|Publication number||US3547197 A|
|Publication date||Dec 15, 1970|
|Filing date||May 9, 1969|
|Priority date||May 9, 1969|
|Publication number||US 3547197 A, US 3547197A, US-A-3547197, US3547197 A, US3547197A|
|Inventors||Chevalier Arthur A, Mathews David M, Rourke William E|
|Original Assignee||Marathon Oil Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (14), Classifications (10), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
 Inventors Arthur A. Chevalier;
David M. Mathews, Cody, Wyo.; William E. Rourke, Anchorage, Alaska  Appl. No. 823,491  Filed May 9, 1969  Patented Dec. 15, 1970  Assignee Marathon Oil Company Findlay, Ohio a corporation of Ohio  METHOD OF AClDlZATlON 14 Claims, No Drawings  U.S. Cl 166/284, 166/307  Int. Cl; E21!) /1 E211) 43/27  Field of Search 166/284, 307, 305
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,754,910 7/1956 Derrick et a1 166/284 3,010,514 11/1961 Fox 166/284 3,086,587 4/1963 Zandmer et a1 166/284 Primary ExaminerStephen .I. Novosad Attorneys-Joseph C. Herring and Richard C. Willson ABSTRACT: A method of acidizing a subterranean formation penetrated by a well bore having a casing with perforations therein in fluid communication with the formation, the method comprising successively injecting into the formation at least two series of slugs, the first series consisting of a slug of acid followed by about an equal volume of water and the water followed by sufficient number of sealer balls (having sufficient diameter to seal the perforations) to seal the more permeable perforations within the casing; the second series repetitive of the first, except there are sufficient number of sealer balls to seal the lesser permeable perforations; and then injecting a slug of acid followed by sufficient water to displace the acid out into the formation. The total volume of acid can be at least 30 gallons per vertical foot of formation to be treated. Also, the number of perforations can be up to about four perforations per vertical foot of formation to be treated.
, 1 METHOD or AcImzA'rIoN PR'IORART OF THE lNVENTlON Acids are commonly used to stimulate subterranean formations to produce crude oil. Hydrochloric acid'is preferred since it leaves no insoluble reaction product. Hydrochloric acid within the lime formation reacts according to the formula:
However, it is thought that the formation of calcium chloride on the veneer-f the particle of the rock tends to inhibit further ingress of the hydrochloric acid to react with other portions of the rock or lime formation which is not in direct contact withthe acid, especially with highly concentrated acid.
The prior art has used sealer balls (made of rubber, plastic,
metal, etc.) in combination with acidizing treatments conducted in perforated casings. The purpose of thesealer balls is to seal off or block the more permeable perforations (i.e. perforations in the casing adjacent the permeable formation or rock)'from receiving the acid. This permits-the remainder of the acid to be diverted to the less permeable perforations and thus obtain a more uniform acidizing treatment of the forma-- tion adjacent the'perforations within the casing.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Applicants have discovered a novel process of effecting an improved acidizing process wherein the acid is uniformly dis- I placed out into the formation to obtain maximum effect of the acid on the formation. This is accomplished by displacing the acid intothe formation and by selectively plugging'the more permeable zones throughout the acidizing process. The acid is i displaced into the formation by water (preferably atleast an permeabilities within a'formation; are experienced.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Acids useful with this invention include hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, sulfamic acid, citric acid, acetic acid, and like materials. Preferably, the acid is one which does not'form undesirable or incompatible products within the subterranean,
formation. Preferably the acid is hydrochloric acid and preferably is at a concentration range of fromabout percent to up to about 28 percent.
The acid can contain inhibitors (e.g. inorganic and organic inhibitors) to avoid damage to casing, tubing, pumps, valves, and related equipment. In addition, the acid solution can contain a surfactant, e.g. to improve the wetting efficiency or lower the surface tension of the acid solutions with the formation fluids. The use of surfactants generally improves the efficiency of the acidizing solution in many ways. Also, deemulsifiers can be incorporated within the acid solution. Other agents such as silica controlled additives, particular agents known in the an, etc. can be incorporated into the acid 'solution to impart desired characteristics.
Sufficient acid is injected into the formation to effectively increase the permeability of the formation to produce formation fluids. Normally at least about 30 gallons of l5-28 percent strength hydrochloric acid isuseful to effectively stimulate the formation. Preferably, at least about 40 gallons of 28 percent hydrochloric acid per vertical foot of perforated formation is useful with a tight formation (e.g. about 30-40 md.).
I After the volume of water is injected into the formation,
sealer balls are injected to seal off the more permeable perforations of the casing andthus' divert thenext slug of acid to lesser permeable perforations. The sealer balls can be made of nylon, rubber, neoprene, metal, plastic, or other like materials or combinations of these materials. The sealer ball should have a diameter atleast that and preferably greater than the average diameter of perforations within'the casing. Also, it is preferred that the diameter and material of the sealer ball be such that it will become readily dislodged upon returning the -well to production. A preferred sealer ball is one that is rubber coated. The total number of sealer balls injected depends on I the degree of differing permeabilities, thenumber of perforations, etcJGenerally, the number of sealer balls can be at least about 75 percent of the number of perforations.
As mentioned previously, the wellbore in communication withthe subterranean formation has a casing extending down to the producing formation. The casing is "perforated, preferably upto about four or more holes per vertical foot of casing. The perforations are effected by methods known in the art, e.g. bullets, shaped charges, etc. Where the perforations I have an overage average diameter of about r inch, sealer balls 1 of about "V4 inch or Vs inch in diameter are useful.
This-invention overcomes the problem of allowing acid to spend itself near the well bore rather than obtaining maximum penetration and efficiency by continuing to move the acid'and displacing it out into the formation. By this invention, the acid 'can'come in contact with more surface area within'the lime formation. Also, uniform displacement of the acid in formation zones of varying-permeabilities is accomplished by successive injections of acid followed by water and the water followed by asufficient number of sealer balls to seal the more permeable perforations; this series of injections repeated until lesser permeable perforations are injected with acid. "The overall resultis to effect substantially a uniform stimulation of the formation.'The number of series of injections can be indefinite, but the average number is about three for a perfora: tion 'zoneof about 30 feetwherein average permeabilities of from about 25'md. to about 100 Ind. are characteristic. The
total number of series of injections can depend upon, inter alia,'the size of treatment, formation to be treated, number of perforations, volume of acid injected per series and the number of sealer balls. After the last batch of sealer balls is injected, another slug of acidcan be injected and this followed byat-least an equal volume of water to displace the acid out into-theformation;Sealer balls are not necessary after the last 'volume of water.
' balls in the process.
The following examples are presented to teach specific workinger'nbodimerits of the invention. Such are not intended to limit the invention in any way; rather, all equivalents obvious to those skilled in the art are meant to be included within Following the slugs of acid into the fonnation, there is injected sufficient volume of water to displace the acid out into the formation. Preferably at least about an equal volume of water, based on the preceding volume of acid, is injected.
the invention as defined within the specification and appended claims. Unless otherwise specified, all percents are based on volume.
EXAMPLE I A well has perforations (average diameter about V2 inch) of twoholes per foot over a depth of 30 feet. It is treated by injecting 28 percent hydrochloric acid and water at a rate of 9 b.p.m. (barrels per minute) at an average pressure of 1500 p.s.i.g. First, there is injected 500 gallons of the acid followed by 500 gallons of water and then 25 sealer balls (nylon reinforced with rubber coating, diameter 4 inch) in about 50 gallons of water. A pressure increase of 200-300 p.s.i.g. is realized, thus indicating the more permeable perforations are sealed. The increase in pressure subsides. Thereafter, 500 gallons of the acid is injected followed by 500 gallons of water and this followed by 25 sealer balls in about 50 gallons of water. A pressure increase of 200-300 p.s.i.g. is realized- -the pressure increase subsides. Again, 500 gallons of acid is injected followed by 500 gallons of water and 20 sealer balls in about 50 gallons of water. Again a pressure increase of 200- 300 p.s.i.g. is realized, and the pressure subsides gradually. Finally, there is injected 500 gallons of acid followed by 500 gallons of water, no sealer balls are injected. The total water injected overdisplaces the acid by 100 percent. Instant shut-in pressure indicated a vacuum. The acid is permitted to remain in the formation for 1 hour and then the well is swabbed. On swabbing, 90 barrels of acid/water mixture is recovered in 3 hours. Fluid level after swabbing is at a depth of 2600 feet and a good show of oil is indicated. 13 days later the well is producing 139 b.o.p.d. (barrels of oil per day) and 3315 b.w.p.d. (barrels ofwater per day).
EXAMPLE ll A well was perforated (average diameter V2 inch) with two holes per foot for a distance of 30 feet The well is treated at the rate of about b.p.m. and an average pressure of 1100 p.s.i.g. with the following series of injections: 1. 350 gallons of the acid (28 percent followed by 500 gallons of water followed by 15 sealer balls in about 50 gallons of water, 2. series 1 is repeated, 3. series 1 is repeated again, and 4. 450 gallons of the acid (28 percent HCD is injected followed by 1360 gallons of water. Good pressure increases were realized after the injections of sealer balls. Sealer ball diameter inch. The initial shut-in pressure indicated a vacuum. The acid was permitted to remain in the rock for 1 hour and then the well was swabbed, about 200 barrels of fluid were swabbed in 5 hours. A good show of oil was indicated. Thereafter, the production string was run in the well and the well was placed on production. A week later, the well was still producing a large quantity of oil.
We claim: 1. A process of acidizing a subterranean formation having different permeabilities and penetrated by a well bore having a casing with perforations therein in fluid communication with the formation, the method comprising:
i. injecting a first series of slugs consisting of a slug of acid followed by a sufficient amount of Water to displace the acid out into the formation, then injecting a sufficient number of sealer balls of sufficient diameter to substantially seal the more permeable perforations;
2. injecting at least a second series of slugs consisting of a slug of acid followed by a sufficient amount of water to displace the slug of acid out into the formation, then injecting sufficient number of sealer balls of sufficient diameter to substantially seal the lesser permeable per- I forations; and then,
3. injecting a slug of acid followed by sufficient amounts of water to displace the acid out into the formation. 7
2. The process of claim ll wherein the total volume of acid injected is equal to at least about 30 gallons per vertical foot of formation to be treated.
3. The process of claim 1 wherein the amount of water injected which follows the acid slug, is equal to at least about the volume of acid.
4. The process of claim 1 wherein the injection rate of the process is from about 5 to about 15 barrels per minute.
5. The process of claim l wherein the slugs of acid are about equal in volume.
6. The process of claim 1 wherein the sealer balls are rubber coated.
7. The process of claim 1 wherein the acid is hydrochloric acid.
8. The process of claim 1 wherein a third series of slugs, identical to the second series, is injected before step three.
9. The process of claim ll wherein the majority of the permeabilities average from about 25 to about 100 md.
10. The process of claim 1 wherein the total number of sealer balls is at least percent of the total number of perforations.
11. The process of claim 1 wherein the injection rate of the process is from about 7 to about 10 barrels per minute.
12. The process of claim 1 wherein at least one slug of the acid contains a surfactant.
13. The process of claim 1 wherein at least one slug of the acid contains an inhibitor.
14. The process of claim 1 wherein at least one slug of the acid contains a deemulsifier.
1721?? UMTED STAIES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,547,197 Dated December 15, 1971 Inventor(s) A. A. Ch e r e 1 i e1 Q. M. Mathews, and W. E. Rourk It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
Column 3, line 33: Delete "HCD" and insert 31am ma SEALED MR9 1971 6 Amen:
M. 1'. mm R. m, m Awning m dominion of Patents
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|U.S. Classification||166/284, 166/307|
|International Classification||C09K8/60, E21B43/25, E21B43/26, C09K8/72|
|Cooperative Classification||E21B43/261, C09K8/72|
|European Classification||C09K8/72, E21B43/26P|
|Jun 13, 1983||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: MARATHON OIL COMPANY, AN OH CORP
Free format text: ASSIGNS THE ENTIRE INTEREST IN ALL PATENTS AS OF JULY 10,1982 EXCEPT PATENT NOS. 3,783,944 AND 4,260,291. ASSIGNOR ASSIGNS A FIFTY PERCENT INTEREST IN SAID TWO PATENTS AS OF JULY 10,1982;ASSIGNOR:MARATHON PETROLEUM COMPANY;REEL/FRAME:004172/0421
Effective date: 19830420