US 3557391 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
l Jan. 26, 1971 R. E. wEsT l COMBINED DECK AND HORIZONTAL GIRDER STRUCTURE Filed July-29, 1968 2 Sheets-Sheet l A Sym A Illllll NVENTOL llobafLT E. Wee? TTOUJJEY M w1 fw COMBINED DECK- AND HORIZONTAL GIRDER STRUCTURE Filed July 29,V 1968 R. E. WEST 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 /l l l f 1 mvem'orz loben E. WEST ,.EYMMW ATTO 0N EYS United States Patent Us. lcl. 4112.19 7 claims ABSTRACT F THE DISCLOSURE A structure extending outwardly from the wall of a swimming pool mainly combines the functions of a deck extending alongside the pool, and a girder resisting forces exerted horizontally by the pressure of water on the side walls of the pool. The structure includes a flat web serving as a decking, and extrusions receiving the inner and outer edges of the web. The extrusions and web form a girder, and also serve to connect the decking to the pool wall structure and surrounding support framing. Additional functions such as those of a liner retainer, grab rail, and coping may be built into the inner extrusion.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the invention The invention pertains to the art of constructing swimming pools and is particularly directed to the construction of so called 4on-ground swimming pools, also known as above-'ground pools. The invention may, however, be applied to in-ground pools.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PRIOR ART lIn the prior art, on-ground Swimmingpools have been constructed and typically, these include swimming pool wall structures and surrounding frame structures designed to strengthen the walls and prevent them from yielding to stresses exerted there against by the water within the 4swimming poolfPools of this type include, typically, decking extending around the wall structure of the swimming pool, the decking being supported by vertical posts, in-
clined struts, or other framing arrangements. Representative of the prior art are the following patents:
French Pat. 768,506
`British Pat. 876,480
Des.201,793,1s5,57o,189,811 i Us. Pais, Nos. 2,490,272, 3,016,546
In all of the prior art structures, to my knowledge, th'e decking and frame structure, though naturally serving and in fact intended to serve as strengthening means for the :swimming pool wall, have not been specifically conceived Ato define .between the swimming pool wall and the surrounding frame structure a deck fashioned to function as a plate girder and thus brace or support the wall structure l more strongly and efficiently than has been true of the lprior art constructions.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Swimmingpool. The plate forms the web of a girder, the
inner flange the stress-receiving strengthening or reinforcing elements secured to one edge of the girder web, and the outer flange the other stress-receivingelement, bound- 3,557,391 Patented Jan. 26, 1971 ing the opposite edge of the web. Thus, the web and the stress-receiving edge structures of a true girder are provided in the construction, to afford maximum resistance to the stresses developed by filling of the swimming pool with water, providing at the same time a deck extending about the hopper or tank of the pool. In the prior art, the typical on-ground swimming pool has often utilized surrounding framing, to rigidity the wall structure and support the deck, and engineering of the framing to produce a plate girder about the swimming pool wall has not, apparently, suggested itself to swimming pool designers heretofore.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. l is a fragmentary perspective view of a combined girder and deck for swimming pools, shown in its mounted position in association with a swimming pool wall structure and a surrounding framing structure;
FIG. 2 is a transverse sectional view substantially on line 2 2 of FIG. 1, showing the outer flange of the girder;
FIG. 3 is a sectional view substantially on line 3 3 `of FIG. 1, showing the inner flange of the structure;
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Designated generally at 10 is the horizontal deck and girder structure constituting the present invention. This is shown in FIG. 1 in operative association with a swimming pool wall structure generally designated 12, and deck-supporting framing, generally designated 14. The wall and framing structures 12, 14 respectively, are in and of themselves, basically conventional in aboveground swimming pools, as will be noted for example, by reference to patents such as Kascle Pat. 2,490,272 or Pruess Des. 185,570.
' Typically, the wall structure `12 of an on-ground swimming pool includes a pair of superposed heavy planks 16 resting directly upon the ground G, from which pool wall panels 18 extend upwardly. The pool wall panels 18 are secured to vertical studs 20 spaced apart uniformly `along the length ofthe pool wall.
The framing structure 14 includes spaced, vertical posts 22, the lower ends of which may be suitably anchored, said posts extending upwardly above the level Vof the top of the wall structure, whereby the posts serve not only as deck supports, but also, as the posts of a suitable railing that extends about the decking and that includes horizontal rails 24, or other typical fencing components.
As previously noted, the elements of the on-ground yswimming pool so far described are, per se, conventional.
Normally, the conventional deck structure associated with the framing and wall structure includes decking comprising one or more pieces of plywood, abutting directly against the pool wall structure. A receptor for a conventional plastic swimming pool liner is positioned upon the decking, and nails or other fastening elements extend through the receptor and through the plywood decking members to connect the same together. Fastening elements are also used to connect the decking elements to the pool wall structure and the framing structure, and
transverse braces, stiffeners, or the like are also extended between the wall and framing.
However, such arrangements are cumbersome, expensive, and time-consuming in assembly, and resist horizontal forces resulting from water pressure upon the side walls of the swimming pool only by use of what is considered to be an excessive number of deck and framing members, spaced closely together and formed from particularly heavy, strong stock.
The horizontal deck and girder structure 10 constituting the present invention effectively resists the horizontal forces described, by means of a light weight deck assembly which, in and of itself, a true horizontally disposed girder surrounding the entire pool wall. Essentially, this includes a deck plate constituting the web of the girder, and designated 26 in the drawing, an inner flange 28 constituting one of the girder flanges and serving as a connector between the deck plate and wall structure, a hand rail, and a liner receptor, and an outer flange 30 constituting the other girder flange and serving also as means for conveniently connecting the decking to the support framing 14.
Considering first the construction of the inner flange 28, in a typical embodiment this can comprise an alumium extrusion of any desired length, formed with a horizontally opening channel 32 that opens in a direction away from the pool wall, to receive the inner longitudinal edge of the plate 26. As shown in FIG. 4, it is preferred that the confronting walls of the horizontally opening channel be formed with Serrations 33 designed to bite into the opposite faces of the plate 26. Adhesive is disposed in the recesses defined by adjacent Serrations 33, to provide an effective bond between the channel walls and the deck plate 26.
The extrusion also includes a downwardly opening channel 34, adapted to receive the upper edge portion of the pool wall panels 18. At suitable locations along the length of the wall structure, connecting bolts 36 are extended through registered openings of panel 18 and the walls of channel 34, to fixedly connect the pool wall to the channel.
Similarly, the inner flange 28 is secured to the deck plate, by means of connecting bolts 38 extending through registered openings of the plate and flange.
Integrally formed upon the upper surface of horizontally opening channel 32 of inner flange 28 is a retaining element 40 of inverted L shape, defining a liner-receiving recess 42 opening inwardly of the swimming pool wall structure. At the open end of the recess, flange 28 is formed with a low, upwardly projecting locking lip 44, s as to form a restricted entranceway in the recess.
Engageable in recess 42 is the bead 46 of a conventional flexible plastic liner 48. These are conventional in both on-ground and in-ground pools.
The bead of the liner snaps into the recess 42. It is already known, in this regard, to provide snap-in means in swimming pool copings, receptors, or the like, for beaded liners, but heretofore, to my knowledge it has not been known to provide the receptor as an integral part of a connecting flange between the swimming pool and the decking, much less as an integral part of a girder flange in which is incorporated the described function of connecting the deck plate to the wall structure.
Retaining element 40 serves additional purposes. It furnishes a grab rail, and additionally serves to rigidify or stiffen the inner flange 28 so as to aid it in more effectively discharging its important function of carrying stress as a true girder flange element must.
In FIGS. and 6, modified inner flange constructions have been shown. In FIG. 5, the inner flange 20a includes a horizontally opening channel 32a receiving the deck 26, said channel being connected to the deck by means of spaced connecting bolts 38. Serrations can be provided in the confronting walls of channel 32a as in the first form of the invention. The flange may be provided, as
shown in FIG. 5, with a stop rib 35, against which the plate 26 abuts when inserted in the channel 32a.
In this form of the invention, the liner-receiving recess 42a is disposed below the channel 32a, between the downwardly opening channel 34a and said channel 32a.
Also, as seen in FIG. 5, the hand or grab rail 40a is formed as a raised portion, the opposite walls of which are continued horizontally to provide the walls of channel 32a. Grab rail 40a in this form of the invention projects inwardly beyond the pool wall 18, so as to reduce splash-out. Thus, the inner flange 28a serves all the purposes of the flange 28, while at the same time incorporating the salient features of a coping.
In FIG. 6, the inner flange 28b again includes a horizontally opening channel 32b, receiving plate 26 and connected thereto by means of bolts 38. In this form of the invention, the downwardly opening channel 34b is arranged as in the first form of the invention. The main difference between this construction and the constructions shown in FIGS. 1 and 4 resides in the form of the liner receptor. In FIG. 6, the receptor includes a box-like portion 41 formed as an integral addition to the horizontal inwardly extending top leg of the retaining element or receptor of inverted L-shape. This strengthens the flange additionally, and increases the size of the grab rail to permit it to be grasped more readily by a swimmer.
In FIGS, 7 and 8, the inner flange 28e has a channel 34C including an inner step 49 defining narrow and wide channel portions 51, 53, to receive thin or thick wall structures 18c or 18, respectively.
Referring now to FIGS. l and 2, the outer flange 30 of the combined deck `and girder 10 is also, in a preferred embodiment, formed as an aluminum extrusion of selected length. This includes a vertical, relatively wide web portion 50. Integrally formed upon the upper edge portion thereof is a horizontal, inwardly opening channel 52, disposed in confronting relation to channel 32 so as to receive the outer edge of the deck plate or girder web 26. Connecting bolts 56 extend through registered openings of the channel S2 and deck plate to xedly connect the same together, and as in the case of the inner flange, serrations 54, receiving a suitable adhesive, can be formed in the walls of the channel to strengthen the connection.
between the outer flange and the deck plate.
At the lower edge of the web portion 50, it is preferred to provide a reinforcing lip 58 of L-shape in cross-section, to impart a requisite stiffness to the web portion 50 where by to prevent said web portion from deforming inwardly or outwardly under stress, by increase of the radius of gyration thereof.
At suitable locations alog the length of the outer flange, post 22 will abut against the outer surface of the web portion 50, and connecting bolts 60 are here extended through registered openings of the outer flange and posts, to provide for a connection between the support framing 14 and the structure 10.
Also incorporated in the construction are stiffening means such as the pairs of stiffener plates 62. As will be seen from FIG. 2, the stiflener plates 62 of each pair are disposed at opposite sides of each post 22, in embracing relation thereto, and connecting bolts 64 pass through registered openings of the stiffener plates and posts. The stifener plates underly the plate 26 in supporting relation thereto, and at their other ends, have openings receiving connecting bolts 66 which as shown in FIG. 3 extend through stud 20 to connect the stiffeners to the studs of the wall structure. A right-angular recess 68 is provided at the rear end of each stiffener, to provide clearance for the outer flange.
By reason of the construction illustrated, it will be seen that the structure 10 constitutes a horizontally disposed, wide girder extending along the pool wall, and lying directly within the plane in which horizontal forces are exerted by the pressure of water upon the side walls of the pool. It will be understood that in most instances, the girder will extend continuously about the entire pool, so
as to encircle the same completely, and effectively resist the outwardly directed forces wherever they may occur on the pool circumference or periphery.
It is of importance, in this regard, that the horizontal girder dened by web 26 and by girder flanges 28, 30, is of simple design, comprising only three p'arts, one of `which is simply a flat piece of plywood or other plate material the remaining two parts comprising simple extrusions or flange forms. It may be observed at this point that instead of an aluminum extrusion, I may prefer to use cold-formed steel sections, berglass, etc. for the flanges.
At the same time, the combined deck and girder structure incorporates additional functions, facilitating connection of the structure to the framing and to the pool wall, whereby to facilitate not only the manufacture of the components, but also, to reduce labor costs by speeding up the assembly of the swimming pool in situ. These desirable aims are achieved, it should be noted, while still further reducing costs by combining in the structure such additional functions yas those of a liner receptor and grab rail, whereby to dispense with such additional components as separately formed liner receptors, copings, etc.
The strength of the structure, as a means resisting the described pressures, is achieved, further, while reducing the overall weight thereof, as Well as the total number of the Wall and framing components, the construction illustrated and described being adapted to increase the spacing between adjacent studs or posts if desired.
1. The combination, with the side wall and the surrounding frame structure of a swimming pool, of a combined deck and girder for disposition between said side wall and frame structure, comprising:
(a) a at, generally horizontal plate extending along said side wall to provide a combined pool deck and girder web, said plate being integrally constituted over its full width when viewed in cross-section; and
(b) inner and outer stress-receiving girder flanges both of which are lixedly secured directly to the respective opposite edges of the plate and including means connected to the wall and frame structures respectively.
2. A combined deck and girder for swimming pools as in claim 1 wherein said flanges include inwardly facing channels receiving the respective edges of the plate.
3. A combined deck and girder for swimming pools as in claim 2 wherein the inner ange includes 'a second channel, opening downwardly to receive said wall structures.
4. A combined deck and girder for swimming pools as in claim 3 wherein said inner flange further includes a l laterally opening recess for receiving the bead of a pool liner extending along said wall strtucture.
5. A combined deck and girder as in claim 2 wherein theouter flange includes a web portion lying in a generally vertical plane.
6. A combined deck and girder as in claim 1 further including a deck support member spaced longitudinally of and extending transversely of said plate below the same to provide lateral stiifeners therefor.
7. A combined deck and girder as in claim 6 wherein said deck support members arexedly secured to and extend between the wall and framing structures.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 30 3,416,165 12/1968 Pereira 4 172.19
LAVERNE D. GEIGER, Primary Examiner R. I. SHER, Assistant Examiner U.S. Cl. X.R. 4-172.21