US 3548840 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent  lnventor Henri Baumgartner Bernex, Switzerland  "AppLNo. 678,901  Filed Oct.30, 1967  Patented Dec.22, 1970  Assignee GallaherLimited a British Company  CIGARETTE SMOKING MACHINES 6 Claims, 9 Drawing Figs.
 11.8. 131/171, 73/28; 119/17  Int-Cl A24l'1/00, A24f13/l0 [50} Fleldol'Search 131/171, 172,175, 178,179, 182;73/23,28; 119/17, 1
[ 56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,864,400 6/1932 Berger 131/179UX 2,228,216 l/1941 Morgan 73/28X 2,293,225 8/1942 Terrill 131/172X 2,573,695 8/1951 Siens 131/182X 2,776,662 1/1957 Widrich 131/175 OTHER REFERENCES Pge. 45 of Booklet, Dont Let Smoking Kill You, by Clarence W. Lieb, M.D. Published by Bonus Books Inc. of 122 E. 42nd St. New York, N.Y., 1957, copy of Pge. 45 in 131 171;Bookletin 131- 1.
Primary Examiner-Joseph S. Reich Attomey-Holcombe, Wetherill & Brisebois ABSTRACT: An automatic cigarette smoking machine having a smoking head with a ring of cigarette holders which is rotatable about a vertical axis. The holders are each formed at the end of a separate smoke duct the other end of which registers in turn with a vacuum port as the head rotates so that puffs of smoke are drawn through cigarettes mounted in the holders in turn. A ring of animal cages is mounted on the head and rotates with it and a series of gas ducts lead one to each cage. A gas distribution system draws the puffs of smoke through the cigarettes and distributes the smoke to the gas ducts.
PATENTED [M22 1970 SHEET 6 [1F 6 Inventor R S F m m m m MM U w MB E .H
CIGARETTE SMOKING MACHINES The invention relates to automatic cigarette smoking machines which are used to produce smoke for animal inhalation experiments.
Known machines for this purpose consist of tubular cigarette holders connected to a common manifold or to separate vacuum pipes so that in use air is drawn continuously or at intervals through cigarettes mounted in the holders and into a collecting chamber. When thechamber is full of smoke, it is coupled with a number of animal cages and the-smoke is fed to animals in the cages for inhalation. This arrangement may be unsatisfactory because the machines are bulky and there may be no accurate control of the manner in which the cigarettes are smoked so that the smoke products may bear little resemblance to those produced by human consumption of cigarettes. Furthennore, the smoke products are extremely susceptible to chemical changes on standing and the inevitable delay between production of the smoke and its being fed to the animals means that the animals do not inhale the same smoke products as would be inhaled during human consumption of cigarettes.
The object of the invention is to overcome these disadvantages and in accordance with the invention, a cigarette smoking machine comprises a smoking head, means continuously rotating said smoking head about a vertical axis, a ring of cigarette holders mounted on said head for rotation therewith and extending substantially radially outwards therefrom, parts of said head defining smoke ducts therethrough one in communication with the interior ofeach holder, a vacuum port adapted to register in turn with said smoke ducts upon rotation of said head, a ring of animal cages mounted on said head for rotation therewith, a series of gas ducts leading one to each cage, and a gas distribution system including means for applying a vacuum to said vacuum port to draw puffs of smoke through said cigarette holders in turn, and means for distributing said smoke to said gas ducts.
The simple expedient of mounting the animal cages on the rotating smoking head enables the machine to-be designed'in acompact manner and also ensures that the smoke when produced is fed directly without any delay to the animal cages and is inhaled by the animals whilst still fresh and substantiallyunaged.
In order that comparative experiments may be made between the inhalation of smoke and the inhalation of other gas borne pollutions such as carbon particles and benzpyrene, the gas distribution system preferably further comprises means selectively adapted to distribute other gases than smoke to said gas ducts. For example, experiments may be carried out in which the smoke produced from the cigarettes is fed to the animals either directly or after dilution with air. Alternatively gases adulterated with aerosols of liquid droplets or dust particles may be fed to the cages for inhalation.
Further objects, features and advantages of the invention will be apparent from'the accompanying drawings which illustrate an example of a machine constructed in accordance with the invention and in which:
FIG. 1 is a plan with parts omitted;
FIG. 2 is a partial section taken on the line IIII in FIG. 1;.
FIG. 3 is a'perspective detail view of a cigarette butt'length sensing device;
FIG. 4- is a view similar to FIG. 3but during a later stage in the operation of the device;
FIG. 5 is a detail section taken on the line'V-V in FIG. 1;
FIG. 6 is a detail section taken on the line VI-VI in FIG. 1;
FIG. 7 is a detail part elevation, part section taken on the line VII-VII in FIG. 1, showing a cigarette charging mechanism;
FIG. 8 is a circuit diagram illustrating the operation of the machine; and
FIG. 9 is a schematic view similar to FIG. 7 showing the machine connected to collect condensate.
As may be seen in FIG. 2, the illustrated machine comprises a base frame 110 which is mounted on a base board 111, as
shown in FIG. 2. A circular smoking head 112 is mounted on top of the frame and is continuously rotated in a clockwise direction as seen from above in use by a motor 113 through a spindle 114 which passes up through the frame 110 through a seal 115. The head 112 is slidable onto the spindle 114 and is keyed to it, the weight of the head 112 being supported during the rotation by means of three carbon pads 116, 117 and 118 (FIG. 1), and a carbon ring 119 (FIG. 2), all of which form stationary slide surfaces.
As seen in FIGS. 14 a ring of 30 equiangularly spaced cigarette holder 120 are screwed into the head 112 and the interiors of the holders communicate with separate smoke ducts 121 which open to smoke ports 122 in the lower surface of the head, which ports are arranged in a circle about the spindle 114. Each of the holders 120 incorporates in its entrance a flexible annular rubber disc or washer 123 through which a cigarette 124 may be'pushed into the holder 120, the washer 123 then forming a seal against the cigarette.
A central aperture 125 in the pad 116 forms a vacuum port and is radially spaced from the spindle 114 by a distance equal tothe radius of the circle of smoke ports 122 so as to register with one or another of said smoke ports, depending on the angular position of the head 112. The vacuum port 125 communicates through a vacuum duct 126 to a constant volume pump 127 arranged to discharge into the line 176 toward the line 176' as seen in FIG. 8, which is driven by an electric motor 128 and continuously evacuates the duct 126. The head 112 is rotated at a rate of one revolution per minute and as each smoke port 122 passes over the vacuum port 125 in turn, a 2-second puff is taken through a lighted cigarette in the corresponding holder. The smoke from all the cigarettes is sucked through the constant volume pump 127 and fed to a gas distribution system shown in FIG. 8 along the lines 176, 176'. Between puffs the smoke ports open into a chamber 130a, provided with vents 130b, formed between the head 112 and base 110' to enable the cigarettes to smoulder freely at atmospheric pressure.
A unitary ring of 30 animal cages 131 are, except for separate removable panels 132, fabricated as a unitary structure from plastic material with duct ring 134. The duct ring has an inner frustoconical surface 134' which rests on a complementary frustoconical surface 112 at the edge of the head 112. A glass plate 133 which overlies the cages and forms an ashtray mounted with its inner peripheral. edge 135 resting on an annular shoulder 136 at the radially outer edge of the head 112. In this way the plate 133 and structure of the cages can be readily lifted off the head and replaced and, when the head is rotated, they will rotate with the head.
' Each cage 131 is divided by a baffle 137 into a body compartment 138 and a nose compartment 139. The baffle 137 is formed with a central aperture 140 so that when an animal such as a hamster 141 is confined within the cage 131, its nose will be caused to extend through the aperture 140 into the compartment 139.
The duct ring 134 is providedwith a ring of similar gas and exhaust ducts 142 and 143 (FIG. 1) in its conical surface 134', one gas duct and one exhaust duct leading into the nose compartment 139 of each cage. When the cage structure is correctly mounted on the head 112, each gas duct 142 in the duct ring 134 communicates with a corresponding gas duct 142a in the conical surface 112' of the head and is sealed to it by a flexible washer 144 in the form of a strip wrapped around said surface 112' and glued to it, holes in said strip being provided in register with the ports at the ends of the ducts 143a and 142a. Similarly each exhaust duct 143 in the duct plate 134 will communicate with and be sealed to a corresponding exhaust ducts 142a in the head. The gas ducts and exhaust ducts 142a and 143a in the head open respectively into inner and outer concentric rings of ports 14211 and 14312 in a downwardly facing annular surface 146 of the head 112 which sweeps over the carbon ring 119. The ports at the ends of the gas ducts 1420 are in register with discontinuous inner circular channel which is formed in the carbon ring and which is divided by lands into U-shaped grooves 147, 148 and 149, best seen in FIG. 1, with which each port remains in communica tion with for periods of 54 seconds, 4 seconds and 2 seconds, respectively, during each revolution. It will be appreciated that the radius of each port and the width of each land is such that a port moves into communication with the next groove immediately after leaving a previous groove. In a similar manner the ports at the ends of the exhaust ducts 143a are in register with a discontinuous outer circular U-shaped groove or channel 150 which is formed in the carbon ring 119 and which is broken by only one land 151 the grooves 147, 148, 149 and 150 are covered by the surface 146. An inner tubular collector 152 extends around beneath the frame 110 and is connected to the groove 147 at intervals by connections 153. There is a similar outer tubular collector 154 which is connected at intervals to the groove 150 through connectors 155. The collectors 152 and 154 are coupled to the gas distribution system as shown in FIG. 8.
The gas distribution system and the arrangement of the grooves in the carbon ring 119 enable a wide variety of experiments to be conducted. They allow smoke or air polluted with smoke, aerosols, or dust, to be supplied to the nose compartments 139 of the cages for chosen periods of time, and for the cages to be flushed out with fresh air. The essential controls for the system are two manually rotatable spindles 156 and 157 best seen in FIGS. and 6, which control separate rotary rotary multiposition valves 158 and 159 having carbon valve members and which are mounted in a valve block 160 secured to the bottom of the frame 110. The spindles have extensions fixed to the rotary cores of multiposition valves 165 and 170 so that the air selector valves 165, 170 are controlled simultaneously with the operation of the valves 158 and 159. The valve 159 allows the passage of smoke received from the vacuum duct 126 through the pump 127 and the lines 176, 176', airborne aerosol received from aerosol injector 181, or airborne dust received from dust injector 179, to pass to the upper valve 158 which directs the gas to one or other of the grooves 147, 148 or 149, the former through passage 174 and the collector 152.
As schematically illustrated in FIG. 8, the operation of the gas distribution system is as follows. An ambient air blower 161 draws air through a filter 162 and supplies it through a pressure regulator 163 and fiowmeter 164 which measures the rate of flow to the upper air selector valve 165 which as described above is controlled simultaneously with the upper multiposition valve 158 by the spindle 156 so that their rotary cores assume the same angular orientation. The spindle 156 has two positions spaced 90 apart and the spindle 157 has three positions, a central position, and anticlockwise and clockwise positions displaced 90 from the central position. When the upper spindle 156 is in its anticlockwise position, polluted gas reaching the multiposition valve 158 through a line 166 from the valve 159, (which receives said gas from either the vacuum duct 126 through the line 176, 176', or the aerosol injector 181 or the dust injector 179, depending on the position of the spindle 157) is directed through a duct 167 to the 4-second groove 148 and and through a line 174 to the collector tube 152 and hence to the 54 second groove 147. At the same time the air reaching the air selector valve 165 from the blower 161 is directed through lines 168 and 169 to the lower air selector valve 170. If the upper spindle 156 is in its anticlockwise position the gas reaching the valve 158 through the line 166 will be directed along a duct 171 which leads to the 2-second groove 149. At the same time air reaching the upper air selector valve 165 will be directed along a pipe 172 and a duct 173 (FIG. 6) directly into the 54-second groove 147.
When the lower spindle 157 is in its central position, and this is the most usual position of operation, with the machine smoking cigarettes, smoke will reach the lower multiposition valve 159 from the vacuum duct 126 through a line 176 from the constant volume pump 127 and the smoke will pass along the line 166. At the same time the lower air selector valve 170,
if receiving air along the line 169 will direct this air along a line 177 into the line 166. When the lower spindle 157 is turned in a clockwise direction, air received by the lower air selector valve will be directed along a line 178 through a dust injector 170 and a line 178' and the dust-polluted air will pass through the multiposition valve 159 and into the line 166. Similarly, when the lower spindle 157 is turned to its anticlockwise position, air received at the air selector valve 170 will be directed along a line 180 through an aerosol injector 181 and a line 180' and the aerosol-polluted air will pass through the valve 159 into the line 166.
It will be appreciated that dustand aerosol-polluted air can only be injected simultaneously into the 4- and 54-second slots because it is only when the multiposition valve and air selector valve are in the position that air is supplied to the lower air selector valve for use in carrying the dust or aerosol back to the upper valve 158. However in practice this is quite sufficient.
A suction blower 182 continually draws air from the collector 154, and hence polluted air from the cages, through an electrostatic filter 183, a cotton filter 184, and a fiowmeter 185.
The valves 165, 170, the injectors 179, 181, the passage 174, the blower 161, the filter 162, the regulator 163, etc., are shown only in FIG. 8 in order to avoid complicating the other views. The specific locations of these elements is not material to the present invention and may be selected according to convenience.
Although the machine may be used for inhalation experiments with dustand aerosol-polluted air which is injected into the cages by the gas distribution system through the inner discontinuous ring of grooves, and the gas ducts 142 and 142a without the need for cigarette smoking, the more usual use of the machine is either to collect smoke condensate, through a duct 130 otherwise sealed by a cap 129, for painting experiments, or for inhalation experiments in which smoke or smoke-polluted air, is fed to the animals 141 in the cages 131. In the former case when the machine is required for analytical work and condensate production (FIG. 9), the pump 127 is removed and the opening 126 blanked off with a sealing plate 300. A vacuum device 301 is applied to the trapping device, e.g. cold trap, which is connected through 301 to the duct 130.
There are two smoke inhalation experiments which are proving extremely useful.
The first experiment is known as direct smoking" and involves inhalation of pure fresh smoke by the animals for short period in each cycle. For the rest of the period they breathe fresh air. Direct smoking is achieved by setting the upper and lower spindles 156 and 157 in their clockwise and central positions respectively. In this configuration smoke is directed through the lines 176, 176' and 166 to the duct 171 and hence into the second groove 149. Nothing is directed to the 4- second groove 148 but fresh air is directed through the line 172 into the 54-second groove 147. Each animal therefore receives pure smoke for 2 seconds in every minute followed by 4 seconds in which no gas is received and 54 seconds in which fresh air is received. Throughout the whole cycle air is drawn from the cages through the exhaust ducts 143 and 143a, the outer discontinuous groove 150, and the collector 154.
The second experiment is known as indirect smoking" for this experiment the lower spindle 157 is set in its central position and the upper spindle 156 is set in its anticlockwise position, in this configuration smoke is directed along the lines 176, 176 and 166 where it is mixed with air directed along the lines 168, 169 and 177. The mixture of fresh smoke and air is directed by the valve 158 through the ducts 167 and 174 and collector 152 into the 4-second groove 148 and the 54-second groove 147. The animals therefore receive a supply of smoke laden air for 58 seconds in every minute.
A valve 209 is included in the line 176 and, upon operation, directs the smoke drawn by the pump 127 into a branch line 210 for sample analysis for a period of 2 seconds before automatically reverting to its straight through position. In this way a sample can be taken quickly without disturbing any of the experimental control settings.
When the machine is to'be used for smoking cigarettes to produce smoke, the holders 120 are loaded with cigarettes 124, the butts of smoked cigarettes are ejected, and the holders are recharged with new cigarettes all automatically. The butt sensing and cigarette charging and lighting devices are supported from an overlying carrier 206.
The butt sensing device is positioned at the-angular position marked S (FIG. 1) and consists of a support-ing bracket 186 (FIGS. 3 and 4) which is mounted on the carrier and carries at its lower end a cantilevered rod 187. Freely rotatably mounted on this rod 187 are inner and outer coaxial tubes 188 and 189.
The innertube 188 carries at one end a switch contact 190' and at the other end a rider 191 in a position to be engaged by the ring of holders 120. The outer tube 189 carries at one end a switch contact 192 and at the other end a rider 193 in a position to ride over the cigarettes 124 adjacent to the holder 120. The riders 191 and 193 act as counterweights and tend to rock the tubes 188 and 189 so that the riders drop to the lowermost positions. When the riders 191 and 193 are inaxial alignment with one another in the lowermost position the switch contacts 190 and 192 are separated. As the head 112 rotates, the cigarettes in their holders successively pass the butt sensing device and the riders 191 and 193 ride at the same time over the holders 120 and the cigarettes 124, thus maintaining the switch contacts 190 and 192 apart. However when a cigarette has burnt down to a short butt length'the rider 191 will continue to rider over the holders 120 but the rider 193 will brush through the ash at the burning tip of a cigarette and fail to be lifted. This will causerelative rotation between the tubes' 188 and 189 and will bring the switch contacts 190 and 192 together completing an electrical circuit, and producing a signal. As the holder and cigarette butt, which caused the butt sensing device to be actuated, moves onto the angular position E, the signal causes a solenoid operatedvalve to open alca] axis, a ring of cigarette holders mounted on said head for lowing a pulse of air pressure to pass through a duct in the base 110 similar to the duct 126, through to; a central aperture 194, forming a pressure port, in the carbon pad 118. At this time the port at the end of the smoke duct leading to the holder carrying the butt to be ejected will be in register with the pressure port 194 and the pulse of airpressure will be directed to the holder and will blow the burnt cigarette butt out of the holder.
A new cigarette charging device is positioned at the angular position C. The charging device consists of a hopper 195 from the bottom of which cigarettes are discharged between rollers 196 positively driven by a motor 197, to a charging station 198 where they are pushed by an electropneumatic piston P, (FIG. 7) into an empty holder 120 in register with the angular position C. The device recognizes an empty holder photoelectrically by means of a sensing mechanism supported from the carrier 206. This consists of an annular dish 199 having in its side wall a number of slots 200, one corresponding to each holder 120. The dish 199 is rotatable on a spindle 201 and is urgeddownwards by a spring 202 so that a disc 203, attached to the bottom of the dish, lies against and is keyed by projections 204 to a disc 205 which is screwed to the head 112. In this way the dish 199 rotates with the head and the slots 200 are in alignment with the holders 120. A stationary lamp 207 shines through each slot 200 as it passes the position C. If the corresponding holder is empty, the light shines on a photodiode 208 which produces a signal to trigger the charging mechanism. If the holder is not empty, the cigarette in the holder interrupts the light beam and the photodiode 208 is not energised.
The new cigarette is lit as it reaches the angular position L, that is the smoking position where a pufi is taken through the cigarette. At the position L a continuously burning flame F, (FIG. 2) is situated. The, flame F is supplied through a gas pipe P and a burner B supported by a bracket B. The flame has a thin substantially planar configuration and is sitioned at a tangent to the cm: e traced on by the tips of resh cigarettes so that a new cigarette will be lit by the flame but in subsequent cycles the flame will not significantly heat the tip of the burning cigarette as the cigarette passes the position L.
lclaim: l. A cigarette smoking machine comprising a smoking head, means continuously rotating said smoking head about a vertirotation therewith and extending substantially radially outwards therefrom, parts of said head defining smoke ducts therethrough one in communication with the interior of each holder, a vacuum port adapted to register in turn with said smoke ducts upon rotation of said head, a ring of animal cages mounted on said head for rotation therewith, a series of gas ducts leading one to each cage, and a gas distribution system including means for applying a vacuum to said port to draw puffs of smoke through said cigarette holders in turn, and means for distributing said smoke to said gas ducts.
2. A machine according to claim 1,'wherein said gas distribution system further comprises means selectively adapted to distribute other gases than smoke to said gas ducts.
3. A machine according to claim 1, including a first stationary slide surface, parts of said first slide surface forming a gas port adapted to be supplied with smoke by said gas port adapted to be supplied with smoke by said gas distribution system, a first annular surface of said head adapted to sweep over said first slide surface as said head is rotated, and parts of said first annular surface defining first openings leading to said gasducts which first openings are positioned to be brought successively into communication with said gas port upon rotation'of said head.
4. A machine according to claim 3, including a second stationary slide surface, parts of said second slide surface defining an exhaust port therein, there being. a number of exhaust ducts in said head leading one from each cage, a second annular surface of said head, parts of said second annular surface defining second openings therein leading to exhaust ducts whereby said second openings are successively brought into communication with said exhaust port upon rotation of said head, and said gas distribution system further comprising means for selectively providing suction to said exhaust port for drawing gas through said exhaust ducts from said cages.
5. A machine according to claim 4, wherein said first and second slide surfaces are formed by parts of a common slide surface, each of said ports being in'the form of a circumferentially extending groove.
6. A machine according to claim 1,wherein said ring of animal cages are provided by a unitary plastic assembly adapted to fit over and around said head, parts of said plastic assembly defining radial partitions therein dividing said assembly into separate cages.