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Publication numberUS3550657 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 29, 1970
Filing dateNov 29, 1968
Priority dateNov 29, 1968
Publication numberUS 3550657 A, US 3550657A, US-A-3550657, US3550657 A, US3550657A
InventorsRoy L Swanke
Original AssigneeDynamics Corp America
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Homogenizing liquidizer
US 3550657 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent Inventor Roy L. Swanke Newington. Conn.

Appl. No. 7 780,103

Filed Nov. 29, 1968 Patented Dec. 29, 1970 Assignee Dynamics Corporation of America, Waring Products Division New Hartford, Conn.

a corporation of New York HOMOGENIZING LIQUIDIZER 25 Claims, 17 Drawing Figs.

U.S. Cl. 146/68, 146/227: 259/1 Int. Cl 1302c 18/08 Field ofSearch 146/68.1,

227; 259/1 (Vibrators-Sonic Digest) [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,021,119 2/1962 Van Der Burgt 259/72 FOREIGN PATENTS 586,273 11/1959 Canada.

Primary ExaminerWillie G. Abercrombie Attorney-Harbaugh and Thomas ABSTRACT: A liquid blending container is releasably held with its wall in snug-resiliency, vibration-transmitting relationship with a supersonic transducer and is provided with a combination of propeller and cutter blades rotated through a selfinterlocking detachable coupling and selectively controlled either to run below liquid aerating speeds for homogenization or within the aerating speed range for sequential or simultaneous homogenization or heat, and aeration and liq uidization.





. wrrcues C3) 0 STOP OFF BUTTONS FIG. IO

FIG. i2


HOMOGENIZING LIQUIDIZER CROSS REFERENCES MASSA application, Ser. No. 589,665, now U.S. Pat. No. 3,464,672; SWANKE'et al. application, Ser. No. 766,280 Filed Oct. 9, 1968; BULL application, Ser. No. 508,309, now U.S. Pat. No. 3,440,438.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Heretofore liquidizers operate in a speed range whereby the cutters mechanically comminute solids and mechanically aerate liquids at a rate for dual cutters within a range of 300 to 700 blade sweeps per second. Even at these high speeds the cutters fail to comminute some small particles within a given time, particularly before other possible and sometimes undesirable characteristics are developed in the mixture. Moreover, the cutters cannot stir for complete mixing at their lowest speed without changing the physical characteristics of solids desired to remain solids, as in soups and the like, and, in many cases the cutters do not comminute finely enough at high speeds, nor provide a fine aeration or dispersion of great duration whether it be an emulsion or suspension.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION An object of the invention is to provide a unitized apparatus with demountable container which will mix, chop, grate, beat, puree, grind and shake most commercially known ingredients; comminute hard and soft edible articles to coarse or fine grade; grate and clean vegetables and fruits; stir or homogenize soups; whip cream and egg whites, mix dry ingredients, grind" coffee, corn, wheat or rice, either wet or dry and disperse, homogenize, aerate portable liquids against subsequent separation with or without solids both hard and soft; shake drinks; puree foods, homogenize mayonnaise; cream sauces; mix and homogenize with enduring results powdered milk, salad oils and liquids; and, perform each of these separately or in combination simultaneously; and after use, with the addition of a liquid cleaner, clean and keep clean the moving parts or implements used.

The present invention principally provides for homogenizing, liquidizing and blending food products in which these processes may be performed sequentially or simultaneously within the same container in which liquid may be circulated with or without aerating it. The walls of the container are preferably approximately circular and pliable enough to transmit supersonic vibrations induced by'an economical highpower supersonic transducer whereby the energy waves have a concentrated effect centrally upon the liquid for homogenization for a selected time at a selected frequency, and, in timed relation with respect thereto if desired. Furthermore, the circulation of the liquid may be increased for aeration, or decreased after aeration for mixing, with or without solid elements added for homogenization, comminution or liquidization.

Although these steps of homogenizing and liquidizing are sequentially made possible with the present invention, particularly in a timesaving relationship for the housewife without a change of containers, the invention also contemplates accomplishment of the steps simultaneously with any degree of the overlapping of the steps as desired for culinary results.

Moreover, as the liquid is being mechanically aerated, the ultrasonic waves assist in further comminuting the entrapped air bubbles since they are subjected at their liquid interfaces to rapidly repeated compression-cavitation cycles induced by the transducer in the liquid close to the wall of the container as it circulates along the container wall under liquidizing and aerating conditions. More particularly, although the effect of the supersonic waves otherwise transmitted centrally across the container through unaerated liquid is substantially ,and gradiently reduced by the presence of air in the aerated liquid or by the presence of an aerating vortex at the center, this leaves the waves induced at the wall dominant. Thus, the effect of the transducer on the liquidas localized at the wall hydraulically moves the liquid mixture inwardly against a diminished return force from the remote wall and when the back stroke of the adjacent wall occurs a cavitation effect comminutes the air pockets contiguous thereto with a fine dispersion greatly assisting the liquidizer blades in homogenizing the air contents of the liquid and thereby providing an aeration of great fineness and duration within time limits that are favorable for the best liquidizing results desired.

The invention also contemplates that after desired homogenization, or aeration, or both, have been attained, then any solids can be added and liquidized to any degree of comminution desired to leave appreciably sized solids in the mixture for tactual and muscular sensations, such as those which occur with munching, for taste perception complexes along with smoothness, temperature and olfactory sensations as well as primary chemical sensory stimulations.

For instance, without limitation but by way of example, oil and vinegar may be placed in the container, condiments added including a nonsoluble ingredient such as coarse, ground pepper, and the mixture homogenized during mild circulation. The pepper is comminuted for improved spicing, the oil can be finely dispersed to particles in Brownian movement, and the mixture can be aerated for creamy fluidity. Thereafter, herbs and semisolid garden vegetables like celery chunks, can be added and liquidized to a desired coarseness or fineness as desired. The end product is a superior dressing to be poured over the contents of a salad bowl.

The invention also contemplates the use of sonic processing transducers utilizing radial oscillations of polarized, tubular shell ceramic transducers made of such material as lead zirconate titanate. Magnetostrictive vibrators may also be used when adapted to a container structure as hereafter described.

A further primary object is to provide an economical and highly efficient transmitter of resilient elastomeric material which not only has the transducing shells therein bonded to the elastomer but the elastomer is in an annular form for concentrating the supersonic waves and also releasably supports the container in its working position with respect to the rotary cutters. The intimate vibration transmitting relationship is located near the bottom of the container for processing minimal amounts of fluids. Over this area there is a substantially circular pliant wall of metal containing nickel for strength which is engaged in supported as well as supersonic wave transmitting relationship.

A further object is to provide an efficient low cost, sonic processing apparatus having a cup-shaped container whose liquid contents are excited by radial vibrations through its wall to concentrate sonic energy with liquid present inside the contamer.

The invention is further characterized by a continuous sonic processing of a large body of fluid whose volume exceeds the sonic field for timed accuracy by repeatedly passing the fluid progressively through the highly concentrated and efficient vibrating field and in contact with the vibrated walls of the container for homogenization of nonrnissive fluids.

The novel characteristics of this invention also include a control arrangement in which either one or all of the process steps are controlled and timed quite accurately for uniformity of results. The novel organization, operation and other and further advantages of the invention will be understood best from the following description of the embodiment illustrated in the accompanying drawings in which:

IN THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a homogenizing-liquidizer embodying the invention and showing the locations of the respective elements for the convenience of the operator.

FIG. 2 is a schematic showing of the electrical circuit employed with the apparatus shown in FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is a perspective view similar to H6. 1 illustrating another embodiment of the invention utilizing multipushbutton speed control switching.

FIGS. 4A and 4B are perspective views of the disengage posts of the improved self locking coupling employed in both embodiments for nonvibrationary drive to avoid audible secondary vibrations when homogenizing.

FIGS. 5 and 5A are longitudinal sections of two embodiments of self locking engaged coupling members when operating at liquidizing speeds.

FIGS. 6 and 6A are enlarged longitudinal sectional views as taken on line 6-6 of FIG. 3 to show two embodiments.

FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional view taken on line 7-7 of FIG. 6.

FIG. 8 is an electrical schematic of a representative circuit preferably used in the present invention.

FIG. 9 is a chart of seven fixed speed selections showing the permutations of switches shown in FIG. 8.

FIG. 10 is diagrammatic representations of the multiple pushbutton switch sliders, including four permutation sliders represented by one, as located for operation by two rows of pushbuttons as related to homogenization control.

FIG. 11 is a section taken through the slider shirt of the tworow button switch shown in FIG. 3 for a better understanding of its operation, and

FIGS. 12 and 13 show the construction of the pushrods shown in FIG. 11 in two alternate positions, FIG. 12 showing a pushbutton being actuated, and FIG. 13 the pushrods in resting position, and

FIG. 14 is a vertical sectional view through another embodiment of the invention in which the motor is above the container.

Referring more particularly to the drawings, wherein like numerals refer to like parts and to FIGS. 1 and 3, a removable container 10 is supported on top of the base unit 11 in a ring member 12 where a detachable coupling 13 (FIG. 6) connects rotary cutters 14 journaled in the container in driven relationship with a conventional universal high-speed electric motor 15 in the base unit 11. The base unit 11 comprises a housing 16 for the motor 15 and its control equipment which includes a timer and a speed control device. Considering generally the electrical control equipment of the devices illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 3 manually coordinated control functions including an SPST switch 18 (FIG. 1) for the transducer 20 carried by the ring 12 and an infinitely variable triac or dual SCR speed control 21 are shown in FIG. 1. A multiple switch 23 having pushbutton 22 is shown in FIG. 3.

The motor 15 is supported within the housing 16 between upper and lower perforate plate members 24 and 25 that essentially support the motor and marginally support the housing 16 by screws 26 and 27. The securement to the motor frame is accomplished by threaded elements 28 to provide a unitary assem bly.

The upper plate 24 has large air flow ports 32 adjacent to its outer edges within a marginal bell-shaped flange 33 which overhangs the upper edge of the housing 11 to provide an air inlet opening 34 directing air to the ports 32. The upper plate by which air entering ports 32 is drawn through the top of the tubular housing member 31 surrounding the motor and ports and forced downwardly out the bottom thereof through a grill 38 in the bottom plate 25. A baffle 40 extends between the housing wall 16 and the motor housing 31 to confine the air to the path of flow described.

The major part of the forced air entering the ports is directed upwardly in its turbulence. The housing is enlarged on one side of the motor as at 35 and has a front opening 36 that is closed with an inclined closure panel 37 upon which the control equipment is mounted.

The housing is essentially a decorative covering for the motor and has at its end the lower plate already noted which is supported on a plurality of legs 41 disposed symmetrically around the edge of the plate 25 adjacent to the sidewall portions of the housing to providespace for air movement away from the grille 38. The base ends of the legs 41 receive foot pads 42, suitably formed of rubber or other resilient friction material for sound absorption as recessed to receive the screws 27.

CONTAINER SUPPORT RING Secured to the upper plate 24 and covering the air openings 32 is the ring member 12 comprising a cup-shaped sonic processing cup 42 comprising an element of resilient material having sidewall43 and a bottom member 44 having an aperture 45 to receive the motor shaft 46 therethrough. preferably in a running semisealed relationship. The sidewall 43 is rounded at the top and terminally ends in a downwardly extending external apron 47 outwardly spaced from the wall 43 to leave a space 48. A transducer unit 50 is embedded in and against the radially external surface of the wall 43. The inner surface of the wall diverges upwardly and preferably has three or four internal vertical guide ribs 52 to receive the lower end of the container 10 and a lower internal flange 53 to support the lower end 54 of the container 10 in mating, nonrotative readily releasable relationship. The flange 53 tapers inwardly and upwardly so that its inner edge portion 55 initially engages the bottom 54 of the container to square its position and flexes downwardly appreciably to permit snug mating engagement between the container and the inner surface 51 of the cup 42. The resiliency of the elements 55 prevents vibration from shake-tightening the container against ready removable.

The wall 56 of the container engaging the inner surface 5 I is thin to transmit vibrations and is preferably alloyed with nickel for strength to withstand the vibrations transmitted to it from the resilient wall 43. The resilient wall 43 in turn is a comparatively thin wall of an elastomer hydraulically capable of transmitting supersonic vibrations. The thinness is concerned with transmission efficiency and is related to limiting loss in a vertical direction of supersonic waves transmitted in a radial direction.

TRANSDUCER DEVICE As more particularly described in said M ASSA application, the transducer unit may comprise a polarized, piezoelectric ceramic ring 60 between two electrodes 61 and 62. The ceramic ring may be ofa material such as barium titinate, lead zirconate titanate or any other similar material which is capable of being excited into radial vibration, sometimes referred to in the art as the circumferential mode of vibration, by the application of an alternating voltage.

In the illustrated example, the application of an alternating voltage to the ceramic element 60 is provided by the outer cylindrical electrode 62 which is comparatively thick for strength and an inner comparatively thin cylindrical electrode 61 which intimately engages the outside surface of the resilient wall 43. The inner surface of the ceramic ring 60 and electrode 61 is bonded to the outer wall of the cup wall 43 by a suitable layer of cement 63 which may be an epoxy film or other suitable adhesive. These electrodes are used for polarizing the ceramic element during its manufacture in the conventional manner.

Of importance in the economical manufacture of the transducer is the fact that the transmitting wall 43 receiving the container is pliable and may be deformed easily to fit the exact contour of the ceramic ring 60. Because of this, the ceramic ring need not be ground to precise dimensions to achieve a secure mechanical contact through the cement layer 63. In the assembly of the transducer unit, to achieve the reliable bond between the outer wall and the inner surface of the ceramic ring 60, a tool, such as a thick rubber cylinder with recesses simulating the shape of the container bottom is placed within the opening of the cup 42 and squeezed by suitable means such as a mechanical clamp so that outward radial pressure is exerted on the inside wall of the cup 42 to deform the wall 43 into the exact contour of the inner surface of the wall to snugly receive the metal container 10. When the bonding is completed, the pressure tool is removed and perfect acoustical coupling is achieved at low cost without machining the inside surface of the ceramic cylinder. Prior to bonding the ceramic element 60 to the wall 43 of the cup 42, electrical conductors 64 and 65 are soldered respectively to the surfaces of the electrode surfaces 61 and 62.

In the presentvinvention, a further advantage of using an elastomer material, such as polybutadine, for forming the wall 43 is that the wall remains remarkably ,free of defects which are caused by cavitation at the cup surfaces during operation and the material, being liquid solid, transmits hydraulically with minimum loss of power, is quite durable, and shapes itself to the wall of the container. e

if desired, the fundamental advantages of this invention can be secured with other transducer elements such as t a laminated, magnetostrictive metal alloy shell, of a material such as nickel, having a suitable torroidal excitation winding, The combination of the ceramic ring 60 and the pliable wall 43 forms the basic transducer structure.

The bottom 44 of the transducer'cup 42 rests on the upper plate 24 securedto the motor in weight bearing relationship upon radiating air flow control vanes 66 to which they can be bonded.

For cooling purposes it will be observed that the supersonic transducer 50 is open to the circulation of the air between the vanes 68 in the member 67 as it enters ports 32 therebelow. Moreover, the transducer is electrically shielded from operator contact. I r

For the purpose of supporting the'transducer against outward pressure exerted by the container when being inserted and removed, the outer electrode, being a metal ring, protects against expansion and this ring is received in supported relation by a molded thermos'etting plastic member 67 having a plurality of angularly spaced radially directed vanes 68 on a finishing wall 70 engaged by the apron 47. The inner edges 71 of the vanes engage the outer electrode 62 in bracing relation that includes shoulders 72 vertically supporting the whole transducer assembly as a unit. The member 67 and molded ring can be integrally assembled, if desired,- with the cup 42 and transducer ,50 already in place.

Within the enlarged housingspace 35 as secured by screws 73, the base plate 25 supports the electronic oscillator and power supply 74, which may comprise conventional circuitry, and the conductors 64 and 65 are connected to the switching control 23 which will be later described.

When the electrical power supply is activated and the ceramic ring 60 is driven at its radial mode resonant frequency, intense, sonic energywill quietly be transmitted into any liquid within the container when it is located in place within the ring, and although one transducer has been found to be adequate for homogenizing food products, more than one transducer may be provided if desired, spaced vertically.

CONTAINER Considering now the container 10 in further detail, it is preferably provided with a handle 75 above the transducer 10. A liquidtight seal between the cap and container is provided by a resilient gasket 83 that is compressed between the lower inturned peripheral'edge 84 of the-container and the bottom of the closure. The external diameter of the closure is less than the minimum diameter of the tapered wall 51 of the transducer 20 and the container immediately above the closure edge is enlarged as at 85 to the minimum working diameter of the transducer wall for an intimate mating relationship for the transmission of the supersonic waves. The bottom wall ofthe closure is offset upwardly as at 85 to clear the coupling 13 and support the cutter blades 14.

The cutter blades 14 are mounted on the driven shaft 86 that is journaled in the bottom wall of the container or closure and the sharpened blades are alternately arranged in pairs. Two diametrically disposed blades 87 qreprovided with a slight pitch to serve not only as cutters, but also to function at slow speed to draw liquid centrally downwardly in the container and exhaust it downwardly and outwardly without aeration to circulate it upwardly along the wall of the container 10 with a swirling action for homogenization by the supersonic waves transmitted through the wall 56.

The propeller effect of the blades at a speed below aeration circulates the liquid in the container progressively and repeatedly through the zone of sonic vibration concentration for whatever period of time is required to achieve the desired results from the sonic processing. The preferred speed of the cutters for mild circulation is between 2,000 and 3,000 rpm. which with the moderate pitch at the ends of two of the blades will circulate even a small quantity of liquid without aeration if submerged. i

For this purpose the cutter blades 87 are rigidly supported on the upper end of the shaft 86 by an acorn nut 88. To secure the blades against turning with respect to the shaft, the sides of the shaft are machined flat at 90 and the blades are provided with flat sided mating holes 91. The shaft 86 in turn is journaled in a sintered sleeve bearing 92 press fitted in the bushing 93 and the bushing is swaged in an opening 94 in the bottom of the container 10. To prevent leakage along the shaft 86 a close fit is maintained between the bearing 92 and the shaft 86 and hydrostatic pressure of the liquid on the bearing is removed during operation of the device-by a bell or cup 95 provided beneath the blades' which projects downwardly over the top of the bushing. This bell turns with the blades and helps centrifugate the liquid intoc'ontact with the container wall. Moreover, the cup 95 serves as a diving bell to trap a pocket of air at the upper end of the bearing under resting conditions when liquid is present to keep the liquid from contacting the bearing as much as possible. Furthermore, the shaft is made of stainless steel and the bearing of brass to eliminate rust and corrosion. Preferably, the cutters are located at approximately the level of the ultrasonic field of concentration where the blades are also kept clean by the ultrasonic waves.

It will be observed that abovethe wall area 56 contacted by the tapered surface 51 of the ring 12 the wall of the container cross-sectionally is enlarged and changes gradually into a clover leaf shape (FIG. 1) for a twofold reason. The enlargement is desirable enough and the cross-sectional shape is moderate enough that liquid in the container at liquidizing speeds of the cutters will swirl up on the sides of the container as impelled by the cutters to provide a vortex centrally of the container from which air canreach the revolving cutters to aerate progressively the liquid present in the container.

DRIVE COUPLINGS The drive shaft 46 of the motor and the driven shaft 86 car- 'rying the cutters are substantially coaxial in operation and releasably connected by a vnovel compact interlocking couplingwhich has been provided to prevent separation when the motor is running particularly with a light container in place or a heavy torque load being-transmitted. Reference is made to FIGS, 2 and 3 in which the engaging members have centrally threaded metal members 96 and 97 to be received on the threaded opposing ends 98 and 100 of the two shafts 46 and 86 against shoulders 101 and 102 in drive relationship. The member 96 on the motor shaft is preferably all metal, defining spokes 103 whose leading faces are drive faces 104 disposed radially and whose outer ends are joined by a ring 105. Although a bottom wall is not essential, one is shown at 106 integral with the lower radial edges of the spokes and an annular flange 107 around its periphery is provided concentric with the ring. An expansion space 108 between the ring and flangeopens radially outwardly at the drive faces of the spokes. v

The other member 97 on the cutter shaft comprises an embedded metal plate 110 to which is bonded moderately resilient rubber teeth 11] which are circumferentially and angularly spaced and whose drive faces 112 are perpendicular to the plane of the plate 97. The trailing sides 113 are inclined to the drive faces to provide for easy engagement of the coupling members and to strengthen the teeth under torque loads. The circumferential periphery 114 of the teeth are loosely received within and extend below the ring 105 a substantial distance. Then when the coupling is revolving at liquifying speeds centrifugal force acts upon the rubber teeth and they stretch or expand outwardly into the expansion space 108 below the ring. This assumed relationship interlocks the two elements a long as they interdrive at liquifying speeds and this interlock holds the container from being flipped upwardly by any possible rearward inclination of the drive faces induced by the torque.

Another embodiment is shown in FIG. A in which the all metal spoke members 103A have a circumferential ring 105A but not bottom wall and are novelly cast with the downward draw of the male die enlarging the spaces between the spokes downwardly and particularly outwardly as at 115. The resting shape of the teeth are shown in FIG. 6 and in FIG. 5A in dotted lines 116 in which they easily clear the spokes 103A and ring 105A for engagement. The outer portions of the teeth adjacent their tip ends centrifugate outwardly into the spaces 115 to provide the coupling interlock at high speeds for the purposes explained. In this embodiment the further advantage is attained in that the upper edges of the spokes are at a slightly acute angle to engage the teeth at their roots without deflecting them as in conventional arrangements which tend to cam the couplings apart under torque. Moreover, the centrifugal interlocking prevents disengagement creep under sonic vibration and torque.

ELECTRlCA L CONTROLS Referring now to the electrical control of the apparatus as illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 8, it will be appreciated as already mentioned that for manually coordinated control functions an SPST switch 18 for the transducer 50 and an infinitely variable triac speed control will provide the primary functions desired. However, it is also desirable to avoid possible mistakes and uncertainties for the housewife by providing labeled pushbuttons 22 for correct speeds and exact periods of time as carefully prescribed in recipes. Such a control 23 as shown in FIG. 6 is described in said SWANKE et al. patent application for controlling liquidizer circuits such as the circuit shown in FlG. 9 herein.

a. Circuit The circuit shown in FIG. 9 is illustrative in which all field coils are preferably of the same length and coils C, D and E on the same field core pole are cowound. The resistance of coil B is matched by the resistance of coils C, D and E when they are permuted in parallel for the highest speed. Switches 2 to 7 are the switches operated by pushbutton controlled sliders in association with the main switch as more particularly described in said SWANKE et al. application for permutation of the stator coils C, D and E. Switches 1 and 8 control the current potential applied across the motor when the main switch 10 is closed. Switch 9 energizes the transducer 50.

The circuit is characterized by the three cowound coils D, C and E, of different wire gauge sizes being connected by switches 2 and 6 in series for the greatest effective resistance and the lowest speed for any given impressed current potential. The armature end X of the middle coil D is connected by two connections 117 and 118 through switches 5 and 4 respectively to like ends X of the other coils C and E for selective direct connection thereof to the armature in parallel relationship. The other like ends Y of the coils C, D and E are connected to one side of the AC power line L through the main switch 10. Coil E is connected directly to the switch 10 and the Y ends of the other coils C and D are connected by connections 119 and 120 through the switches 3 and 7, respectively.

The ultrasonic transducer 50 is connected by connections 64 and 65 across the AC power line L, and L in series with the main switch (10), the Homog" switch (9) and the timer switch T.

The current potential applied is controlled by solid-state back-to-back silicon controlled rectifiers 121 and 122 which is rendered conductive by a time delay signal network. The switch (1) and the S.C.R.s are connected in parallel with each other, and in series with field coil B by connection 126 on one side and by connections 127 through the timer switch T on the other side leading to the other power line L,. When switch (1) is closed the S.C.R.s need not be conducting.

Although a control network may be any desired variety, the one illustrated here comprises a resistor impedance 123 interconnecting the gates 124 of the two S.C.R.s to utilize their saturation reverse current as a source of signal current. The resistance is shunted in part by switch (8) at the tap 125. The value of the resistor 123 will determine the level to which the current voltage must rise before the rectifier will be rendered conductive. With the full resistance the rectifier will conduct shorter portions of the AC current cycle and the motor will receive less power and will run at a slower speed. Then when a portion of the resistance is shunted out by the switch (8) connected to the tap 125 the voltage will rise faster in the network, the rectifier will fire sooner, current will flow longer portions of the cycle and the motor will run at an increased speed. At the speeds under consideration, the rectifiers will fire during the decline of each wave form and will turn off" at zero potential when the cycles reverse polarity. The rectifiers under these conditions will run quite coolly.

The timer is a manually set electrical timer driven by half wave current provided by the diode 128. The timer is in series with the main switch (8) across the power line between L. and L through connection and the timer switch (9) is disposed in series with the main switch (10), the motor 15. and the solid-state control 21. in some, embodiments the timer switch T is connected in parallel with the main switch (10) for selective energization although it is preferred, as shown, that the housewife be able to set the time T and have the motor start when the main switch (10) is closed as when the speed selection is made by pushbutton, or, not have the appliance start until the speed is first selected and then the timer set and closed.

Thus, the circuit embodiment shown in FIG. 8 contemplates as shown in FIG. 3, eight pairs of pushbuttons 22 plus a STOP button for the control of the switches as per the graph in FIG. 9 in which seven pairs of pushbuttons permutate nine switches (1) to (9) and closes switch (10); the two buttons 22a of the remaining pair of pushbuttons controls switch (9) and also selects between two homogenizing speeds by alternate operation of switch (10); and, the STOP button opens the switches (10) and (9).

b. Switch Control If it is desired that the homogenizer be operated selectively for more than two speeds, then reference is made to said SWANKE et al. application for the multiple pushbutton slider arrangement in which another slider 136 indicated in FlG. 10 can be employed which is controlled by the pair of pushbuttons devoted to the l-lomog control. Pressing one button (HO ON) will energize the sonic transducer while pressing the other (HO OFF) will supplement the OFF button to deenergize the transducer without stopping the liquidizing until the OFF button is pressed.

For instance a multiple pushbutton switch 23 such as described in detail in said SWANKE et al. application is shown in cross section through the slider chest 131 in FlG. 11 as arranged for this purpose. The relative locations of the sliders and the double row of pushbuttons 22 driving partially overlapping pairs of L-shaped pushrods 134 is such that the outside sliders 132 and 133 provide for Low and Medium speeds and Hi speed, respectively, depending upon which row of buttons is pressed. The main switch (10) OFF" slider 135 and the homogenization switch (9) ON slider 136 are acted upon byboth rows of pushbuttons along with the four permutation speed control sliders 137.

the pushrods to actuate switch operating cam recesses 140 along the bottom for permuting the switches, only those being represented which are involved with the explanation of the invention. All of the sliders operate in a conventional manner to open normally closed movable connectors 141 (FIG. '11) of the switches indicated at 142. I

The OFF slider 135 is actuated by the STOP button to open the main switch (10) by the cam and elongated dwell 143. Pressing any other button closes the switch (10) by sliding any or all of the other sliders in switch (10) closing direction. g

The switch 8 is controlled by operation of the uppermost slider 132 shown in FIG, 10 and is opened when the homogenization button 22a is pressed. This opening of switch 8 provides the lowest speed desired and concurrently therewith the homogenization button also activates the Homog slider which closes transducer switch 9 by the withdrawal of the cam-dwell 145. Thus, pressing the homogenization button energizes the transducer at the lowest speed. If homogenization is desired at medium speeds, the medium speed buttons need only be pressed. The transducer remains energized. This could also be true with the high-speed row of buttons, but preferably the button 22a in the highspeed row that is paired with the Homog button is employed to deactivate the transducer by moving the high-speed slider to open switch 9 with the recess cam 146. The other high-speed discharges downwardly is inserted through the top 156 of the container and the transducer A is shown mounted upon a base 158 to engage the bottom 160 of the container where particles to be homogenized tend to collect.

The transducer 20A in this embodiment, for handling containers provides a low silhouette in that it is of a wafer construction. The polarized, piezoelectric ceramic member is a wafer 60A disposed between flat electrodes 61A and 62A and the upper electrode 61A is intimately bonded to the lower surface of the pliable elastomer wall member 43A upon which the container rests. The transducer is supported in a recess 162 on the base 158 and extends above the base to fit the bottom of a cup having a rim 164 around its bottom. Marginally around the transducer the wall member has integrally formed therewith upstanding members 12A to also receive and hold a variety of flat-bottom containers with their bottom wall in correct position on the transducer. With both types of containers the weight of the liquid contents and the downward thrust of the stirrer on the container contents holds the container bottom in intimate vibration transmitting contact with the transducer. p

The base 158 is enlarged at one side of the container as at 166 to receive the controls which may be the same and operationed as already described. The motor 168 is pivotally mounted on the column 170 secured the the enlarged base portion and is disposed over the top of the container by the arm 172 pivoted to the column at 169. A drive shaft 174 extending into the container drives the stirrer 154 affixed to its lower end. The stirrer comprises blades which can stir or aerate the liquid depending upon the controlled speed of the motor. When inserting or removing the container, the motor is tilted while the container is lifted to clear the members 12A and is then free to clear the base. i

It should be noted in this connection that notch cams can be provided anywhere and everywhere desired along the Homog slider as indicated in broken lines 147 in one of them whereby for any selected or all speeds, the transducer switch (9) can be turned off. Otherwise, until the STOP" button is pressed any speed can be selected for homogenizing and liquidifying until either the OFF button is pressed which resets the Homog to its OFF position or the timer switch T is opened.

I claim:

1. A homogenizing liquidiz er comprising a container,

having a sonic vibration transmitting wall portion for receiving liquid thereagainst;

a pliant element releasably and externally engaging the sonic vibration transmitting wall portion of said container contacted by liquid;

a vibrating electromechanical energy converting sonic transducer secured to said pliant element to generate vibrations directionally through said pliant member and wall portion into said liquid;

a stirring element for said liquid in said container in the path of the directional vibrations; and

means for driving said stirring element to move liquid over said wall portion in the path of said directional vibrations.

2. Thedevice defined in claim 1 in which said wall portion is the bottom of said container.

3. The device defined in claim 1 in which said pliant element is of dielectric material 4. The device defined in claim 1 in which said driving means is a variable speed motor selectively driving said stirring element at liquid aerating speeds and at nonaerating speeds, and said container means is shaped to control vortexing of the liquid while the liquid is swirled by said stirring element at aerating speeds.

5. The device defined in claim 1 in which said driving means includes releasable interdigitating elements comprising spokes carried by one element and resilient teeth intermeshing with said spokes in drive relationship carried by the other element.

6. The device defined in claim 1 in which said wall portion is a pliant circular wall section adjacent to the bottom of the container, said transducer is circular and in intimate contact with said wall section for directing vibrations into the liquid contents of the container with converging intensity.

7. The device defined in claim 1 in which said driving means includes a variable speed electric motor and back-to-back connected silicon control rectifiers in the motor control circuit, with their gates interconnected by an impedance, and a multipushbutton switch permutation electrical control for controlling the speed of said driving means including a switch varying said impedance in said connection between said gates.

8. In a device of the class described:

a container having an ultrasonic vibration transmitting wall portion near its bottom for receiving liquid thereagainst;

a pliant dielectric element releasably and externally engaging said wall portion;

a transducer means engaging said pliant element to generate directional vibrations transmitted through said pliant element and wall portion into said liquid;

stirring means in said liquid in the zone of said directional vibrations;

motor means;

a disengageable coupling interconnecting said motor means and said stirrer propelled by said motor means to move said liquid over said wall portion in the path of said directional vibrations;

said coupling comprising two rigid members coaxially mounted a spaced distance from each other upon said stirrer and motor means respectively; and

resilient means between said members for transmitting torque from the motor .0 the stirrer.

9. The device called for in claim 8 in which said one of said rigid members has angularly spaced spokes having axially extending faces circumferentially connected by a ring below which a circumferential space of a larger radius is provided between the spokes;

said resilient means is mounted on said other rigid member and includes axially extending angularly spaced pliable teeth received between the spokes in torque transmitting relationship with axial faces engaging the first mentioned axial faces; and

said teeth being free to move radially outwardly under centrifugal force into circumferential space within said ring to interlock below said ring against disengagement of said teeth and spokes under vibration.

10. in a device of the class described:

a container having an ultrasonic vibration transmitting wall portion in its lower portion for internally receiving liquid thereagainst;

a motor housing having spaced coolant air circulating openings therein;

a motor supported in said housing including an air circulating means for urging air through said openings along a predetermined path between the openings to cool the motor;

transducer moans nupported on lmld housing in generute untrunonlc tillOCiiOflUl vlbratlons;

a dielectric member on said housing relcasably and rearwardly engaging said wall portion of the container and outwardly being intimately engaged by said transducer means in vibration transmitting relationship; and

means supporting said transducer and dielectric member to define an air space around said transducer and having an opening in proximity to said path of flow to receive air from said flowing air to cool said transducer.

11. The device defined in claim in which said supporting means defines radiating vanes open to said opening and marginally engaging said transducer in supported relationship.

12. The device defined in claim 10 in which said transducer includes an electrode of a material having a high heat conductivity in contact with the air in said space.

13. The device defined in claim 11 in which said pliant member is cup-shaped and has inwardly extending resilient shelf portions below said transducer engaged by said container in resilient weight bearing relationship.

14. A sonic processing transducer comprising a metallic container having a round wall portion of varying external radii defining a space within the container to receive liquid;

a pliable ring intimately engaging said wall portion for holding said container against relative rotation;

a circuit radially vibrating electromechanical energy converting transducer bonded intimately to said pliable ring;

a stirring element in said container;

motor means for actuating said stirring element to move liquid in said container over the inner surface of said rounded wall portion;

said sonic processing transducer having an axial height less than its largest radial dimension; and

said stirring element in said container operating in a space vertically within said height of said transducer and overlapping said space in said container.

15. The device defined in claim 14 in which said motor means is a variable speed motor selectively driving said stirring element at liquid aerating speeds and at nonaerating speeds, and said container means is shaped to control vortexing of the liquid while the liquid is swirled by said stirring element at aerating speeds.

16. The device defined in claim 14 in which said driving means includes releasable interdigitating elements comprising spokes carried by one element and resilient teeth intermeshing with said spokes in drive relationship carried by the other element.

[7. The device defined in claim 14 in which said pliant element is of dielectric material.

18. in a device of the class described;

a container having an ultrasonic vibration transmitting wall portion near its lower portion for receiving liquids;

a variable speed motor;

means for varying the speed of the motor;

means in the lower portion of said container-operated by said motor for circulating liquid in said container internally over said wall portion; transducer means engaging said wall portion internally to 5 generate ultrasonic vibrations and transmit them to said wall portion; and means to energize said motor and transducer for simultaneous operation of the transducer and said motor to drive said liquid circulating means in cooperation with said transducer.

19. The device defined in claim 18 in whichsaid energizing means varies the electrical potential impressed upon said motor for selectively stirring and aerating said liquid.

20. The device defined in claim 18 in which said energizing means includes means for varying the frequency of the vibrations generated by said transducer from low homogenizing frequencies to frequencies inducing substantial heat in said liquids.

21. A sonic processing transducer device comprising a mclnl container having a wall portion at the bottom thereof for receiving liquid thereagainst;

a pliant element intimately engaging said wall portion for relative axial movement in readily separable relationship;

a vibrating electromechanical energy converting transducer intimately bonded to said pliant ring;

means for energizing said transducer;

means for controlling the frequency of the vibrations generated by said transducer to provide homogenizing vibrations and substantial heat inducing vibrations. 22. The device defined in claim 21 including means for stirring liquid in said container at speeds above and below aerating speeds.

23. A mixing device comprising a container for receiving a liquid therein;

means releasably supporting said container; a vibrating electromechanical energy convening sonic transducer means including a liquid stirring means and a dielectric member to transmit sonic vibrations;

said stirring means being operable with respect to the liquid and thereby the liquid movable with respect to the'transducer means to progressively change the liquid in contact with said transducer means and subject all of theliquidto sonic vibrations;

said container and transducer means being movable with respect to each other to remove the transducer and liquid from vibration transmitting relationship with each other; and

means for driving said stirring means at a controlled speed.

24. The device defined in claim 23 including means for controlling the frequency of the supersonic vibrations to. induce vibrations generating substantial heat in said liquid.

25. In a device of the class described;

a container shaped to control vortexing of the contents while liquid contents are swirling;

an untrasonic transducer means for directing vibrations intothe contents of said container;

means for liquidizing and swirling the contents of the container including a multispeed motor and rotating cutters disposed in the container and driven by the motor;

circuit means for controlling said transducer and motor including a switch for energizing said transducer and a plurality of permutation speed-change switches;

means controlled by said switches to selectively vary the current increments consumed by the motor for con: trolling its speed;

first pushbutton means for closing said transducer switch and actuating one of the other switches to minimize the? current increments consumed by the motor for a cutter speed below its aerating speed;

second pushbutton means for closing said transducer switch" and another speed change permutation switch for higher speed;

and said cutters stirring the contents of said container without aeration during the lowest speed.

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U.S. Classification241/199.1, 366/601, 241/282.1, 366/314, 366/127
International ClassificationA47J43/08, B01F11/00, B01F11/02, H02P25/14, A47J42/26
Cooperative ClassificationA47J43/085, A47J42/26, H02P25/14, B01F11/0225, B01F11/0068, Y10S366/601
European ClassificationB01F11/02D, A47J43/08C, A47J42/26, B01F11/00K, H02P25/14