US 3555758 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan.19, 7 R. c. SCHROTERJ 3,555,753
PANEL AND SEALED JOINT STRUCTURE Filed Julyz,'-19s9 f 5 sheets-sheet '1 Fla/4P0 C.5CHE07'EP INVENTOR.
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JITOI/VEY R. C. SCHROTER PANEL AND SEALED JOINT s'rnucwuaa I Jan. 19, 1971 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed July 2. 1969 R Y m M m w w 1W Jan. l9, 1971 SCHROTER 35555758 7 1 mm. AND SEALED JOINT s-rnucruan Filed July 2, 1969 :s Sheets-Shet 3 Mom/e0 C Sameorsz I NVE N TOR.
Arm/avg) United States Patent O 3,555,758 PANEL AND SEALED JOINT STRUCTURE Richard C. Schroter, Orinda, *CaliL, assignor 'to Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical. Corporation, akland,Cal1f., a corporation of Delaware Filed July 2, 1969, Ser. No. 838,614
Int. Cl. E04c 2/20; E04d 3/362, 1/28 US. Cl. 52309 ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE An improved composite building panel providedwith a unique joint sealing strip of selected resiliency, compressibility and liquid and vapor impermeability for use in sealing a panel provided with such strip to another The structure and position of the strip relative to its as- 1 sociated panel is also such that it does not interfere 16 Claims building panel as well as the overall improved joint structure formed by the aforesaid pair of panels during emplacement of the panels in a building structure.
CROSS REFERENCE TO A RELATED PATENT The instant panel and joint structure constitute improvements over those shown and described in US. Pat. 3,312,028 to Schroyer, granted on April 4, 1967.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Heretofore, various schemes have been devised for sealing the joints between interlockable composite building panels so as to provide an effective impermeable liquid and vapor joint therebetween. These schemeshave not always been commercially acceptable for various reasons. In certain instances, the particular sealing elements used have seriously interfered with the interlocking of the panels and prevented a full and elfective interlock of the same. Conversely, in other instances where the design of the interlocking elements of the panels has been emphasized during manufacture and found to be satisfactory, the sealing elements used have been detrimentally affected whereby the desired performance characteristics of the sealing elements, in preventing the-entrance of moisture in either or both liquid and vapor form in and through a joint formed by the interlocked panels, have not been fully met.
In other words, prior art building panels and, in particular, composite building panels, and the joint structures therefore have been deficient in that the interlocking elements of the panels have not always been fully compatible with the sealing elements used to seal the joint structures between the panels and vice versa. 'Examples of such prior art panels and the joints formed thereby are illustrated in US. Pat. 3,320,706 to Elliott et al., granted on May 23, 1967; US. Patent 3,367,076 to OBrien, granted Feb. 6, 196 8; and US. Patent 3,290,- 845 to Snyder, granted Dec. 13, 1966.
SUMMARY OF THE INSTANT INVENTION It is the primary purpose of the instant invention to provide an improved composite interlockable building panel and a joint structure involving such a panel, wherein the panel is provided with a unique joint sealing strip having advantageous resiliency, compressibility and liquid and vapor impermeability characteristics. In order to effectively prevent the entry and passage of moisture in liquid or vapor form through a joint incorporating such a sealing strip, the sealing strip is attached to a selected portion of a side edge of the composite panel of the instant invention. The positioning of the sealing strip on a particular portion of a side edge of the panel is advantageously determined by which face of the panel during installation is the normally wanm face or the face that will be exposed to elevated or Warm temperatures.
with the normal joining functions of the interlockable elements of adjoining panels and vice versa.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS In the accompanying drawings:
FIG. 1 is a broken, fragmentary and perspective view of a typical building structure incorporating the interconnected panels of the instant invention;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged sectional view taken along line 2-2 of FIG. 1 and illustrates in detail the improved joint structure formed between adjoining panel-s;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary perspective view of a portion of the roof structure of FIG. 1 prior to the final joining together of a pair of panels making up such structure and illustrates one arrangement for joining such panels together;
FIG. 4 is an enlarged cross-sectional view similar to FIG. 2 and discloses a further arrangement for attaching a sealing strip to and positioning the same on a composite panel;
FIG. 5 is an enlarged broken and fragmentary side view taken within the encompassing line 5- of FIG. 3 and illustrates certain details of a panel facing;
FIG. 6 is a perspective view of another advantageous arrangement of composite panels in accordance with the instant invention; and
FIG. 7 is a perspective view of a panel anchoring clip.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION With further reference to the drawings and, in particular, FIGS. l-4, a composite panel 10 of the instant invention which can be used as a roofing, siding or wall element in a building structure can comprise a generally channel-shaped, roll formed metal plank 12 of the general type shown in US. Pat. 3,312,028 to Schroyer and of selected lengths and widths. A suitable layer 14 of insulating material having fire resistant or first retardant characteristics, such as a fire resistant grade of polyurethane foam of the appropriate depth, is affixed to the underside of the web or main body portion 14' of plank 12 and an elongated sealing strip 16 of resilient compressible material is adhesively secured to one side edge of insulating layer 14 preferably during manufacture of panel 10. The opposed overall marginal edges 5 and 7 of composite panel 10 (see FIG. 3) include the sidewalls or flanges 17 and 18 on plank 12 and the opposite longitudinal side edges of insulating layer 14. Strip 16 is substantially smaller in height as compared to the depth of layer 14 and it is long enough to extend for the full length of a panel 10. This strip possesses certain advantageous characteristics as regards its composition structure to be described in more detail hereinafter.
The instant panels can be used in either the interior or exterior wall and roof structures of a building, such as, for example, the roof structure of FIG. 1. In one advantageous embodiment of the invention, composite panels 10 of the instant invention can be arranged back-to-back as indicated in FIG. 6 to form a double-wall structure that can be used in walk-in frozen food lockers or the like. If desired, the exterior surface portions of insulation layer or backer 14 can be covered by an impervious and thin facing 20 adhesively secured to backer 14. Facing 20 can comprise a single layer of aluminum foil or any suitable moisture impervious material. As indicated in FIG. 5, facing 20 can also take the form of a laminate made up of kraft paper 21 of a suitable grade directly secured to layer 14, a thin intermediate screen or mesh 23 of fiberglass and an outer facing of dead soft aluminum foil 25, as indicated in FIG. 5. The overall laminate making up facing 20 should be relatively thin, such as about 0.010" in thickness, with the paper layer 21 being on the order of 0.0080 inthi'c'k'rie'ss, the fiberglass mesh 23 being approximately 0.0013" in thickness, and the remainder being aluminumfoil of about 0.0007 in thick ne ss. 'If desired or required, depending on the particular composition of backing layer 14, an adhesive coating 15 can be applied to the back side of plank 12 of composite panel in orderto obtain adherence of insulating backer layer 14 to plank 12.
With further reference to the drawings, when plank 12 is made from metal, such as from aluminum or an aluminum alloy, and roll-formed so as to be provided with a web portion 14 and a pair of side flanges or walls 17 and 18, web portion 14' can be further provided with a series of reinforcing ribs 28 and reinforc'ing shoulders 29 at the junctions of web 14 and flanges 17 and 18. Each flange normally projects approximately at a right angle from a side of web '14. The marginal free edge of flange with panels 10 while the plank side or unb ackedside of v a panel will be located on the exterior side of a wall or dency of equalization between these differences-in pressure and temperature-on opposing warm and cold sides of the panel 10, any gap'50 between the marginal side edges 5 and 7 of adjacent panels will tend 'to act as a channel for passageof moisture in vapor form. This vapor usually migrates toward the. colderenvironment and eventually condenses into" a liquid; This 'condensatewill then collect on the marginal edges 5 and 7 of the panels 10 defining the gap 50 unless these gaps 50 are effectively sealed against moisture vapor penetration and migration 17 is curled inwardly and outwardly so as to define a As indicated in Schroyer Pat. 3,312,028 and the instant application, when a pair of panel elements 12 are arranged side-by-side upon and crosswise of a series of underlying and spaced supports 34 and with upstanding flanges 17 and 18 of adjoining panels being arranged in mating relation, tubular sleeve 32 of flange 18 on one panel 10 is fitted over and then can be tightly closed about tubular bead 30 on a flange 17 of the adjacent panel by way of a suitable tool of the same type, for example, as that shown in the aforementioned Schroyer patent.
A clip 36 of the type disclosed in the aforesaid Schroyer patent can be used to attach a pair of panels 10 to an underlying support 34 such as a wooden rafter. This clip includes a base portion 38 that engages the support and an attachment flange 40 that can be nailed, clamped or otherwise attached to the underlying support 34, all as indicated in FIGS. 2 and 4. The clip further includes an upwardly extending elongated leg 41 that is inserted or sandwiched between the overall marginal side edges 5 and 7 of a pair of composite panels 10 and a deformable curled head portion 42 that fits over bead 30 of one panel 10 while opening in the same direction as the tubular sleeve 32 on the adjacent panel 10. By opening in the same direction as the deformable sleeve 32 on a given panel, head 42 of clip 36, which encloses bead 30 on the one panel of the pair of joined panels 10, can be closed about this bead 30 simultaneously or at the same time that sleeve 32 on the other panel flange 18 is closed about this same bead 30 on the adjoining panel flange 17. Even though the length of an individual clip 36 is small as compared to the length of a panel 10, clips 36 will still act to securely hold pairs of joined panels 10 to spaced supports 34 when the clips are attached to their respective supports 34 all as described in the aforesaid Schroyer patent.
In the overall joint formed by a pair of non-insulated or non-backed planks 12, the upstanding seam formed by a sleeve 32 closed about a bead 30 and with a clip 36 sandwiched therebetween-will normally be sufficiently waterproof and watertight and the moisture vapor penetration problems with which the instant invention is concerned will not be present. However, when insulation or backing layers 14 are applied to planks 12 prior to their installation, certain moisture problems are introduced into the joint structures formed by the backed planks on com-; posite panels. In most installations of composite panels 10, the insulated side or the side of panel 10 provided with backing layer 14 will be exposed to or face the interior of a building or a room in the building provided particularly in the area adjacent to what is the warm' side of an installed panel 10. Thus, for example, unless a true and effective moisture vapor. seal is provided at the panel joints of FIGS. 2 and 4, such as byway ofisealin'g strip 16, Water vapor will enter gaps 50, condense and collect on the edges 5 and 7 of panels 10 and then drip down into the interior of the building. These gaps 50 will usually exist because of the manufacturing techniques usedto produce the composite panels and the inherent manufacturing tolerances involved.
The designation perm as used throughout the instant specification and claims refers to the amount of atmospheric moisture in vapor form that is' caused to migrate through a porous material primarily as a consequence of the differential pressures between opposite sides of the material as well as the hydrostatic pressures on opposite sides thereof. A unit perm as used herein equals one grain of water per hour per square foot per'inch of mercury differential vapor pressue.
Concentration of moisture in liquid or vapor form occurs primarily in gaps 50 of the panel joints because the major portion of the overallbuilding covering formed by composite panels 10, including membrane 20, is relatively unaffected by varying thermal and pressure gradients on opposing sides of installed panels 10. Further, gaps 50 are formed due to the fact that flanges 17 and 18 may be slightly offset outwardly of the normal plane ofthe side edges of foamed backer 14 as a consequence of the normal manufacturing tolerances occurring during production of composite panels 10.
"The aforesaid accumulation and transmission of mois ture in liquid and vapor form through gaps 50 is for all practical purposes effectively prevented by seal strips 16' which are attached to. one side of the panel 10 during its manufacture. r vAs indicated in FIGS.- 2 and 4, seal strip 16 fits into and bridges the overall gap 50 in a joint structure formed by a pair of panels 10jand provides an effective 'moisture barrier or seal across the joint. As initially formed, this strip, which extendsfor .the full length of a panel 10, has, an initial widthas installed that is greater than the width of a gap 50 and a height that is substantially less than the overall depth of a gap 50 that is to be sealed. Usually in the .joints illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 4, gaps 50 would be nominally A3 wide with a tolerance of 1 As'initially attachedto a backer 14, strip 16 would have a'width on the order of A". Strip 16, when installed in a gap 50, iscompressedabout /2' so as to have a width of Strip 16 can be made of a suitable grade of moisture impermeable sponge-like material whereby it will be readily compressible and yet have suflicient resilenc'y to spring back and fully seal gap 50 without at the same time having any serious tendency to force the panels apart, whereby the joint between a bead 30,.sleeve 32 and clip "36 would be'weakened 'or otherwise deleteriously affected.
. It has been found'that strip 16 can be made of a flexi ble polymeric material of reasonablyclosed cell construc tion such as a flexible polyvinyl material. The selective resistance to compression of such a strip 16, when made from this material, is advantageously on the order of no greater than 10 pounds per foot of length. Its permeability to moisture in vapor form is advanetageously on the order of from about 10 to 50 perms, when compressed or installed.
In one operative embodiment of the instant invention, a polyvinyl foamed strip 16 found to be suitable in practicing the instant invention had an initial height of and an initial width of A". The strip had a compressibility of approximately 6.5 lbs. per foot of length and a permeability on the order of 28.5 perms when located in gap 50 between adjoining panels and subjected to a compressive load therebetween. It can be advantageously used with panels 10 having backers 14 made up of a polyurethane foam having a density of approximately 2.0 to 2.5 lbs. per cubic foot and a thickness on the order of from one to two inches. The strip of the aforesaid compressibility and permeability characteristics when interposed in a gap 50 between a pair of panels was compressed to approximately one-half of its initial width of A", whereby it had the aforesaid permeability on the order of 28.5 perms.
Strip 16 is preferably attached to a side edge of foamed backer 14 either on marginal edge or 7 of a panel or directly to the membrane when such a membrane is used during manufacture of a panel and preferably closely adjacent the side of the panel that will constitute the warm side of the finally installed panel in a building structure. It canbe coated with a suitable pressure-sensitive adhesive to effect its attachment to foamed backer 14. Accordingly, if the controlled or uncontrolled atmosphere on the interior'or backer side of the installed and adjoining panels 10 of FIGS. 2-3 is normally at a higher temperature level than on the plank side or outside thereof, seal strip 16 will be located on sidewall 5 or 7 of a panel 10 silghtly inwardly of the bottom plane of a membrane covered backer 14, say at approximately A" inwardly thereof, with backer 14 having a thickness on the order of from one to two inches. When, on the other hand, the controlled oruncontrolled atmosphere on the exposed or plank side of adjoining and installed panels is to be normally at a higher temperature level than the interior or backer side of the panels, then seal strip 16 as indicated in FIG. 4 would be located on a sidewall 5 or 7 of a panel 10 slightly inwardly of the top edge of the lip of backer 14 located inside a shoulder 29 by a distance of approximately A"- and closely adjacent to the plane of web 14' of planks 12 of adjoining panels 10.
By virtue of this preselected location of strip 16 as described above, the thermal and moisture barrier provided by strip 16 will be most effective and the temperature on the lower temperature level side of strip 16 will be advantageously maintained above the freezing point of water (32 F.). This is desirable since if water freezes on either. side of strip 16, it can adversely affect the insulation effectiveness of strip 16 to such an extent that an eventual transfer of an excessive amount of vapor through gap 50 will result. This vapor could condense and eventually collect on the surfaces of the panels defining a gap 50 whence it can drip into the building proper.
In the case of all panel joints provided with strip 16, a commercially acceptable thermal and moisture seal will be provided under all usual conditions of insulation without at the same time adversely affecting the interlock between panel sleeve and bead elements in th upstanding seam. Although relatively minute amounts of moisture in vapor form may from time to time be transferred or migrate through strip 16, so long as such transfer rate is on the order of no greater than 60 perms, such transfer is for all practical purposes tolerable. Strip 16 also functions well even in cases where clips 36 are employed, since strip 16 because of its resiliency flows fully about and encompasses a clip 36.
' With reference to an overall building made up of composite panels 10, the moisture barrier characteristics of strips 16 can be realized in situations where panels 10 are provided with such strips 16 disposed vertically relative to floor S and anchored in top and bottom wall channels 60 and 61, as shown in FIG. 1 as well as in situations where the panels from a roof covering 22 by being secured to underlying rafters all as shown in FIG. 1. In the case of the roof of FIG. 1, during installation of each roof section, panels 10 are disposed transversely of rafters 34 and interlocked and joined together by a suitable tool of the type shown in the aforesaid Schroyer patent. Thereafter, a metal flashing strip 54 of inverted V-shaped configuration can be used in conjunction with strips 56 to close off the upper ends of adjacent panels 10 of the roof sections at the apex or peak of roof 22. Strips '56 of appropriate resilient and compressible material are individually disposed within the upwardly facing recesses or channels of planks 12 of each roof section at the upper edges thereof.
Further, strips 56 can include recesses 56' for receiving ribs 28 of planks 12. Another metal flashing strip 57 of approximately Z-shaped configuration extends across the joint formed between the upper end of a wall 24 and the lower end of a roof section of the roof covering in a suitable manner as depicted in FIG. 1.
With reference to FIG. 6, sealing strip 16 can be advantageously used with a modified form of wall or roof. In this instance, the wall or roof is made up of a composite panel 10 arranged back-to-back and secured by a suitable adhesive 70 to an unbacked plank 12 to form a final double planked overall panel 13. Panel 10 and plank 12 are preferably of the same length and width in order that flanges 17 and 18 on opposite sides of plank 12 are disposed in planar alignment with the oppositely disposed flanges 17 and 18 on the opposing composite panel 10. Backer 14 for panel 10 is preferably secured to panel 10 during manufacture along with a sealing strip 16 and the facing 20 can be eliminated. Although strip 16 is illustrated in FIG. 6 as being located adjacent the bottom plane of backer 14, since bottom plank 12 in FIG. 6 would be the warm side of the installed overall panel 13, it could be disposed adjacent the back side of top plank 12 making up panel 10, if the top plank is to be the warm side of the panel. A modified double planked panel 13 has increased structural strength over a simple composite single plank panel and can be used in instances where exceptionally strong and double planked panels 13 are required.
Double planked panel 13 can be secured to purlin supports or the like by means of suitable two-piece clips such as clips 72 shown in FIG. 7. Clip 72 can be comprised of a somewhat S-shaped bracket element 74 provided with a web 76, an upper leg segment 78 for engaging the underside of a purlin-like element or support 80 and a lower leg segment 82 for engaging a deformed sleeve 32 on a double planked panel 13. Web 76 includes a struck out tongue 84 insertable in an opening 85 on depending leg 86 of mating bracket element 88. Bracket element 88 further includes a head 90 provided with a slot 92 into which purlin 80 can be inserted. When a nut 94 that projects through a threaded opening in head 90 is properly turned, bracket 88 will be drawn tightly against purlin 80. When a screw 96, which is used to connectportions 76 and 86 of bracket elements 74 and 88, is also properly turned, deformed sleeve 32 of one panel 13 and bead 30 of another panel 13 enclosed by sleeve 32 will both be clamped between bracket elements 74 and 88 and locked to purlin 80.
Although preferred embodiments of the instant invention have been disclosed and described, it will be apparent that changes and modifications can be made therein without departing from the scope of the appended claims wherein:
What is claimed is:
1. A composite building panel comprised of a plank element provided with a main body portion which terminates at each end thereof in upstanding flanged portions one of which includes a terminal bead and the other of which includes a deformable sleeve that can be folded tightly about the bead on a similarly configured panel when a pair of such similarly configured panels are disposed in adjoining relationship, a hacker member secured to the underside of said main body portion of the panel, the marginal side edges of said backer member terminating adjacent the normal planes of said flanged portions and a joint sealing strip of sponge-like material affixed to one of the marginal edges of said backer member and closely adjacent the side of the panel that is to constitute the warm face of the panel when the panel is installed in a building structure, said strip being substantially smaller in height than the thickness of the backer member and having preselected characteristics of moisture impermeability, resiliency and compressibility.
2. A composite panel as set forth in claim 1 wherein the sealing strip has a permeability to moisture in vapor form on the order of from to 50 perms.
3. A composite panel as set forth in claim 1 in which the backer is comprised of a foamed material.
4. A composite panel as set forth in claim 3 wherein the backer is comprised of a polyurethane foam.
5. A composite panel of claim 1 wherein the sealing strip is made of a material consisting essentially of a polyvinyl material having a permeability to moisture in vapor form on the order of from 10 to 50 perms.
6. A composite panel as set forth in claim 1 wherein the sealing strip has a selected compressibility on the order of 10 lbs. per foot of length.
7. A composite panel as set forth in claim 2 wherein the sealing strip has a selected compressibility on the order of 10 lbs. per foot of length.
8. A composite panel as set forth in claim 1 wherein the surfaces of the backer member that are out of contact with the plank are substantially encompassed by a moisture impermeable facing and wherein the sealing strip is afiixed directly to said facing.
9. A composite panel as set forth in claim 8 wherein said facing includes at least one layer of aluminum foil.
10. A relatively moisture impermeable joint structure between a pair of composite panels of the type described, each of said panels comprising a plank having a main body portion terminating in upstanding flanged edges, one of the flanged edges including a terminal bead and the other edge including a deformable sleeve, the panels being arranged in side-by-side relationship in said joint structure such that the terminal head of the flanged edge of one plank is substantially fully enclosed by the deformable sleeve of the other plank upon the deformation there of, the underside of the main body portion of each plank having a backer member secured thereto, the side marginal edges of the backer member terminating adjacent the normal planes of the flanged edges of theplank with which such backer member is associated whereby a gap is formed between the backer members of adjoining panels in the area of the joint structure therebetween and a joint sealing strip of sponge-like material affixed to the marginal edge of the backer member of one panel and closely adjacent the face of the said one panel that is to constitute the warm face thereof in said joint structure, said strip being substantially smaller in height than the backer member with which it is associated, said strip having preselected characteristics of moisture impermeability, resiliency and compressibility and said strip being compressed within and fully bridgingthe gap between the associated backer members of the adjoining panels in said joint structure.
11. A joint structure as set forth in claim 10 wherein said sealing strip has a permeability to moisture in vapor form on the order of 10 to perms.
12. A joint structure as set forth in claim 10 wherein the panels of said pair of panels are arranged across spaced supports and a portion of an anchoring clip is secured to one of said supports and another portion of said clip is interposed between the flanged edges of adjoining panels and extends through the said joint structures between said adjoining panels for attaching said panels to said one of said supports.
13. A joint structure as set forth in claim 10 wherein the surfaces of said backer members that are out of contact with their associated planks are substantially fully enclosed with moisture impermeable facings, portions of which facing are disposed in said joint structure.
14. A joint structure as set forth in claim 10 wherein the sealing strip has a selected compressibility on the order of 10 lbs. per foot of length.
15. A joint structure as set forth in claim 10 in which said sealing strip is compressed to approximately /2 of its initial width when the adjacent opposed marginal side edges of adjoining panel backer members are disposed adjacent each other in said joint structure.
16. A joint structure as set forth in claim 15 wherein the sealing strip in the uncompressed state has a width on the order of 4".
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,312,028 4/1967 Schroyer 52-478 3,466,831 9/1969 Lenoir 52394 JOHN E. MURTAG, Primary Examiner US. or. X.R. 52-413, 478, 483, 520, 52s