US 3552401 A
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United States Patent Inventors Joseph B. Michaelson North Hollywood; Angie F. Criswell, 13203 Moorepark, Sherman Oaks, Calif. 91403 Appl. No. 769,771
Filed Aug. 14, 1968 Division of Ser. No. 294,706, July 12, 1963, Patent No. 3,483,289.
Patented Jan. 5, 1971 Assignee said Michaelson assignor to said Criswell SYNTHETIC NAIL STRUCTURE 7 Claims, 4 Drawing Figs.
US. Cl.... 132/73 Int. Cl A45d 29/00  Field ofSearch 132/73, 73.5,75.3, 88.7;424/6l;106/311, 155,156,195, 193
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,842,978 l/1932 Morton 106/193(1) 1,948,580 2/1934 Hucks 106/195 2,073,867 3/1937 Feigenbaum. 132/73 2,293,558 8/1942 Overholt 106/195 Primary Examiner-Louis G. Mancene Assistant Examiner-Gregory E. McNeill Attorney-White & Haefliger ABSTRACT: A solvent-permeable, supple and conformable synthetic nail structure which is differentially responsive to solvent and shaped for invisible securement to a human nail.
This application divided out of our copending application Serial No. 294,706, filed Jul. 12, 1963, now Pat. No. 3,484,289. i I
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field ofthe Invention This invention has to do with preformed nail overlay or socalled false nails, being structures which are adhesively or sol- 'vent-cement fastened to human nails for repair, concealment,
embellishment or lengthening of the natural nail.
2. Prior Art Application of synthetic nails is a common cosmetic e'xpedient despite the difficulties presentin currently procurable products. For the most part commercial synthetic nail strucwell where the nail structure is formed away from the nail and is later attempted to be applied. Small personal variations in natural nails preclude an exact design conformance with the natural nail and characteristic stiffness prevents real congruence between the synthetic and natural nail. As a result the synthetic nail is stressed'and may pop up after application and is most difficult to apply accurately in the first instance.
Relying as they do on thickness and stiffness, present synthetic nail structures leave a 'distinct edgeat their termination line. This may be temporarily satisfactory'where a full nail is applied but with time the normal growth of the nail carries this unsightlyedge outward across-the natural nail surface.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is a major objective of this invention to overcome the aforementioned problems of the prior synthetic nail structures. The invention is predicated on the major concept,
among others, of building a controllable formability into a synthetic nail structure through the use of differentially soluble components, one component comprising-particulate, relatively insoluble material and a second component comprising a relatively soluble, resinous film-forming material which acts as a matrix for the particulate'componenti I I 1 The inventive structures herein described are unique in providing in preferred embodimentsth'e translucent, nearly nacreous appearance of the natural nail deriving from their protein content and the flexibility in bending acconl'modation of pressures that is normally associated with the natural nail deriving fromthefilm-forming carrier component. These attributes moreover are provided in a nail structure which may be formed in a manner to preferentially dissolve edgewise from its inside edge during solvent application toa natural nail whereby the commencement of the synthetic nail on the natural nail is not apparent.
In particular, the present invention provides a synthetic human nail comprising a thin, elongated and transversely concave structure having supple conformity to'akhuman nail and comprising a carrier component and a differently soluble particulate component distributed therethrough providing the structure with differential response to solvent whereby'the structure is solvent-permeable and solvent application thereof to a human nail locally solubilizers and partially reforms the structure to close" conformance withthe human nail.
Ultimately such local solubilization may be carried to complete disintegration ofthe edge portions of the synthetic I nail as in structures which are tapered in theirnonn'al inward tion of a surface coating to the adhered trail, with the latter terminally reshaped.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring to FIG. 1, solvent-cement coating 10, which may be compounded in accordance with any of the hereinafier given exemplary solutions or otherwise, is applied to the sub face of the natural nail l1 and allowed to set for a time that may be upward of one minute. l
The false nail 12, which may be preformed by molding, stamping or anyother suitable manner, is then applied to the surface of the true nail as illustrated in FIG. 2. By reference to FIG. 3 it will be observed that the inner end extent of the false nail is longitudinally tapered at I3 to a fine or sharp edge at 14 so that the inner terminal of the overlay presents, in effect, a gradually enlarging continuance of the natural n'ail surface to a degreepresenting no readily discernible inner termination of the overlay. For this reason it is unnecessary that the false nail be preformedto fit or extend to the cuticle 15, and there are advantages in not doing so because of benefits in such exposure of the natural nail and the fact that the overlay 12 is intended primarily to be an extender initially-projecting at 16 and beyond the natural nail. The presence of the overlay remains essentiallyindistinguishable throughout growth of the natural nail until ultimately the overlay may no longer remain desirable or have become filed away.
After adherence to the natural nail, the-overlay and natural nail may be surfaced using a second coating 17 which may or may not correspond with the base coating 11, and which may or may not be tinted for polishing, or used as a base for a selected enamel orfinish polish. All three coatings 10, 12 and 17 preferably are of essentially the same basic composition in dried condition, although proportions, solvents and coloring, when included, may be varied. As a consequence, there is a basic sameness in the three layer compositions contributingto their integrability as well as their compatibility with the natural nails.
The invention structures use. albuniinoids in the class of animal proteins'which are resistant to various solvents including salt solutions, dilute acids and alkalis and the like. Such alburninoids include keratin obtained from hair, horn, hoof and general purpose is to impart to the coating, necessary strength,
body, hardness, polishability,adhesiveness and in general the total of those physical properties required for success of the composition in an or all of'its" coating usages.- Suitable earner materials are found in the general class of water-insoluble celedge portion toa degree permitting solubilization of thecarrier resin throughoutthe edge portion.
The carrier or matrixcomponent is resinous and organic-: solvent soluble and is film-forming from solution. Thepa'rticulate-distributed component may be proteinac'eous and is in soluble in the carrier solvent used in practicing the invention. Proteinaceous' materials may have an average particle size between about 20 and 400 US. mesh.
lulosic derivatives and water insoluble'nati 'ral and synthetic resins. The properties of celluldsit: derivatives, such as low" order of toxicity, ease of use-and low cost, render therr'i par ticularly desirable as bodying materials. 7 J I These cellulosic' derivatives are prepared from thec'ellulose molecule by est'e'riflcation; etherificatiomxanthation, addition substitution, and oxidation of the hydroxyl groups; or by" degradation reaction including hydrolysis, oxidation, and decomposition..lt is therefore possible" to produce a wide variet'y of simple or complex compositions which by solution in suitable solvents become useful as protective coatings which harden in films primarily by solvent evaporation.-
Examples of usable cellulose derivatives are as follows: cellulose nitrate (nitrocellulose-formed by direct nitration with nitric acid; cellulose acetate-formed by action of acetic anhydride on cellulose; methyl and ethyl cellulose-formed by action of methyl or ethyl chloride on soda cellulose; benzyl cellulose-fonned by action of benzyl chloride on cellulose; cellulose acetopropionate-formed by action of acetic and propionic anhydrides on cellulose; and cellulose acetobutyrate-formed by action of acetic and butyric anhydrides on cellulose.
Resins, natural and synthetic, may also be used as bodying materials to increase adhesion, to build solid content, to bolster gloss, to increase durability, and to provide water resistance. Examples of water-insoluble natural resins are: dammar gum, mastic, sandarac, gum accroides, batu, elemi, resin gum, and ester gum (reaction product of glycerin and resin).
The following are examples of usable water-insoluble synthetic resins: alkyd, produced from esterification of polybasic acids, fatty acids, and polyhydn'c alcohols, e.g., glyptal; alkylated methylol amino formaldehyde resins, e.g., urea-formaldehyde resins, malamine, casein, and zein; phenolic (phenolformaldehyde), phenol-formaldehyde and phenolfurfural resins; vinyl-polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl butyrate, vinylidene chloride and copolymers of vinyl and polyvinyl acetates and butyrates; acrylic-polymethyl methacrylate and polyethylacrylate; sulfonamide formaldehyde, a modifier for cellulose nitrate, made by reacting ptoluene sulfonamide with formaldehyde; maleic and maleic anhydride and linseed oil type resins. All of these resins can be used to modify cellulosics.
it is important to note that many of these resins require the usual catalysts in order to polymerize. In this respect the resins basically can be of two types: those producing a film through evaporative processes, and those producing a film via thermoplastic processes utilizing catalysts, and including thermosetting resins.
The keratin bodying agent composition is initially made by mixture of the components in a suitable solvent liquid of which ketones such as acetone and methyl ethyl ketone, esters such as one or more alkyl acetates, ethers such as glycol ether, alcohols, such as ethanol and isopropanol and hydrocarbons both aromatic (e.g. toluene, xylene) and aliphatic e.g., hexane) are illustrative.
Plasticizers may be used to impart desired flexibility to the present structures. Usable plasticizers include castor oil organic tartrates, organic phosphates, phthalates, camphor and benzoates.
The following are illustrative of solvent cement solutions usable for general purposes of adhering the preformed overlays or false nails disclosed herein.
Percent Components: by weight Acetone 50. Ethyl acetate 16. 5 Cellulose nitrate 12. 5 Butyl acetate 10. 0 Keratin (powdered) 8. 0 Dibutyl phthalate 3. 0
Percent Components: by weight Trifiuorotrichloro ethane 27. 0 Methylene chloride 23. 0 Ethyl acetate 15. 0 Acetone 14. 0 Cellulose nitrate 10. 5 Keratin (powdered) 7. 5 Dibutyl phthalate 3. 0
Percent Components: by weight Acetone 50. 0 Ethyl acetate 16. 5 Cellulose nitrate 10. 0 Butyl acetate 10. 0 Resin (natural or synthetic) 5. 5 Keratin 5. 0 Dibutyl phthalate 3. 0
Percent Components: by weight Trifluorotrichloro ethane 26. 0 Methylene chloride 22. 0 Acetone 15. 0 Ethyl acetate 14. 0 Cellulose nitrate 10. 0 Resin (natural or synthetic) 5. 0 Keratin 5. 0 Dibutyl phthalate 3. 0
In all formulations the percentage of ingredients may be varied to produce special effects; e.g., increasing solvent proportions relative to other ingredients will produce products of low viscosity. Dyes or coloring agents may be added as desired, usually in the order of 0. 1 percent or less.
EXAMPLE 1 The following is a representative starting material formulation from which nail overlays (false nails) can be made by molding over a suitable die.
Percent Components: by weight Carrier component: Cellulose Nitrate 12. 5 Solvent:
Acetone 50. Ethyl acetate 15. Butyl acetate 10. Distributed component: Keratin (20400 U.S. mesh) 9. Plasticizer: Dibutyl Phthalate 3.
The albuminoid, or keratin, being insoluble, is used in the finely particulate fonn and becomes uniformly distributed or dispersed in the solution and the solidified coating film formed by the evaporation of the Solvent from the Carrier.
Allowing for other minor quantity components, the particulate protein content of the dried coating will range generally between about 4 to 15 weight percent, although for special purposes somewhat higher or lower than this range, and the carrier material will range generally between about to percent.
In applying a false nail prepared from the above formulation and molded to approximate conformity with a human nail, the false nail structure is oriented to be congruent with the natural nail which has been previously coated with a solvent cement which may advantageously comprise the same or similar ingredients as the false nail or be merely a carrier solvent optionally containing protein and thickeners such as the resins enumerated above. The false nail is pressed into place against the cement. The solvent present in the cement solubilizes the resinous carrier at the false nail inner surface. The proteinaceous particles flow onto and closely conform about the surface irregularities of the nail. The tapered portion carrier to at least some inward extent dissolves wholly with the result of the particulate protein distributing itself onto the nail where it blends indistinguishably. As the solvent evaporates the false nail is anchored firmly to the true nail.
1. Synthetic human nail comprising a thin, elongated and transversely concave preformed overlay structure having supple conformability to a human nail and comprising a solventsoluble carrier component'and a differently-soluble particulate proteinaceous component distributed i therethrough providing the structure with differential response to solvent whereby the structure is solvent-permeable and solvent application thereof to a human nail locally solubilizes and partially reforms the preformed structure to close conformance with the human nail.
2. Synthetic human nail structure according to claim 1 in which said preformed overlay structure is tapered atits normal inward edge portion to a degree permitting during-application solubilization of the carrier throughout said portion.
3. Synthetic human nail structure according to claim 1 in which said carrier component is organic solvent soluble and at least one distributed component is insoluble in said carrier solvent.
, 4. Synthetic human nail structure according to claim 3 in which said first component is the major component by weight, is resinous and film fanning from solution.
5. Synthetic human nail structure according to claim 4 in which said distributed component is an albuminoid.
6. Synthetic human nail structure according to claim 5 in which said albuminoid material has an average particle size between about 20 and 400 US. mesh.
7. Synthetic human nail structure according to claim 6 in which said preformed overlay structure is tapered at its normally inward edge portion to a degree permitting obtaining of solution of said first component throughout said portion on nail application whereby the terminus of said nail structure adheres indistinguishably to the human nail.