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Publication numberUS3555678 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 19, 1971
Filing dateJan 23, 1968
Priority dateJan 23, 1968
Publication numberUS 3555678 A, US 3555678A, US-A-3555678, US3555678 A, US3555678A
InventorsAgulnick Robert, Secklin Leonard B
Original AssigneeGen Appliance Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electric culinary device
US 3555678 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 19, 1971 AGULNlCK ETAL 3,555,678

ELECTRIC CULINARY DEVICE Original Filed July 27, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 ill? KM W65 w N4 fim j 1 5 I D r i K 8 i g @E Z E m u ||||il|L & (H|H l N. \N. ww w NW.

Jan. 19, 1971 I AGULNlCK EI'AL 3,555,678

ELECTRIC CULINARY DEVICE Original Filed July 27, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 F/G/Z INVENTOR. 05527 Aqua/ck BY ZEOA/A/ZD 6? 55mm United States Patent Olfice 3,555,678 Patented Jan. 19, 1971 U.S. Cl. 30166 19 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Disclosed herein is an electric culinary device having an electric coil mounted on a core with the coil intermittently energized to oscillate a fiat armature mounted on a stitf spring through a short are and a Work piece secured to a mounted bracket on the armature with the unsupported portion of the work piece free to move with the armature.

This application relates to an Electric Culinary Device and is a continuation of my application Ser. No. 475,074 filed July 27, 1965; now abandoned.

The object of the invention is to provide such a device which is inexpensive and which is mechanically simple as compared with existing devices. A further object is to provide improved blades and blade attaching mechanisms. A final important objective is to provide an improved blade motion which is more effective than those heretofore known to the inventors.

These objectives are accomplished by providing a vibrator motor of a known type which comprises a core, a coil on the core, and a flat armature spaced slightly from the free ends of the core and the coil and mounted for oscillation on a stilf spring secured to the core. A blade support bracket is attached to the armature, the bracket being provided with one or the other of our disclosed improved blade mounting means.

The motor is mounted within an elongated case shaped so that it may readily be held by the user. The case has a handle portion and a motor mounting portion, the switch being mounted where the two portions come together, for ease of manipulation. The motor, the blade, the bracket and the case make up a vibrating system with the motor located substantially at the center of the system. The mass of the case and the fact that the case is hand-held tends to damp out unwanted vibrations and assure that a major portion of the energy generated in the motor is used to vibrate the blade.

Because the blade bracket is at the end of an armature which is oscillating in a short are, the blade also travels in an arc. Because the blade extends, generally, along a tangent to the arc of the path of the armature and is spaced therefrom by the bade support bracket, the motion of the blade is both a sawing and a chopping motion, unlike the usual electric knife which moves in a straightline sawing motion. Moreover, in some blades applicant also develops a lateral vibration which is useful in cutting some foods.

The blades are especially adapted for use with our structure, and comprise a variety of serrated edges, a swiveling trough shaped blade adapted for peeling, slicing and coring fruit and vegetables, a cheese slicing blade, and a blade having coarse teeth useful for rough scraping operating such as fish scaling.

FIG. 1 is a general view of our device with one side of the housing removed.

FIG. 2 is a perspective view of our device.

FIG. 3 is an end elevational view.

FIG. 4 is a side view of the peeling and coring blade.

FIG. 5 is an enlarged detail view of the end of the swivel of the blade shown in FIG. 4.

FIG. 6 is a cross sectional view on line of 66 of FIG. 4.

FIG. 7 is a side view of the cheese slicing blade.

FIG. 8 is a view on line 8-8 of FIG. 7.

FIG. 9 is a side view of a large tooth serrated blade.

FIG. 10 is a side view of a special serrated blade designed for frozen food cutting.

FIG. 11 is a side view of a swiveled fish scaling blade.

FIG. 12 is a cross sectional view on line 1212 of FIG. 11.

FIG. 13 is an enlarged perspective view of a modified blade mounting bracket having a thumb release lever for easy insertion and removal of blades.

FIG. 14 is a horizontal cross sectional view of the bracket of FIG. 13.

FIG. 15 is a perspective view of a further modified blade mounting bracket.

FIG. 16 is an end view of the bracket of FIG. 15 with the tang of a blade shown in vertical cross section.

FIG. 17 is a side view of a blade tang for use With the bracket of FIGS. 15 and 16.

FIG. 18 is a side view of a modified freezer blade.

FIG. 19 is an enlarged edge view of the blade of FIG. 18 showing the set of the teeth.

As shown best in FIG. 1 and FIG. 2 our device consists of an elongated housing 20 including a right housing half 21 and a left housing half 22. Housing 20 is provided with a tapered handle section 23 and an enlarged motor housing section 24.

A switch 25 is mounted in the top of the housing near the motor end of the handle section 23 for easy operation with the thumb when the unit is held within the users hand. The electrical circuit is simple, including a plug 26, and a cord 27 which passes through a conventional bushing 28 at the end of the handle section 23. One wire 29 of the cord extends from the bushing 28 to switch 25 and has an extension 29A to the coil 30- The other wire 31 extends from bushing 28 to diode 32 from which an extension 31A extends to the other end of coil 30. The diode 32 helps match the electrical characteristics of the motor to the mechanical characteristics of the vibrating system, and is an important feature to increase the power of our device.

Core 33 is mounted to left housing half 22 by means of a pair of mounting screw 34 and carries coil 30 on central post 35 of core 33. End posts 36 and 37 of core 33 complete the magnetic circuit induced in core 33 by coil 30 through armature 38 which is provided with end legs 39 and 40 which are spaced close to respective end posts 37 and 36 of core 33. Central span 41 of the armature extends over central post 35 of the core in order to create a flux path having relatively short air gaps. Armature 38 is supported on a semicircular spring 42 which is secured to the body of the core 33. Because of diode 32, only half cycles of current, or pulsating direct current, reaches the coil. There is no reversal of the magnetic flux direction, and only one pulse occurs per current cycle, rather than one in each direction. Thus greater power is developed per pulse, and there is time for the mechanical system to respond to the magnetic pulse by moving the armature away from the poles without any current present in the coil to oppose such movement before the next pulse begins. In the conventional vibrator a new pulse would arrive at the coil before the spring had delivered any substantial proportion of the stored potential energy back to the system, greatly limiting the amplitude and strength of the mechanical oscillations, but doubling the frequency as compared with our device. Thus we achieved greatly improved cutting action.

The blade bracket 50 is secured to the free end 39 of armature 38, as for instance by welding. As shown in the embodiment of FIGS. 1 through 3, the bracket is provided with a horizontal portion 51 which is secured to the armature and a flange 52 which abuts the straight edge of the tang 80 of any one of the respective blades shown. Each of the blades (FIGS. 1 and 4 through 12) is provided with a tang 80 having a slot 53 to receive post 54 which is mounted on the body of bracket 50. Each of the blades is also provided with a lateral projection 55 adapted to abut the end of flange 52 to provide a secure interlock between the blade and the bracket. When the blade is in place, the nut 56 is screwed onto post 54 to hold the blade securely. Nut 56 may be in the form of a knurled knob or wing nut, and may be provided with lock washers or friction washers or the like to keep it from turning.

FIG. 13 shows an alternative form of bracket 500 having a horizontal extension 510 attached to the end portion 39 of armature 38. The knife blade has a rectangular tang 524 which is received within channel 511. The channel 511 has a back 512, which may be a portion of the body of bracket 500, and side members 513 and 514, which are provided with respective flanges 515 and 516 extending over the fiat portion of the tang 524 of the knife blade, in opposition to side 512.

Thus, all four sides of the knife tang 524 are enclosed snugly by channel 511 although there is an opening between the respective margins of flanges 515 and 516 for a purpose to be described. Ears 518 and 519 are provided on the respective side members 514 and 513 to receive a pivot pin 520.

A bent lever 521 is secured about pivot pin 520 so that the pivot pin serves as a fulcrum for the lever. A short nose portion of the lever carries a locking pin 522 and a dog 523.

Each blade shown in the drawings may have a tang 524 (FIGS. 13 and 14) rather than a tang 80 (FIGS. 1 through 12). When the tang 524 is pushed into channel 511, with the parts in the position shown in FIG. 13 and FIG. 14, the tang strikes dog 523 causing lever 521 to pivot about pin 520 so that post 522 enters hole 525 in tang 524 and locks the blade into place. A spring 530 or other equivalent spring arrangements may desirably be used to bias lever 521 to a position in engagement with the flanges 51.5 and 516, in which position post 522 extends substantially to wall 512 of channel 511. A thumb lever 526 is included in the portion of lever 521 on the other side of pivot pin 520 from post 522 and dog 523, to enable the user to withdraw post 522 from bore 525 to permit removal of tang 524 from channel 511. It will be noted that tang 524 is substantially rectangular in cross section and is a close telescopic fit in channel 511 so that upon entry of post 522 into hole 525 the tang is held securely to the armature of the motor. A shoulder 527 on tang 524 abuts side member 514 to prevent axial movement, in combination with post 522. Post 522 may extend through a hole in surface 512 of the bracket for greater security, if desired.

A second alternative bracket and tang is shown in FIGS. 15, 16 and 17. Bracket 600 has a horizontal extension 610 attached to end portion 39 of amature 38. Each blade has a tang 601 provided with an axial slot 602 to receive screw threaded post 603, and with a bore 604 to receive post 605. Post 605 may desirably be struck from the surface of the body 611 of bracket 600. A nut 56 (See also FIG. 3) is used on post 603 to secure the tang.

Post 605 may desirably be downwardly spaced from post 603, as well as laterally spaced to provide clearance for nut 56, so that each blade tang will only fit the bracket with the knife or other tool oriented correctly. If a particular blade is adapted for use upside down, a second bore 604 may be provided in the tang for post 605 in the inverted position.

We have also designed a series of tools particularly adapted for use in an electric knife having the unusually advantageous cutting movement provided by the structure herein described. It will be observed from the drawings that the knife will swing in a short arc, in which the principle component of motion is directed axially of the blade. However, with regard to a horizontal workpiece there will always be a component of motion in a direction toward the cutting edge. In normal use this is a vertical direction. Even in the case of a slightly curved blade (FIGS. 1, 9 and 10) being moved along this curved path, the arc of the path is neither coincident nor concentric with the shape of the blade edge and come quently a component of vertical chopping motion will always be present. The arcs 60 and 61 show these respective paths at the bracket and at the blade tip. These arcs have been drawn using a point at the center of spring 42 as a center, and accordingly are not quite accurate as representations of the blade path because the true center of oscillation is diffused over the whole of spring 42. However, it illustrates the true state of affairs, and shows accurately the fact that the tip of the blade, moving along path 61, has a greater component of chopping motion than the portion of the cutting edge nearest the tang. As pointed out more clearly hereinafter, the blade is unsupported or free between arcs and 61 and a cutting edge is provided along the entire length of the blade from are 60 to are 61.

In addition we find that the blade tip vibrates laterally in a direction at right angle to the plane of the blade. Experiments in eliminating this motion show that an improved cutting action is attained when the motion is present, provided its amplitude does not become too great. The motion appears to be due to the fact that the blade and bracket are at one side of the armature which sets up the oscillation referred to. It is also known that the case 20 serves as a part of the vibrating system. The system as a whole may be regarded as vibrating about spring 42 with the case 20 and the motor 30-33 moving in one direction and the armature 38, bracket 50 and whichever blade is being used moving in the opposite direction. In effect the system comprises a pair of pendulums connected with a leaf spring, and subjected periodically to magnetic force tending to bring the pendulums together after which they are subjected to a spring force, from the potential energy stored in the spring 42, tending to separate them. At the same time the *mass of one of the pendulums is laterally offset with respect to the center of the system so that the inertia of the blade and bracket introduce a couple tending to rotate the blade laterally about the bracket as an axis. The mass of the blade and bracket system is relatively small as compared with the handle and motor system. In use, the oscillations of the handlemotor system are damped by contact with the hand of the user. The great mass of the system and the damping minimize the vibration of the handle. The stiflness of the blades keeps the vibration of that system within bounds so that the effect is a slight fanning action of the blade which tends to widen the cut slightly, performing much the same function as set setting of the teeth in a saw to prevent binding. This function is accomplished in a very different manner, however, being the result of a dynamic system rather than a static structure. The amount of vibration present in the blade in a direction laterally of the blade can be controlled to any desired degree by altering the stiffness or mass of the blade, inasmuch as the vibration shows up primarily as a flexing of the blade and not as a flexing of the bracket 50 or armature 38. In addition it may be controlled to some extent by the operator since heavy downward pressure on the blade will surpress the lateral vibration, whereas light pressure will permit it.

We have provided a wide variety of blades which are especially useful and advantageous in a system having the motions described above. The blade shown in FIG. 1 is a somewhat sickle shaped blade having very small serrations on the cutting edge which extend only to the line'of the crests of the teeth 71, so that the edge itself is substantially linear. The teeth 71 along the cutting edges of the blade extend the full length of the blade to the end of the blade tip. The edge of the blade is not curved sufiiciently to conform to the path of the blade thereby taking advantage of the chopping motion. The shape of the blade may be varied from a straight blade to a shape conforming to the path of oscillation, to obtain the desired proportion of chopping and sawing motions.

FIGS. 9 and 10 show alternative blade types having substantially the same overall form as that of FIG. 1. FIG. 9 shows a blade 72 provided with large serrations to form relatively coarse teeth 73 extending beyond the margin of the body of the blade to give a sawtoothed cutting edge for hard materials. FIG. 10 shows a further modification in which blade 74 is provided with teeth similar to those of blade 72, but the line of teeth 75 is interrupted by two pairs of substantially semicircular relieved portions 76. The cutting edge of the blade between each pair of reliefs 76 is bevelled to a smooth cutting edge 77. The blade of FIG. 10 is particularly useful for cutting frozen foods, which are quite hard and in which a knife blade tends to load and jam. The combination of teeth, relieved area, and smooth knife blades tends to clear ice particles from the cut and keep the kerf open so that the knife blade 74 may continue to cut. This is especially the case in combination with our unique cutting motion in which the blade moves axially, vertically, and laterally. The lateral motion is at a minimum in cutting frozen foods, but it appears that such motion is present in suflicient degree to prevent the blade 74 from binding.

FIGS. 4 through 6 show a blade designed primarily for peeling, slicing, and coring fruits and vegetables. The blade is, like all of the other blades, provided with a tang 80, for use with the bracket of FIGS. 1-3, a tang 524 for the bracket of FIGS. 13-14, or a tang 601 for the bracket of FIGS. and 16. The tang is provided with a rod or cylindrical extension 81 having a stop 82 at right angles to portion 81 at the end of the extension. A cylindrical sleeve 83 encircles extension 81 and carries the body 84 of the blade. Sleeve 83 rests against shoulders 85 on tang 80, preventing axial movement in one direction, and the other end of sleeve 83 rests against stop 82 preventing axial movement in the other direction. Both ends of sleeve 83 are at right angles to the axis of extension 81 and of the sleeve itself, permitting the body 84 to rotate somewhat with respect to tang 80 for convenience in conforming to the surface of the fruit or vegetable being peeled. Trough shaped body 84 is provided with a central axially extending slot 86, having knife edges 87 as best shown in FIG. 6. The outer margins of body 84 comprise sharpened flanges 88 which are useful for peeling or slicing also. The nose 89 of the body 84 is spoon-shaped so that the, upper outer margin terminates on a plane and is provided with a beveled sharp margin which is used primarily in coring or in removing eyes or blemishes from potatoes and the like. The overall form of the blade of FIGS. 4 through 6 is similar to that of a hand-held peeling and coring device which is well known, but it has not previously been known that great advantages are derived by using such a blade in a device-having the combination of motions present in our device. This particular blade, when used for coring an apple, moves in an axial stabbing motion while at the same time moving vertically slightly with respect to the plane of the blade. The trough shape of the blade tends to turn it in a path about the core as it oscillates. The sharpened margins 88 are unique, so far as we are aware, and contribute to the efliciency of the device for coring, inasmuch as the vertical motion (which is a chopping motion during cutting with a blade such as blade 70) becomes a motion circumferential to the core with edges 88 cutting around the core and along its length. The stabbing and circumferential motions tend to carry the blade through and around the apple so that the entire core may be removed in he shortest possible time.

FIGS. 7 and 8 show a cheese cutting blade 90 comprising a tang 80 and an extension 91. The extension has an offset portion 92 and a downward extension 93 to support a cheese cutting wire 94 offset laterally from the plane of extension 91. The end of wire 94 closest to tang is supported on a post 95 mounted to the tang.

FIGS. 11 and 12 show a fish scaling blade provided with a tang 80, an extension 81, a stop 82, and a sleeve 83 which abuts shoulders 85 on the tang as described in connection with FIGS. 4 through 6. The body 101 of blade is semitubular and the axially extending margins are provided with large teenth 102. The arcuate motion of blade 100 rakes teeth 102 across the scales of a fish in a direction which is partially axial and partially lateral at high speed, resulting in a highly efficient scaling operation.

FIGS. 18 and 19 show a further modification of teeth useful for cutting frozen foods. Blade is provided with a tang 80, or any of the modified tangs disclosed above. The cutting portion is straight, except at the very end, and is provided with triangular teeth 121 each of which has a short side 122 nearest the tang 80 and a long side 123 extending from the apex 124 away from the tang. The arrangement is similar to that on a hand rip saw. The edges are bevelled, set, and sharpened in the rip saw pattern so that alternate teeth incline to opposite sides of the blade about the width of a tooth, the bevels being such as to give the apex 124 a chisel edge substantially at right angles to the plane of blade 120. Because of the relationship of the long and short sides 123, 122, however, the apex cuts as it moves toward the housing 20, rather than cutting as it recedes from the housing. This, combined with our unique axial and vertical stroke gives greatly increased efiiciency in cutting. Also, the motor is so arranged that the downward and inward stroke is powered by the energized coil 30, rather than by spring 42.

Thus we provide a unique culinary device of increased efficiency at reduced cost.

In the claims, the word free as applied to the tool means that the free portion of the tool is not touched by any other part of the device which would tend to constrain its movement in any plane. Free end includes the entire tool except the tang.

We claim:

1. An electric culinary device comprising a housing including a handle, an oscillatory electric motor in said housing including a fiat armature having a free end and an end attached to a support to serve as a spring for oscillation, a core having poles adjacent to but spaced from said armature, and a coil on said core electrically connected to a source of alternating current, a culinary cutting tool extending longitudinally a substantial distance from said armature and having an end formed into a tang, attaching means securing said tang to the side of said armature for oscillation therewith, said tool having a free end comprising all portions of said tool not secured to said attaching means, said tool extending generally tangentially of the path of oscillation of a point on said armature.

2. The device of claim 1 in which a current rectifying device is in series circuit with said coil, whereby to supply pulsating direct current to said coil.

3. An electric culinary device comprising a housing including a handle, an oscillatory electric motor in said housing including a flat armature having a free end and an end attached to a support to serve as a spring for oscillation, a core having poles adjacent to but spaced from said armature, and a coil on said core electrically connected to a source of alternating current, a culinary cutting tool extending longitudinally a substantial distance from said armature and having an end formed into a tang, attaching means securing said tang to said armature for oscillation therewith, said tool having a free end comprising all portions of said tool not secured to said attaching means, said tool extending generally tangentially of the path of oscillation of a point on said armature, said attaching means including a bracket extending outwardly from said armature in a plane parallel to the plane of movement of the armature, said bracket being located at one side of said armature and supporting said tool for oscillation at one side of said armature.

4. The device of claim in which said attaching means includes a second post on said bracket and at least one bore on said tang to receive second post snugly.

5. An electric culinary device comprising a housing including a handle, an oscillatory electric motor in said housing including a flat armature having a free end and an end attached to a support to serve as a spring for oscillation, a core having poles adjacent to but spaced from said armature, and a coil on said core electrically connected to a source of alternating current, a culinary cutting tool extending longitudinally a substatnial distance from said armature and having an end formed into a tang, attaching means securing said tang to said armature for oscillation therewith, said tool having a free end comprising all portions of said tool not secured to said attaching means, said tool extending generally tangentially of the path of oscillation of a point on said armature, said attaching means including a straight edge on said tang and a flange on said attaching means, a slot in said tang, a post on said armature adapted to project through said slot, and means on said post to releasably secure said tang thereto, said flange being engaged with said straight edge when said slot is engaged with said post, and a lateral projection on the said tang having endwise engagement with the flange.

6. An electric culinary device comprising a housing including a handle, an oscillatory electric motor in said housing including a flat armature having a free end and an end attached to a support to serve as a spring for oscillation, a core having a pole adjacent to but spaced from said armature, and a coil on said core electrically connected to a source of alternating current, a tool having a free end and a tang and extending longitudinally generally tangentially of the path of oscillation of a point on said armature, and attaching means securing said tang to said armature for oscillation therewith, said tool comprising a rod extending from said tang, a lateral projection extending from said rod, a sleeve surrounding said rod between said tang and said lateral projection, a trough shaped knife extending axially from said sleeve, said knife being provided with an axial slot, said knife being provided with axially extending sharpened edges on the lateral margins of said trough and on the margins of said slot, said trough being further provided with an archshaped end portion having a beveled sharpened portion extending entirely around its perimeter in a plane.

7. The device of claim 1 in which said tool com-prises a rod extending from said tang, a lateral projection extending from said rod, a sleeve surrounding said rod between said tang and said lateral projection, a trough shaped knife extending axially from said sleeve, the axially extending lateral margins of said trough being provided with an axial series of very large serrations.

8. The device of claim 1 in which said tool comprises a rod-like extension from said tang, said extension having a lateral projection at the end and a downward projection extending from the lateral projection, a post mounted on the tang, and a taut wire extending between said downward projection and said post.

9. The device of claim 1 in which said tool comprises a generally sickle shaped knife having a curvature substantially less than the curvature of its path of oscillation.

10. The device of claim 9, said tool comprising a blade having a cutting edge composed of serrations comprising grooves in one side of the blade which are not sufficient- 1y deep to substantially change the shape of the cutting edge.

11. The device of claim in which the serrations are coarse and create a sawtooth cutting edge having substantial relief.

12. The device of claim 11 in which the sawtooth cutting'edge is interrupted by at least a pair of substantially semicircular reliefs, said blade having a smooth beveled cutting edge between each pair of said reliefs. I

'13. The device of claim 1 in which said tang comprises a rectangular solid and said attaching means comprises guide means embracing said rectangular solid on all four sides and axially telescopically engageable with said tang, said tang being provided with a lateral bore, attaching means being provided with a lever pivoted to said attaching means and bearing a post engageable with said bore, and means biasing said lever toward said tang upon insertion of said tang into said attaching means.

14. The device of claim 13 in which said means for biasing said lever comprises a dog projecting from said lever into the path of telescopic insertion of said tang into said attaching means, whereby when said tang is inserted the end of the tang engages the dog and swings the lever in a direction to insert the post into the bore.

15. The device of claim 13 in which the means biasing the lever comprises a spring between said attaching means and said lever.

16. The device of claim 13 in which the lever is further provided with a projecting portion engageable by the user with one finger to swing said post to a position which does not interfere with blade insertion and release.

17. The device of claim 1 in which said tool is mounted for limited rotation respecting said tang.

18. The device of claim 1 in which said tool has a blade provided with triangular teeth, each said tooth having an apex with a chisel edge directed downwardly and toward said tang, whereby to cut primarily when the tool is moving toward said housing.

19. The device of claim 18 in which said teeth are set alternately to each side of the plane of the blade.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,064,176 12/1936 Parker 30-337 2,085,462 6/ 1937 Ewing 30-273 2,310,185 2/ 1943 Weyandt 310-29X 2,320,784 6/1943 Livingston 30-272 2,450,347 9/ 1948 Krilow 30-279 2,496,365 2/ 1950 Aaron 30-273 2,772,708 12/ 1956 Miquel 143-731 2,958,355 11/ 1960 Young 30-272X FOREIGN PATENTS 967,805 4/1950 France 143-731 THERON E. CONDON, Primary Examiner J. C. PETERS, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R. 30-272, 279

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EP0582326A1 *Jun 28, 1993Feb 9, 1994Skil Europe B.V.Saw-blade fixation device
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Classifications
U.S. Classification30/393, 30/279.6, 30/339, D07/646
International ClassificationB23D51/00, B23D51/16, B23D49/16, B26B7/00, B23D49/00, B23D51/10
Cooperative ClassificationB23D51/163, B23D49/162, B26B7/00, B23D51/10
European ClassificationB26B7/00, B23D49/16B, B23D51/16B, B23D51/10