US 3547351 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent  Inventor John O.Hruby,Jr.
- Burbank, Calif. [2l] AppLNo. 686,410  Filed Nov. 29, 1967  Patented Dec. l5, 1970  Assignee RainJet Corporation Burbank, Calif. a corporation of California  INDUSTRIAL LIQUID DISCHARGE NOZZLE AND TI-IELIKE 23 Claims, 17 Drawing Figs.
 U.S.CI. 239/338, 239/551, 239/562  Int.C| .AlmnlI/Qgim  FieldofSearch Z39/338, 550,558, 568,587,601,16-23, 17, 586, 587, 590-595, 597, 101, 102, 104, 468, 499; 222/180, 553
 References Cited UNIT ED STATES PATENTS 636,803 ll/1899 Hollingsworth 239/17 3,369,608 2/1968 Haess1eretal.... Z39/590.5X 1,725,689 8/1929 Witt 222/553 2,974,877 3/1961 l-lruby,Jr... 239/237 3,241,772 3/1966 Thompson. 239/597X 3,301,493 1/1967 Frempter Z39/101x Primary Examiner-Robert B. Reeves Assistant Examiner-Norman L. Stack, Jr. Attorney-Christie, Parker & Hale ABSTRACT: A liquid discharge device, featuring discrete liquid droplet discharge, in which a body defines an inner chamber having liquid inlet and outlet openings, the inlet opening having an area equal to a minor portion of the transverse area of the chamber and the outlet opening being greater in area than the inlet opening and spaced between the ends of the chamber, the inlet opening being nearer one end of the chamber than to the other end. The maximum dimension of the outlet opening in a direction transversely of the chamber is not substantially greater than the maximum dimension of the same opening in a direction along the length of the chamber, the length of the chamber being the distance between the ends of the chamber.
4 PATENTEU UECI 5 i970 SHEET 2 UF 2 INDUSTRIAL LIQUID DISCHARGE NOZZLE AND THE LIKE FIELD OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to liquid dischargenozzles suited for use in discharging and distributing liquids in industrial applications and usages. The nozzle has an aerating characteristic an features no moving parts in the liquid flow path.
BACKGROUND OE THE INVENTION 'I Description of the Prior Art: My prior U.S. Pat. 3,082,961, issued Mar. 26, 1963, describes liquid discharge nozzles which operate in a manner which can be visualized as reverberation of the liquid within the nozzle structure to produce a pulsating liquid discharge characteristic. The nozzle is characterized by no moving parts and by the discharge of liquid therefrom as discrete droplets. 4 v
The structure shown in this patent originally was intended for use ina lawn sprinkler. In a lawn sprinkler the size and shape of the pattern of discharged water upon a lawn surface must be regulated carefully. Also, the distribution of water in the discharge pattern must be as uniform as possible. In order that discharge pattern size and shape, as well as uniform discharge distribution may be obtained, devices following the disclosures of my prior patent have been lconstructed essentially as illustrated in the patent.
lt has been recognized recently, however, that the beneficial and desirable operating characteristics lprovided by nozzles constructed as illustrated in my prior patent .can be produced by noules having physical characteristics'and relations different from those described and illustrated in the patent. Such nozzles can be used to advantage as industrial nozzles'and, as
described below, as shower nozzles, as fountain nozzles, or as fire nozzles, for example.' For best results as a lawn sprinkler nozzle, however, the nozzle structure should have the basic configuration shown in the patent.
SUMMARY OE THE INVENTION This invention provides very simple, economic, efficient, rugged and reliable liquid discharge nozzles suitable for use in industrial and home applications. Liquid is discharged from the nozzle as a multitude of discrete droplets but with a minimum amount of mist or fog. The discharge stream adjacent the noule appears to pulsate in strength at relatively high frequency and to oscillate in direction within vcontrollable limits relative to the nozzle. The discharge generally is well aerated. These operating characteristics suitl the nozzle especially well to use as a nozzle in cooling systems such as in steel mills, in sewage treatment systems, and in many other applications. The nozzle is eicient in that large quantities of liquid can be discharged rapidly with little pressure drop across the nozzle structure. The nozzle can be made advantageously of plastic materials which are low in cost.- vThe liquid flow openings in the nozzle are relatively large in area and this fact, coupled with the fact that the nozzle has no moving parts, means that the nozzle requires little if any maintenance, even when the liquid discharged carries particles of sand or metal, for example, in suspension.
Briefly, a nozzle according to this invention includes a body defining an inner chamber having opposite ends which are spaced apart by the length of the chamber. The length of the chamber is at least as great as the mean transverse dimension of the chamber. A liquid inlet opening to the chamber is provided nearer to one end of the chamber than to the other end. The area of the inlet opening is equal to a minor portion of the mean transverse cross-section`al area of the chamber. A liquid outlet opening is provided laterally from the chamber through the body at a location spaced between the ends of the chamber. Thus, the chamber has a portion thereof located between the other end of the chamber and the edge of the outf let opening proximate to such end of the chamber. The minimum area of the outlet opening is greater than the minimum area of the inlet opening. The nozzle also includes means for connecting the body adjacent the one end of the chamber to a source of liquid to be discharged.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The above-mentioned as well as other features of the invention are set forth in more detail in the following explanation and description of presently preferred embodiments of the invention, which description is presented with reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIG. l is a cross-sectional elevational view of a shower nozzle;
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 2-2 of FIG. l;
FIG. 3 is an elevational view taken along line 3-3'of FIG. l; FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 4-4 of F IG. 3;
FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional elevational view of another body member which can be used in a nozzle according to this invention;
FIGS. 6 through l0 are fragmentary elevational views of the exteriors of other nozzle bodymembers which can be used in the present nozzle, such FIGS. illustrating different configurations of noule liquid outlet openings; A,
FIG. l1 is a cross-sectional view, similar to FIG. 2, of another body member useful in this invention;
FIG. l2 is an elevational view of another-nozzle;
FIG. 13 is a top plan view of a fountain nozzle;
FIG. I4 is an elevational view of the nozzle shown in FIG. 13 illustrating the liquid discharge pattern of such nozzle;
FIG. 15 is a top plan view of anotherfountain nozzle;
FIG. I6 is an elevational view of a fire nozzle; and
FIG. 17 is a top plan view of the fire nozzle shown in FIG. 16. In the accompanying drawings, like reference numerals are used with like or essentially like elements of structure.
DESCRIPTION OF PRESENTLY PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring to FIG. l, a shower head 20 is shown mounted to a water supply pipe 2l to which an vaxially bored ball fitting 22 is secured. The shower head includes and elongate manifold member 23 having an internal chamber 24 which opens to an externally threaded end 25 of the member. The manifold member .is mounted to the ball fitting by an internally threaded socket member 26, engaged with the threads of the manifold member, in such a manner that the bore through the ball fitting from pipe 21 communicates with chamber 24 and so that the manifold member is pivotable on the ball fitting. A gasket 27 is carried by the manifold ,member for making a liquid tight seal with the ball fitting peripherally of the bore through the fitting.
The end of chamber 24 opposite from the ball fitting is closed.
An elongate hollow body member 29 is engaged at an open end 30 thereof with the manifold member and extendslaterally from the manifold member to a closed end 3l. The body member is connected to the manifold member in such a manner as to make a liquid tight seal around an opening 32 through the manifold member to the interior of the body member. Thus, the interior of the body-member'is in liquid flow communication with chamber 24. The closed end of the body member preferably is defined by a closure plug fitted to the end of the body member opposite from the manifold member.
The body member defines an internal chamber 33 having opposite end surfaces 34 and 35, the Iatter'being defined by the closure plug, spaced apart by the length of the chamber. The distance between surfaces 34 and 35 is at least equal to, and preferably is greater than the mean transverse dimension of chamber 33; this relation applies to all nozzles constructed in accord with this invention.
Chamber 33 has a liquid inlet opening 37 thereto closer to end surface 3 4 than to end surface 35. Preferably, as shown in FIG. l, the inlet opening is formed through a partition 35i disposed across the interior of .the body member adjacent the manifold member, which partition defines chamber end surface 34. It is preferred that the inlet opening be defined by a single aperture through the partition. The total fluid flow area of the inlet opening is a minor portion (less than 50 percent) of the mean transverse cross-sectional area of the body chamber, i.e., the area of the chamber in planes normal to the length of the chamber.
A single liquid outlet opening 39 is formed through the walls of the body member laterally from chamber 33 at a location spaced between the ends of the chamber. That is, the chamber end surfaces 34 and 35 are spaced from the proximate edges of the outlet opening. The area of the outlet opening is greater than the area of the inlet opening. The maximum dimension of the outlet opening in a direction transverse to the length of chamber 33 is not substantially greater than the maximum dimension of the outlet opening in a direction along the length of the chamber. The configuration of the outlet opening thus may be a rectangle 40 oriented with its major sides extending along the length of the chamber as shown in FIG. 3, a circle 41 as shown in FIG. 6, an oval 42 oriented with its major dimension along the length of the chamber as shown in FIG. 7, a square 43 as shown in FIG. 3, or a cruciform 44 or similar shape having a transverse dimension substantially rio greater than its dimension along the length of the chamber.
Chamber end surface 35 is spaced along the chamber from the proximate edge 46 of the outlet opening. Preferably, the distance between surface 35 and the adjacent edge of the outlet opening is at least equal to about one-fourth of the mean transverse dimension of the chamber, especially where the chamber is of uniform transverse cross-sectional configuration along its length. This spaced relation is required to produce the reverberation (described below) of liquid within chamber 33 which in turn produces the discrete aerated droplet discharge characteristic which is a feature of devices constructed pursuant to the present invention.
A discharge confining and directing shield 48 is mounted to body member 29 for confining the discharge pattern of liquid emerging from the outlet opening to a desired solid angle centered about a line through the center of area of the outlet opening and normal to the length of chamber 33. Preferably, as shown in FIG. l, the shield is in the form of a tube having opposite open ends 49 and 50. It is preferred that the configuration of the tube be circular, though such a configuration is not required. In shower head 20, the shield is mounted to the body member so that the axis of the shield tube is centered with the center of area of outlet opening 39, and so that end 49 of the shield is closer to the rear of the body member than end 50 is to the front of the body member; this last relation is not a rigorous requirement for operability of the shower head, but is preferred for compactness of the device.
Since it usually is desired that the water discharge pattern from a shower head be adjustable to the preferences of a user, an adjustment collar l is engaged with the shield adjacent end 50 thereof. Preferably, the collar extends around the outer periphery of the shield where it is readily accessible to a user of the shower head. The fit between the shield and the collar is a slip fit sufficiently loose to enable movement ofthe collar along the shield as desired, but sufficiently tight to assure that the collar does not disengage itself from the shield. The location of the collar along the shield can be adjusted by a user ofthe shower head to vary the solid angle from the outlet opening within which water discharged from the head lies during operation ofthe head.
The end of shield 48 located opposite the rear side (the side opposite from outlet opening 39) of the body member should be open for maximum aeration of the discharge from the shower head. Such aeration is extensive and, in connection with the discrete droplet characteristic of the head, provides a head which is very refreshing in use.
While the exact principles of operation of devices in accord with this invention are not fully understood, it is believed that the basic principle of operation is one of reverberation of liquid in the chamber between inlet and outlet openings 37 and 39, for example. The reverberation chamber, e.g., chamber 33, has an inlet smaller than the outlet and thus air can enter the chamber through the outlet. Such air and the liquid introduced to the chamber interact in a randomly unstable manner in the portion of the chamber between the outlet opening and the end of the chamber opposite from the inlet opening to produce a discharge characterized by discrete liquid droplets, rather than a sheetlike spray of liquid, which emerge from the chamber along various paths. This interaction is somewhat analogous to the action of air in an organ pipe, although in the present instance the interaction occurs between a liquid and a gas rather than solely in a gas, and thus is referred to as a reverberation phenomenon merely for the purposes of description.
lt has been found that for the reverberationlike phenomenon to exist, the outlet area from the chamber must be larger than the inlet, and the greater the areal difference, generally the greater is the reverberation action and the more profuse the droplets produced in the discharge pattern. Also, it has been found that there must be some distinct portion of the chamber, such as chamber 33, between the outlet opening and the end of the chamber opposite from the inlet opening. Where the reverberation chamber is of cylindrical configuration with constant cross-sectional area along its length, chamber end surface 35 is spaced at least about one fourth the diameter of the chamber from the nearest edge of the outlet opening from the chamber.
Prior U.S. Pat. 3,082,961 describes the outlet opening as being provided as a slot oriented transverse to the length of the reverberation chamber; such an outlet opening is preferred where the device is to be used as a lawnsprinkler in which predictability of discharge pattern is a highly desired characteristic. lt has been found, however, that the outlet opening need not be a slot oriented with its length extending transversely of the length of the reverberation chamber, particularly where it is desired to produce a discharge nozzle for use in a shower head or in industrial applications. In these latter applications, it is desired that the liquid discharged be in droplet form and that as much water be discharged as possible without unduly penalizing pressure losses in the discharge device; devices like those described above have such beneficial attributes.
Further, it has been found that the inlet opening to the chamber need not be eccentric of the chamber axis, as shown in FIGS. l and 2, nor need the chamber be round in transverse cross section as shown in FIG. 2. FIG. l1 depicts a body member 503 of another shower head and the like which is square in transverse cross section and which includes an end partition 55 defining a chamber inlet opening 56 located along the longitudinal axis of a reverberation chamber 57. Discharge devices having a noncircular reverberation' chamber operate as described above, but it has been found that the reverberation effect is less pronounced in such chambers than in circularly or elliptically configured chambers; the same is true of axial inlet openings as opposed to inlet openings located eccentric to the longitudinal axis of the chamber.
The inlet opening may be defined by a series of smaller openings, but such devices show a greater liquid pressure loss therein than do devices having a single inlet opening of area equal to the total area of a series of openings.
Regarding the outlet opening, it has been found that the maximum dimension of such opening around the body member should not be substantially greater than one-half the circumference of the chamber. FIG. 10 depicts a discharge device 58 in which outlet opening 59 is of rectangular configuration like opening 39 and has its major edges 60 diametrically opposed to each other.
FIG. 5 illustrates a liquid discharge device 62 in which chamber 33 has an enlarged upper end portion 63 disposed wholly above the upper edge 46 of the outlet opening from the chamber. It has been found that the pulse action or reverberation effect described above is improved where the reverberation chamber is enlarged beyond that edge of the outlet open ing which lies remote from the chamber inlet opening. In device 62, chamber portion 63 is bounded by a shoulder 64 adjacent the remainder of chamber 33, the shoulder extending circumferentially of the chamber. It is within the scope of the invention, however, that the walls of chamber 33 may blend smoothly with the walls of an enlarged portion thereof, rather than discontinuously as over shoulder 64, but the pulse action where the enlargement occurs across a shoulder is better than where the enlargement is gradual from the area of the remainder of the chamber.
FIG. 5 as noted above, also depicts an outlet opening in the configuration of a slot aligned along the length of chamber 33. The provision of an enlarged portion of the reverberation chamber may occur with any configuration of chamber outlet opening and it is not required that the specific outlet opening configuration shown in FIG. 5 used whenever it is desired to enlarge the portion of the reverberation chamber remote from the chamber inlet opening.
An industrial aerating liquid dischargenozzle 66 according to the present invention is shown in FIG. 12. This nozzle includes a body member 29 and a discharge directing shield 48 having opposite open ends 49 and 50 as described above. The body member is secured directly to a liquid supply duct 67 by a suitable union 68 so that the portion of the duct adjacent the union and the body member are generally coaxial. The configuration and dimensions of the reverberation chamber within the body and of the inlet and outlet openings for the chamber may be any combination desired within the limitations and relations set forth above. ln nozzle 66, no manifold member 23 is required since positional adjustment of the nozzle relative to the liquid supply duct is not required. Nozzle 66 may be used to advantage in liquid sewage treatment plants, for example, for aeration of sewage, as well as in industrial water or other liquid cooling systems.
FIGS. 13 and 14 illustrate an aerating fountain nozzle 70 in which a plurality of discharge heads 71 are mounted radially of a vertically disposed water supply pipe 72 having a closed upper end 73, the supply pipe extending upwardly of a fountain pool 77. Each of heads 71 is similar to nozzle 66 and includes a body member 29 connected directly to the supply pipe and a discharge directing shield 48 having opposite open ends 49 and 50. The lower ends of shields 48 may be disposed in the water ofthe fountain pool; such installation produces a highly profuse fountain display. Like nozzle 66, the details of the body members and of the inlet and outlet openings from the reverberation chambers in the body members can be any desired combinations of details within the limits and relations described above.
The body members of the fountain nozzle preferably are disposed in a common horizontal plane. When water is applied under pressure to the nozzle, the several discharge heads function to discharge a plurality of aerated columns of water 74 upwardly of the nozzle, the columns being arranged in a circular array concentric to the supply pipe. The several columns cooperate to produce the effect of a single massive pillar 75 of white, aerated water of desired height and diameter. Such an effect is most desirable in a fountain which is to be operated during daylight hours when artificial lighting is not effective.
To minimize splash of water falling downwardly from the top of pillar 75, the upper end of the water supply pipe in nozzle 70 is fitted with a conical cap 76, as shown in FIG. 14.
The present fountain nozzle has several distinct advantages over more conventional existing aerating fountain nozzles. Existing aerating fountain nozzles rely upon precisely sized openings through which water must flow. lf the openings become clogged or eroded, the effectiveness of the nomles is impaired appreciably. Nozzle `70 does not rely upon precisely sized relatively small apertures and is thus essentially insensitive to the problems which occur with existing nozzles. Also, existing nozzles produce relatively large amounts of mist or fog, whereas the present fountain nozzle does not. Thus nozzle 70 may be used effectively in winds 4which would require discontinuance of the use of existing nozzles.
The discharge from nozzle 70 is more profuse when the lower ends of shield tubes 48 are below the surface of the fountain pool than when the shield tubes are wholly above the surface of the pool.
FIG. 15 depicts a fountain nozzle 78 which is like nozzle 70 except that shield tubes 48 are deleted.
A nozzle 80, suitable for use as a fire nozzle, is shown in FIG. 16 and includes a body member v29 defining an internal chamber with an inlet opening and an outlet opening 39, all in accord with the foregoing description. Adjacent the inlet opening to the chamber, the body carries a coupling 81 adapting the body for water flow connection to a fire hose 82. The other end of the body is connected to a support 83 which includes a crosspiece 84 and two spaced legs 85, The support is arranged to support the body at an angleto a floor 86 or the like so that opening 39 faces upward when the legs engage the floor, and to prevent the body from rotating about its longitudinal axis during use. If desired, the length of legs relative to the axis of the body may be made adjustable.
Nozzle 80 may be used to fill a room o r any specified space with a cloud of water to saturate the space. The nozzle maybe used to particular advantage as a fog nozzle in-fighting fires in structures by throwing the nozzle and its hose into a room. The nozzle than rests on the floor without attendance by a fireman to extinguish the fire, or to cool the room, sufficiently that firemen may then enter in relative safety to further combat the fire in the same or an adjacent room. The feature that the nozzle can be operated at high water pressures without attendance by a fireman, and still stay where placed, is most desirable. When placing the nozzle, the fireman is enveloped in a protective shroud of water discharged from the nozzle.
A nozzle of the type exemplified by nozzle 80 was connected to a source of water under a pressure of p.s.i.g. and used to extinguish a roaring bonfire in between two and three seconds, and the nozzle can be used effectively at even higher pressures. It is believed that the exceptionally high degree of aeration present in the discharge of the nozzle is the reason why the nozzle is so effective for fire fighting purposes. Also, it is particularly noteworthy that, for the purposes of placement, one man can handle the fire nozzle very easily at the pressure mentioned, whereas three men find it difficult to control a conventional fog nozzle at the same `applied water pressure. The nature of the discharge from nozzle 80 allows the fireman to approach much closer to a fire than is desirable or safe when using a conventional fire hose nozzle.
The structure of nozzle 80, when operated at lower water pressures, say in in the range of from 5 to 30 p.s..g., produces a discharge like that of nozzles 70 and 78 and can be used as a fountain nozzle if desired.
Nozzles in accord with this invention may be made of any material e desired, depending upon the nature of the liquid handled by the nozzle. Where water is the liquid of interest, the nozzle may be made of plastic, such as polyvinyl chloride, so as to be resistant to erosion and corrosion.
Preferably the inlet opening to the reverberation chamber of a nozzle according to this invention is formed through an end wall of the chamber, as shown in FIG. l. lf desired, the inlet opening may be formed through a sidewall of the chamber adjacent an end of the chamber; such arrangement does not result in as pronounced a pulsation in the discharge characteristic as when the inlet opening is through an end of the chamber.
For good pulsation and aeration of the discharge from a device according to this invention, the inlet end of the reverberation chamber should be spaced at least one-half chamber diameter from the proximate edge of the chamber outlet opening. Nevertheless, the portion of the reverberation chamber between the outlet opening and the chamber end remote from the inlet is more significant to the production of a pulsating, and thus aerated, discharge than the portion of the chamber between the outlet opening and the chamber inlet end.
As noted above, the length of chamber 33 between end surfaces 34 and 35 must be at least equal to the diameter (or mean transverse dimension of the chamber where the chamber has a noncircular transverse configuration) for the desired pulsation to be produced in a device according to this invention; this requirement must coexist with a. larger chamber outlet opening than inlet opening. Freierably the length of the chamber is greater than the diameter of the chamber.
The present invention has been described above with reference to specific structures in furtherance of an explanation of the invention relative to presently preferred embodiments thereof. ersons skilled in the art to which the invention pertains will appreciate that modifications and variations may be made in the structures described without departing from the scope of the invention. Accordingly, the foregoing should not be regarded as limiting the scope or" the invention.
l. A liquid discharging device arranged to discharge liquid introduced thereto as discrete droplets, 'the device comprising a body defining an inner chamber having ends spaced from each other by the length of the chamber, the length ofthe chamber being at least as great as the mean transverse dimen sion ofthe chamber, an inlet opening to the chamber nearer to one end of the chamber than to the other end and having an area equal to a minor portion of the mean transverse cross sectional area of the chamber, an outlet opening through the body laterally of the chamber, the outlet opening being spaced from the ends of the chamber so that the chamber has a portion thereof between the other end thereof and the edge ofthe outlet opening proximate to said other end, the minimum area of the outlet opening being greater than the area of the inlet opening, the maximum dimension ofthe outlet opening in a direction transverse to the length of the chamber being substantially no greater than the maximum dimension of the outlet opening in a direction along the length ofthe chamber, and means for connecting the body adjacent the one end of the chamber to a source of liquid to be discharged.
2. A device according to claim i wherein the inlet opening is formed through the one end of the chamber.
3. A device according to claim 2 wherein the inlet opening consists of a single aperture through the one end of the chamber.
4. A device according to claim i wherein the chamber, in a plane normal to the length of the chamber, has a circular configuration.
5. A device according to claim l wherein the cross-sectional area of the chamber transversely of the length thereof is constant along the length of the chamber.
6. A device according to claim d wherein the chamber has a first portion extending from the one end thereof toward the other end of first average cross-sectional area and a second portion of greater cross-sectional area extending from the first portion to the other end of the chamber.
7. A device according to claim o wherein thejunction ofthe chamber first and second portions is der'ined by a shoulder lfacing the other end of the chamber.
b, A device according to claim 6 wherein the outlet opening lies wholly within the length ofthe chamber first portion.
9. A device according to claim E wherein the extent of the outlet opening along the length ofthe chamber is greater than the extent of the opening transversely of the length ofthe chamber.
10. A device according to claim i wherein the chamber has a right, circularly cylindrical configuration between the ends thereof, and including a discharge directing shield mounted to the body about the outlet opening for confining the liquid discharged from the outlet opening to movement in a predetermined direction from the body.
il. A device according to claim wherein the shield is a hollow member open at opposite ends thereof and is mounted to the body to extend normal to the length thereof, the shield being mounted to the body to be centered with the center of area or the outlet opening.
A device according to claim 2li including a liquid supply duct having a closed end, a plurality of said bodies mounted to the supply duct adjacent the closed end thereof for communication of the inlet openings thereof` with the interior of the supply duct, the bodies being disposed relative to the supply duct so that the outlet openings thereof face in a common direction.
A device according to claim l1 including means ,med to the shield for adjusting the discharge directing opere on of the shield upon liquid discharged from the outlet i A device according to claim 13 wherein the adjusting means comprises a collar slidably mounted to the hollow member adjacent the end thereof toward which the body outlet opening faces.
i5. A device according to claim 14 including a hollow manifold member having an open end and a closed end, the body being mounted to the manifold member with the inlet opening thereof in communication with the interior of the manifold member, the body being disposed relative to the manifold member so that the outlet opening faces away from the open end of the na manifold member, and means for coupling the manifold member open end in liquid-tight relation to a fluid flow ball fitting for angular movement relative to the fitting.
i6. A device according to claim l including a liquid supply duct having a closed end, and a plurality of said bodies mounted to the duct adjacent the closed end thereof with the body inlet openings communicating to the interior of the duct and with the outlet openings thereof oriented to discharge liquid in a common direction beyond the duct closed end.
i7. A device according to claim 1 including a support member connected to the body member for supporting the body on a floor and the like with the body member angled slightly from a position parallel to the floor and with the outlet opening facing upwardly, and for preventing angular move` ment ofthe body about an axis along its length.
lli. A liquid discharging device arranged to discharge liquid introduced thereinto as discrete droplets, the .device comprising a body defining an inner chamber having ends spaced from each other bythe length of the chamber, the chamber having a first portion of first average crosssectional area extending from one end of the chamber toward the other end thereof and a second portion of greater cross-sectional area extending from the first portion to the other end of the chamber, the length ofthe chamber being at least as great as the mean transverse dimension of the chamber in said first portion, an inlet opening to the chamber nearer to the one end thereof than the other end and having an area equal to a minor portion of the cross-sectional area of the chamber first portion, an outlet opening through the body laterally of the chamber spaced between the ends of the chamber and having a minimum area greater than the area ofthe inlet opening, and means for connecting the body adjacent the one end of the chamber to a source of liquid to be discharged.
A device according to claim 1.8 wherein the outlet open- .ing lies wholly within the elongate extent of the chamber first portion.
$59. A device according to claim i8 wherein the chamber 'irst portion is of constant cross-sectional area in planes normal to the eiongate extent thereof.
12?.. A device according to claim 20 wherein the chamber first portion is of right circularly cylindrical configuration.
A device according to claim 20 wherein the junction between the chamber first and second portions is defined by a shoulder facing the chamber other end.
A device according to claim 22 wherein the shoulder extends circumferentially of the chamber.