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Publication numberUS3548064 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 15, 1970
Filing dateDec 15, 1966
Priority dateDec 15, 1966
Publication numberUS 3548064 A, US 3548064A, US-A-3548064, US3548064 A, US3548064A
InventorsOncley Paul B
Original AssigneeOncley Paul B
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Control system for organs and similar musical instruments utilizing memory storage of desired stop combinations
US 3548064 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent Inventor Paul B. Oncley 17833 3rd Ave. SW, Seattle, Wash. 98166 602,050


US. Cl 84/1.01, 84/l.03, 340/174 Int. Cl Gl0h 1/00 Field of Search 84/1.01, 1.03; 340/174CT SET PULQE GENERATOR BLOCKING PULSE GENERATOR HMPLIFIER [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,255,292 6/1966 Park 84/1.03 3,339,189 8/1967 Lee 111 340/174CT 3,358,068 12/1967 Campbell 84/1.03'X 3,360,787 12/1967 Chang et a1... 340/174CT 3,383,452 5/1968 Park et a1 84/1.03

Primary Examiner-Herman Karl Saalbach Assistant Examiner-Saxfield C hatmon, Jr. Atl0rneySamuelson & Jacob ABSTRACT: A control system for organs and similar musical instruments of the type having a plurality of tone producing elements wherein a memory matrix of multiple aperture cores serves as a prestored memory of tone combinations which will drive the desired stops to a preset combination on command of the performer.


sumanra TATE. 40

63 I l I n HI PULSE F m SOURCE M|||-1 SET I g SET INTERROGRTE PHASE 55 61/ GENERQTOR 62/ -02. PULSE INVERTER sHnPER 45 QMPLIFJER L 48a 46' IMF? 426g 1 jgih AMP 48a /RMPL|FIER INVENTOR PAUL. B. ONCLEY CONTROL SYSTEM FOR ORGANS AND SIMILAR MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS UTILIZING MEMORY STORAGE F DESIRED STOP COMBINATIONS My invention-relates to a control system for musical instruments, and in particular to an improved means for controlling the selection of stops on keyboard instruments such as organs. Such means are often called combination actions".

Pipe organs commonly have a number of ranks or sets of pipes controlled by mechanical, pneumatic or electrical devices known as stops". In musical performance it is frequently necessary to change a large number. of these stops simultaneously, and various systems have been developed to provide for prcsetting specific combinations of stops, which can subsequently be called forth by pressing a lever or pushbutton, usually referred to as a combination piston, combon", or, simply, piston". Such systems, or combination actions, have used various mechanical, pneumatic or electromechanical means for storing this information and for moving the stops to their preselected positions, but all such systems in the past have'had disadvantages such as excessive size, noisy operation, wear of moving parts, expense, complexity of manufacture, and so on.

It is accordingly an important object of my invention to provide a simple and economical stop combination action which is very compact, quiet and Iong-lasting,'witl1 few moving parts.

It is a further object of my invention to provide a means of storing the preselected combinations of stops in a memory system which can readily be mountedwithin the available console space in even the most complex instruments, and means of driving the stops quietly to their preselected positions on a single command. J

Other objects, features, uses and advantages of my invention will become apparent during the course of the following description. I v

The operation of my invention will best be understood by referring to the accompanying drawingswhich form a part of this application, and in which like numerals are used to designate like parts throughout the same.-

FIG. 1 is a representation of a typical pipe organ console in which my invention is employed; and

FIGS. 2, 3 and 4 are simplified schematic diagrams, illustrating various embodiments of my'invention.

In the drawings wherein for purposes of illustration are shown preferred embodiments of my invention, the numeral designates a pipe organ console generally. It should be clearly understood, however, that this invention may be applied equally to electric or electronic organsand pianos of various types, reed organs, harmoniums, accordions, harpsichords, and other musical instruments where simultaneous manipulation of a number of separated controls is desired.

In FIG. I, the numeral 11 denotes the stop control devices or, more simply, stops" which are used to modify the timbre of the organ. These may be of various. e.g., such as drawknobs, tilting tablets, tilting key-levers, etc., and 44ranks of pipes, coupler mechanisms, tremulants, 332, other tone producing parts of the instrument; all of which are well known in the art and the details of which are not Four Numeral 12 denotes the combination pistons, combons, or, simply, pistons by which preset combinations of stops may be called forth. These may-be in the form of pushbuttons mounted columns the slips directly below the manual keyboards, where they are readily operated by the thumb or finger, or they may be switches near the pedals and operated by the foot, commonly called toe-studs". Switch 13 is an additional switch or pushbutton which is actuated when it is desired to set a new arrangement of stops into the combination action memory.

FIG, 2 shows a preferred embodiment of my invention wherein multiaperture magnetic memory cores of the transfluxor" type are used. The operation of the transfluxor is described in technical literature egg 1. -A. Rajchman and A. W. Lo, Volume 44, Proc. I.R.E., pages 321-332, Mar. 1956;

lation there may be several hundred arranged in a matrix of vertical columns associated with the combination piston switches 21 which are operated by the pistons 12 of FIG. I, and of horizontal rows associated with stop controls 11 of FIG. I. These stop controls are operable both manually and electrically by means of electromagnets'26 and 27, arranged so electromagnet 27 turns the stop on" and electromagnet 26 turns it off. The stop control also operates the switch contacts 22a and 22b, where 22a is shown in the position with the stop on, and 22b with the stop off. Means, usually mechanical or electrical, of controlling the pipes or other mechanisms from the stops are not shown in the FIG., but are familiar-to those versed in organ building and design.

To set up or store a combination of stops, the desired arrangement of stops is selected and set switch 13 is depressed, transferring contacts 28 to the set position. The desired piston 12 is then pressed while set switch 13 remains down. Piston 12 closes contacts 21, with one contact pair applying power from source 33 to the blocking pulse generator 29,

which in turn sends a pulse through the large or block-set hole of the transfluxors in the chosen vertical column, forcing them into the so-called blocked condition. A few milliseconds later this pulse emerges from the delay circuit 30 and triggers the set pulse generator 31. The set pulse is of opposite polarity and weaker amplitude,and it is apparent from FIG. 2 that it flows twice through the transfluxors in the chosen vertical column which are alsoin a horizontal row whose stop switch contacts are in the on position as at 220, but not more than once through. any other transfluxors. The amplitude of the set pulses is so chosen that they will set" or partially demagnetize the cores through which the-current flows twice, but because of the rectangular hysteresis loop of the magnetic material of the transfluxors, it leaves ,in the blocked condition all cores traversed only once.

When the various pistons or vertical columns are set up as desired, set control 13 and its associated contacts 28 are returned to the normal" position. When the operator wishes to call on this memory matrix to drive the stops to one of these preset combinations, he simply depresses the desired piston 12 closing contacts 21 thereby energizing interrogate pulse generator 32 which sends a bipolar train of pulses into the smaller or interrogate-read" holes of the transfluxors in the chosen vertical column. In all trzinsfluxors of this column which had previously been left in the setor partially demagnetized condition, passage of this-pulse train causes an output signal to be passed through amplifiers 23, rectifiers or threshold selectors 24, and into relays 25,- Meanwhile, operationof switch 21 has also closed relay 34, so power source 35 is connected through the electromagnets 27 which in turn move the preselected stops to the on position.

At the same time the interrogate pulse from 32 also flows in those transfluxors of the selected column which had been left in the blocked" condition. Because of the characteristics of the transfluxor, however, no appreciable output appears in the horizontal circuits of these transfluxors or through the corresponding amplifiers 23 and rectifiers 24, so these relays 25 are left unoperated. Hence the current from source 35 flows via relay 34 into the electromagnets 26, causing these stops to go into the off position if they were on previously. The relays indicated by 24 and 34 may be'replaced by functionally equivalent solid state circuits and devices familiar to those versed in the art. The matrix formed by the stop and piston cirl27, Jan. I961). Four of these transfluxors, denoted by the numeral 20, are shown in FIG. 2, but in a representative instalcuits may also be divided in such a manner that certain pistons control only a certain group of stops, such as those related to one manual or division of the organ.

FIG. 3 shows an alternate embodiment of my invention using memory storage cores of the type called biax which have two holes orthogonally disposed in a rectangular parallelepiped. Four of these cores 41 are shown arranged to symbolize a matrix of vertical columns corresponding to pistons, and horizontal rows associated with stops. Setting up of stop combinations is accomplished as has been previously described. The stops are manually moved to the desired arfrom generator Sl to flow simultaneously through both holes -;of the biax cores in the selected column. The signal levels are {adjusted so that no change is made in the remanent flux of ":cores in which current flows only in the horizontal row cirguits, but in those cores through which current flows in both therow and column circuits, the remanent flux is oriented in a Qhi'anner depending ,on the direction of flow of the current in 'thehorizontal row, and hence by the position of the reversing witches 42aand 42b.

-.-' After settingup. the pistons, switch 52 is returned to the normal position by releasing set control 13. When it is desired to command the stop switches to take their j-preselected positions, one of the pistons l2 is pressed closing a itch 44. Operating through diode gates 54, this actuates the p' ar pulse train source 40 by closing the circuit from power 'r'ce 53 These pulses, properly shaped and regulated in inrogatepulse shaper 43, ,pass through the biax cores in the chosen column, generating an output signal in each of the asiated amplifiers 46. As a result of the magnetic flux orient on in the biax cores, however, the polarity of the output signal is dependent on the previous direction of the current in the horizontal row and hence the previous position of the particular switch 42. This .output polarity. is determined by a ase- 4in !ivc demodulator or by an arrangement of gates and47b as we haveshown in FIG. 3, .where the gating gnal,.in the case of gate 4712 comes directly from the pulse sourcefill, and in ,the caseof gate47a ,comes from pulse source 4 l by way of phaseinverter 45. Hence, only one ofthe eutput amplifiers48a or 48b is activated, and current flows an in either electromagnet 49 or 50 depending on the prestoredinformation in the cores 41. As in the embodiment of FIG. 2, these electromagnets drive the stops to their preselected positions.

$516. 4 shows a third and more general embodiment of my invention inwhichmemory storage devices may be any desired. form of ferromagnetic or ferroelectric memory devices, such assingle aperture magnetic cores, cells of a monolithic, memory block, crystals of barium titanate, crystals of barium-strontium titanate and'similar elements. As in the earlier embodiment only four elements are shown, but it is understood that any number of columns (representing pistons) and rows (representing stops) maybe employed.-Set signal generator 62, properly designed for the chosen memory elements, is actuated by placing the two sections of switch 64 in the set""position and then closing the desired piston switch 66. ,The setting signal output level is sochosen, however, that the memory element is not switched to store a 1 unless one ofthe switches 65, operated by the stop mechanism 11, is also closed. After the combination pistons 66 are properly setup in thismanner, setting switch 64 is returned to the Normal position. I I

The performer can now command the stops to take their desired positions by closing a selected piston switch 66, allowmg the interrogate signal to flow in the memory elements of t elected column. An output flows into sense amplifier 67 those. cores in which a logical 1 has been previously stored. This output properly amplified turns on trigger circuit 7i which'may be alocking relay, silicon controlled rectifier, thyratron or other equivalent device. This in turn permits current tofl'ow in solenoid 69, attracting the armature of stop control lever 11 and placing it in the on position. lf the output is notpresent from the memory element 11, since a logical if: was not stored, the trigger circuit 71. is not actuated, but by. means of inverter 70 the complementary trigger 71a is activated, causing current to flow in solenoid 690, which drives the stop control lever 11 to the off position. If the memory element is of the type frequently designated destructive readout", the process of interrogation erases the stored information in the memory elements 61. If this is the case, an additional restoring circuit 68 is required for each stop. This operates like the set signal generator 62 to restore the 1 condition in those memory elements in which a l was stored before the interrogation, using the coincidence of current in both row and column circuits. Certain other power supply circuits, denoted generally by 53, and pulse control circuits will also be required, but their nature will be dependent on the type of memory elements chosen and are of the type well known inthe art.

As we have previously noted, although the embodiments here described have been shown in relation to a pipe organ, my invention is equally applicable to other musical instruments such as electric and electronic organs, electronic pianos, harpsichords, carillons, accordions, and the like. Other embodiments and variations will also be apparent to those versed in the art, suchas using other'types of magnetic cores, plates, thin film memories or ferroelectric storage devices to accomplish a similar purpose. I do not wish to be limited to the specific examples herein described, for obvious modifications will occur to those skilled'in the art without departing from the spirit of my invention or the scope of thesubjoined claims.

I claim: 1. A system for positioning the stop controls of organs and similar musical instruments comprising:

a matrix having at least one row and one column of memory cells formed of ferromagnetic or ferroelectric material; an input circuit associated with each row of the matrix and a selector therefor which upon actuation provides approximately one-half the flux necessary to set the memory cells in that row to their on" position; an input circuit associated with each column of the matrix and a selector therefor which upon actuation provides approximately one-half the flux necessary to set the memory cells in that column to their on" position;

an interrogate circuit associated with each column of the matrix and a selector therefor which upon' a'ctgation memory cells which had been previously set to *on" by the coincidence of flux supplied by both the row input circuit and'the column input circuit;

an output amplifier associated with each row for amplifying the output pulse from any memory cell in the row which had previously been set to on by the coincidence of flux supplied by both the row input circuit and the column input circuit and which had been actuated by the interrogate circuit;

a stop control switch; and

an electromagnetic solenoid associated with each row connected to the output amplifier and to the stop control switch such that the output pulse actuates the solenoid to thereby drive the stop control switch tothe desired position.

2. The invention of claim l wherein the memory cells are nondestructive readout, multiple aperture cores.

3. The invention of claim 1 wherein the memory cells are nondestructive readout cores of the transverse axis type.

4. The invention of claim 1 wherein the memory cells are single aperture cores and including a feedback circuit connected to the stop control switch to restore the memory status of the cores after destructive readout. I

5, The invention of claim l'including a combined control selectable to two positions whereby the column input circuit selector and the column interrogate selector for the same column are operated by the said combined switch.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3659488 *Oct 9, 1970May 2, 1972North American RockwellCapture combination system
US3686994 *Apr 19, 1971Aug 29, 1972Damon CorpOrgan stop memory circuit
US3699839 *Oct 9, 1970Oct 24, 1972North American RockwellCapture combination system
US3737775 *Nov 10, 1971Jun 5, 1973Grundig EmvAnalog storage arrangement using transfluxor
US3828643 *Feb 20, 1973Aug 13, 1974Chicago Musical Instr CoScanner for electronic musical instrument
US3865002 *Dec 28, 1973Feb 11, 1975Pioneer Electric CorpAutomatic performance system for electronic instruments
US3926087 *Oct 4, 1974Dec 16, 1975Griffis Steven WComputerized organ registration affecting system
US4006658 *Jan 26, 1976Feb 8, 1977D. H. Baldwin CompanyOrgan capture action
US4178828 *Jul 29, 1977Dec 18, 1979Henschen Lawrence JComputerized unit organ relay
U.S. Classification84/343, 365/140, 984/340, 365/194
International ClassificationG10H1/24
Cooperative ClassificationG10H1/24
European ClassificationG10H1/24