ,I call the thermostat.
The natureyof my invention consists in the construction ofa machine which is moved by the expansion and contraction of a metallic ring upon the application of caloric and by means of a'n ndex indicates the degree of the caloric byj which it is effected, also in the severalfmodesof applying it to dampers so as to regulate the radiation of caloric from any stove, dumb stove, pipe or other structurein which caloricis generated or contained, also of applying it t0 ventilators and registersfor the regulation of temperature of aroom. To enable others skilled in art \to make and use my invention I will proceed to describe its construction and operation. a
Figure 1 (reference being had tothe anneXed drawing) represents the thermostat attached to a stove damper which governs the admission of air into: the chamber where caloric is generated. A. ring orsectionof a cylinder (R)is constructed of some highly expansive metal. Zinc being the most eX- pansive of solid metals and less fusible than lead bismuth or tin isto be preferred except when the ring is liable to be exposed to heat above 700 Fahrenheit in which casebrassshould be used. One side of this ring is made perfectly smooth which is the sidepartly exposed to view in Fig. 1 and into it about equidistant from the inner and outer edge of the ring is turned or cut a groove of such width and depth as to admit a wire (WV) which must be fitted closely so that it cannot bendout of its circular form. This wire. should be of metal the least expensiveysteelwire is to be preferred to any other which can be easily obtained. One end of this wire is fastened tightly at thepoint (A) to the ring (R) by means ofa wedge; the other end of the wire (B) is unfastened" and lies in the groove as near the end A as the ring when most contracted by cold will permit. Near the end (13) several notches are made into the wire so as to fit exactly into the leaves of the revolving pinion as it turns upon itsaxis. Thelower pivotof the pinion P sunk into the ring R and the upper pivot into a plate Q, of hard metal fastenedto the outside of the ring R and bent soto be over and perpendicular to pinion P as represented in Fig.9. Q being the metal in jwhich the upper pivot plays.
The cap (0) represented in Fig. 1 as partly covering the ring B may approach close toeither side of the bent plate Q, Fig.
9 or it may entirely coverthe ring R and be fastened to it by means of screws (V V V) in which case the upper pivot ofthe pinion is held by the-cap as by the plate at Q in Fig. 9 and passing through the cap the pivot projects far enough to allow the hand i H to be attached toit above the cap C. i The hand H in Fig. landFig. 9 is alever fastened to thepinion P by means of the upper pivot Qfin F ig. 9 a
and is bentup so as topass over the cap C.
Near the end of the hand (H) is a slot E see Fig. 9 in which slides a scale (S) see Fig. 1 whose sides are curved so as to turn within circles described by the sides of the slot E revolving around the center of the pinion P. y i f Over the slot E is a screw E (Fig. 9) whiclrenters the slot and bears upon the scale S so as to hold it to any position in which it may be placed.
To the under side of the scale is attached a roller G by means of a pivot around which it turns. The roller Gr describes the curve marked H, C, in Fig. 10 which figure repis set into the ring R or into a harder metal resents the manner in which the roller G moves the damper D.
Upon the damper are cast or riveted two elevations or flanges acting as catches (Fig.
12) running parallel to each other and of a a the same length but so placed (one being nearer to the outside of the damper than the other) that the roller Gin passing from the point C toward the point H would pass the end of theelevation or catch K and out and leaving the damper will pass on toward the point H as long as the ring continues 'to expand; when the ring R begins to contract from want of caloric the roller Gr begins to move in the opposite direction toward the point C and passing the end of the catch K strikes K and rolls between the catches K K and by its pressure upon K the damper is moved until the roller G passes from the catches K K at the point L Fig. 10. The damper is so placed that when the roller G is at the point L Fig. 10 the pin M projecting from the edge of the damper D (see Fig. 1) is pressing against a knob N projecting from and toward the knob N and strikes it when the damper 1s entirely closed or 111 other words when the damper covers all the apertures for the admission of air.
In applying the thermostat to the regulation of the heat of a stove it must be fixed upon the outside of the stove that it may be effected only as the stove throwsoff more or less caloric. It may be placed around a draft-damper which is best in the circular form made so as to cover every aperture inade into the stove for the admission of air or to leave every such aperture uncovered by turning 1t upon its center 0, as 111 Flg. 1. The metalllc rlng R is fastened firmly to the lower plate 11 by means of the pins T T which fill holes made to receive them in the ring the number of pins may be increased. care being taken to make allowance for the expansion of the ring.
When the thermostat is attached to a stove the radiation and conduction of calorie therefrom to the metallic ring causes it to expand and the wire (W Fig. 1) not eX- panding with the ring R does not fill the groove through its entire length but the wire being fastened at the end A the end 13 must recede from the end A. The greatest difierence of mot-ion between the wire and the ring must be at the end B. To this end the pinion P is attached as before described which must turn as the notches or leaves in the wire recede from the end A. The hand H being firmly attached to the pinion P, as before described forms a pinion-lever whose velocity and power are proportionate to the amount of caloric passing from the stove into the metallic ring.
If we suppose the quantity and quality of the fuel from which caloric is generated to be equal or uniform and the stove as near air tight as may be the amount of heat generated would be in proportion to the amount of air admitted through the apertures controlled by the damper D. The object of the thermostat is to control the radiation of caloric from the stove by controlling'the aforesaid damper. The roller G standing at the point C Fig. 10 when the end B is both ways by varying the degree of radiation. This stationary or uniform radiation may be kept at a higher or lower degree by altering the distance between the roller G and the catches K, K by means of the sliding scale S moving in the slot 'E. If a low degree of heat is wanted the roller G should soon touch thedamper and shut off the draft. a high degree the roller G should by means of the sliding scale be removed farther from the catches K K so that the dampers would not begin to close until the degree of radiation required had been pro duced.
The distance between the roller G and the catches K K is better controlled by the mode illustrated by Fig. 2. The scale S is of quadrant shape and fastened firmly to the pinion P as in the hand H in Fig. 9. Through this quadrant scale the upper pinion of the pivot P projects as at the point Q in Fig. 9 and upon it turns freely the hand H at the end of which is attached the roller G see Fig. 2; at Z Z is a slot in which moves a screw V see Fig. 8 which passes through this hand H and into another screw TV which on being turned will connect or disconnect the hand H and the scale S. In Fig. 2 is also represented a horizontal damper which may be moved by means of catches K K already described.
A more simple and cheap construction of the thermostat is to connect the hand H see Fig. 1 directly with the wire W at the end B by means of a pivot and to allow the hand ;H to play upon a pivot as does the pinion P, in Fig. 9 and by turning the smooth side of the ring R in which the groove is made to and directly against the stove thereby dispensing with the cap C in Fig. 1
If Q Q in Fig. 9 represent a side view of I a portion of the ring thus placed, the pivot attached to the wire will project through the ring at Q to which must be fastened the hand H. The pivot being allowed to play or move in the ring with the wire to which it is attached by means of a short slot at Q}. There are two modes of applying the expanding and contracting power. of the metallic ring for the purposes mentioned which vary slightly from theone described. The first is illustrated byfFig. 3. Around the ring R is closely drawn wireor main spring (W) which is fastened to the ring at the end A and to the damper D at the point B-the fulcrum being the pivot P on which the damper turns. The expansion of this ring R raises the damper from itsposition P E F and closes the draft aperture P E G. As the ringR contracts the damper falls by its own Weight or if in a position on the stove when its weight cannot! eifect it, it may be pressed to its place by a screw.
The second mode is when themetallic ring is connected with the. stove itself as the metal ofl'east contraction; it may lie in a groove around the stove if circular in form or as in Fig. 4: maybe held within a circular groove or rim C C *C. And it is attached at A to the stove door and at B to the damper which may operate asthat illu trated in Fig. 3.
The thermostat may be applied to the regulation of the .heat radiated from a dumbstove or pipe by placing .thepmetallic ring around the pipe through which caloric is conducted. WVithin the pipe the common flue damper is :placed'revolving on a pin running through the pipe and projecting as A A in Fig. 7 the end A is connected to the end of the Wire B see Fig. 1, by a pin.
The thermostat when made larger than the size which is described above is efl'ected by the heat of a roomand by means thereof may regulate the admission of cold or hot air into a room by being attached to a ventilator ora register. When attached to a ventilator D D (see Fig. 1) that part may be made of wood and so as to turn easily in a horizontal direction around a shoulder on the pivot O. i
The thermostat when attached to a circu lar register which governs the admission of warm air should beplaced so far from the register as to be effected by the general temperature of the room rather than by the hot air proceeding from the register; the only alteration necessary to accomplish this being the lengthening of the hand H, G in Fig. 2.
When the metallic ring to be effected by a low degree of heat cannot be made as large as desirable the wire may be length ened in the ringby deepening the groove andusing antifriction wheels as in Fig. 5 placed in the ring on either side of the Wire or placed in the wire as in Fig. 11 and where Wire or main spring is applied around the ring R by winding such wire or main'spring on anti friction wheels W 7 W see Fig. 6 placedinto the end of the ring B.
What I claim as new is 1. The modes herein described of regulating and indicating changes of temperature by ineans of a metallic ring also by means'of a ring of zinc inclosing a broken ring of iron or steel; said ring of steel being attached by one of its enclsto the zinc ring and free to move throughout its length, its free end operating upon an index by means of a rack and pinion or other similar device.
2. I also claim the combination of the above arrangement which I denominate a thermostatwit'h a register plate or valve for regulating the heat of a stove or for similar purposes such as the ventilation of rooms &c. as abovetd'escribed.
I may use for the above purpose other metals whose expansive properties are well known.
For the above described invention I desire Letters Patent.
SAMUEL D. TILLMAN.