|Publication number||US3559358 A|
|Publication date||Feb 2, 1971|
|Filing date||Sep 15, 1967|
|Priority date||Sep 15, 1967|
|Publication number||US 3559358 A, US 3559358A, US-A-3559358, US3559358 A, US3559358A|
|Inventors||Fowler David George, Lohse Robert Vincent|
|Original Assignee||Johns Manville|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (27), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Feb. 2, 1971 R. v. LOHSE ET AL 3,559,358
FACING WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed Sept. 15
s Sheets-Sheet 1 'DAV/D G. FOWLER BY 5 INVENTORS" R0557? T SE ATTOR EV Feb. 2, 1971 R, v, LQHSE ETAL' 3,559,358
. FACING WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed Sept. 15, 1967 s Sheets-Sheet 2 United States Patent 3,559,358 FACING WALL CONSTRUCTION Robert Vincent Lohse, West Orange, N.J., and David George Fowler, Timmins, Ontario, Canada, assignors to Johns-Manville Corporation, New York, N.Y., a corporation of New York Filed Sept. 15, 1967, Ser. No. 668,120 Int. Cl. E04b 1/16, 1/38 US. Cl. 52--379 2 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Cementitious facing panels are secured to a building wall by means of clips, each clip having one portion attached to the wall and another portion fitted in an integrally formed groove in the back of a facing panel. The panel grooves slidably mate with the clips to permit easy installation.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates broadly to means for securing facing panels to a building. In particular, it relates to the mechanical fastening of cementitious facing panels to a building structure, with the fastening means being hidden from view.
In the construction of new oflice buildings, apartment buildings and other related structures, and in the renovation of old buildings, much emphasis is placed on selection of suitable types of architectural panels for use as a veneer on exterior walls. Relatively thick natural stone and thick precast concrete panels often are used to produce the natural, rugged, massive appearance desired by many architects. While satisfactory in appearance, the high cost of such panels and the difficulty of installing them, due to their great weight, has caused architects to search for other types of facing panels, preferably panels which create the same type of visual effect as natural stone and thick precast concrete panels but which are less expensive and easier to handle.
One type of panel that has met with success in producing the desired esthetic effect while being relatively thin and lightweight is a preformed cementitious panel, the thickness of which may be as little as about inch in contrast to previously employed panels three to four inches in thickness. It can be secured to the building structure by means of mechanical fasteners, such as bolts, but such an arrangement leaves exposed bolt heads or other fastening means, which detract from the appearance of the panels.
OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION It is an object of the invention to provide a mechanical fastening arrangement for securing cementitious facing panels to a structural building wall, which arrangement is easy to install and is hidden from view.
Another object is to provide such an arrangement which is adapted to -be installed over various types of structural supporting walls.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Briefly described, the invention comprises a cementitious facing panel having an integral groove in its back face whch mates with a structural clip secured to a structural building wall. Spaced from the bottom of the groove are inwardly directed flanges integrally formed on the side walls of the groove. The clip has a projecting portion spaced from and substantially parallel to the wall which fits into the groove in the space or slot between the bottom of the groove and the inwardly directed flanges. The grooves and the projecting portion of the clip are so formed that their dimensions permit the projecting portion to have relative sliding movement with respect to the grooves, thus permitting the panel to be moved into place on the wall by sliding it down over a previously installed clip. The same basic construction is followed for all types of clips, which include starter clips adapted to support the bottom of the panel, tie-back clips adapted to hold the panel in place at various points intermediate the height of the panel, and connector clips adapted to hold the top of one panel in place, while supporting the bottom edge of the next higher panel.
DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS The nature of the invention will be more fully understood and other objects may become apparent when the following detailed description is considered in connection with the accompanying drawing, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a pictorial representation of a typical cementitious panel which may be used in the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary pictorial representation of a pair of panels of the type shown in FIG. 1, held in place by a starter clip;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged horizontal sectional view taken on line 3-3 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary pictorial representation of a panel held in place by a different type of starter clip;
FIG. 5 is a pictorial representation of a panel held in place intermediate its height by a tie-back clip;
FIG. 6 is a pictorial representaton of another type of tie-back clip;
FIG. 7 is a pictorial representation similar to that of FIG. 6, but showing a modified clip;
FIG. 8 is a pictorial representation similar to that of FIG. 6, but showing another modified clip;
FIG. 9 is a fragmentary pictorial representation of two vertically adjacent panels held in place by a single connector clip;
FIG. 10 is an enlarged horizontal sectional view taken on line 1010 of FIG. 9; and
FIG. 11 is an enlarged fragmentary end view showing a typical panel with a connector clip engaged intermediate the panel width.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring to FIG. 1, a typical cementitious panel for use in the present invention is illustrated at 10. The back face 12 of the panel is provided with a number of grooves 14 parallel to the side edges of the panel which form lands 16 between the grooves. The panel may be comprised of any desired cenientitious material strong enough to resist stresses at the connection between the grooves and the support clips described hereinafter. A preferred material is asbestos-cement, a composition cap-able of providing adequate strength even at a panel thickness of as little as inch. While such a panel may be formed by a molding process, excellent results have been produced by extruding it, thus facilitating the formation of the groove and land areas. Extruding further permits formation of intricate groove shapes and decorations on the panel faces, and results in fewer rejects than if such a panel were formed by the conventional molding process.
FIGS. 2 and 3 show a typical installation of facing panels held in place by a starter clip. Panels and 10a having, respectively, grooves 14 and 14a and land areas 16 and 16a, are butted together at their adjacent side edges to form a joint 18. If desired, the joint 18 may be filled with a suitable waterproof sealant, such as, for example, a polysulfide or silicone sealing compound. The panels are formed so that the cutaway portion 20 at the side edge of panel 10 and cutaway portion 20a at the side edge of panel 10a each constitute one-half of a full groove structure, such as grooves 14 and 14a. Thus when the panels are butted as shown, the half-grooves 2.0 and 20a combine to form a full size groove identical to the grooves 14 and 14a.
Taking groove 14 in FIG. 3 as a typical groove formation, it can be seen that the adjacent land areas 16 terminate in flanges 22 spaced apart a distance less than the width of the bottom of the groove. The flanges 22 also form a part of the side walls of the grooves 14 and serve to define the groove space or slot 24 located between the flanges 22 and the bottom of the groove 14.
The starter clip shown in FIGS. 2 and 3 is indicated generally by reference numeral 26 and comprises a body portion or plate 28 attached to the upper face of structural wall or ledge 30 by suitable fasteners, such as bolts 32. Perpendicular to the plate 28 and spaced from the outer edge of the wall 30 is an upwardly projecting portion 34 of substantially lesser width than the body portion 28. The width of the projecting portion 34 is correlated to the width of the slot portion of the groove formed by the half-grooves 20 and 20a to permit relative sliding movement between the projecting clip portion 34 and the groove.
This relationship is brought out more clearly in FIG. 11 which shows the projecting portion 34 of the clip extending into a groove 14 of the panel 16. The side wall 36 of the groove 14 between the flange 22 and the bottom of the groove 14 is rounded to facilitate relative sliding movement between the projecting portion 34 and the slot portion 24 of groove 14. This is a desirable arrangement because if the width of the slot portion of the groove were considerably greater than the width of the projecting clip portion 34, it would necessitate the flange portions 22 of the groove to extend inwardly toward each other a greater distance than is required by having the width of the projecting portion just slightly less than the width of the slot portion 24. The more the flange portion 22 projects inwardly beyond the side edge of the slot portion 24, the thicker the dimension 38 would have to be resist shear forces. A typical arrangement, which has been found to successfully withstand the forces to which it is exposed when installed on a structural building wall, comprises an asbestos-cement panel used in connection with clips of 18-gauge steel. For a panel having a thickness of about inch, it is preferred that the total depth of the groove 14 be about inch, with the depth of the slot portion comprising about inch and the thickness of the flange (corresponding to the dimension indicated by numeral 38) comprising about /8 inch. In such an arrangement, the distance the flange extends beyond the side wall of the slot portion of the groove preferably would be about A: inch. Designs of different dimensions can be utilized so long as the basic relationships required for satisfactory performance of the invention, as disclosed herein, are met.
Referring backs to FIGS. 2 and 3, it will be noted that the lower edges of the adjacent land portions 16 and 16a of adjacent abutting panels 10 and 10a, respectively, are supported on the plate portion 28 of clip 26 adjacent the projecting portion 34, and that the panels 10 and 10a are spaced from the wall 30. Thus the clip 26 not only serves to position and align the panels during installation, but to space the panels from the structural wall and to assist in supporting the weight of the panel. The spacing of the panels from the wall permits them to be installed in a uniform vertical plane regardless of the roughness or unevenness of the wall, which might otherwise prevent such an installation if the panels were backed directly against the wall.
To install such a panel it is merely necessary to first determine the distance it is desired to have the panel spaced from the building wall, then secure the starter clip to the wall so that the projecting portion of the clip is spaced a corresponding distance from the wall. The panel is moved into place by sliding it downwardly so that the projecting portion of the clip engages the slot portion of the panel groove. When using a clip at the adjacent side edges of a pair of panels, with the projecting clip portion cooperating with the groove formed by the abutting half-grooves of the panels, clips should first be attached to the building wall at the desired locations of the vertical side edges of a panel and the panel then moved into place so that the half-groove at each side edge slidingly engages half of the projecting portion of the adjacent clip. Installation of the next adjacent panels will then complete the groove formation and will anchor the panels in place on the clips.
Referring to FIG. 4, another type of starting clip is shown which can be used when the available horizontal wall or ledge surface is too shallow to permit use of the type of clip illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3. In this arrangement a starter clip 40 is attached to a wall 42 by means of bolts 44 extending through the main body portion 46 of the clip. The parallel projecting portion 48 is connected to and spaced from the body portion 46 by an intermediate portion 50 which rests on the narrow horizontal surface of ledge 52. The half-groove of panel 56 is illustrated as being engaged with the projecting portion 48 of the clip 40. If desired, a suitable waterproof sealant 58 can be used between the bottom of the panel 56 and the ledge 52. An added benefit derived from spacing the panels from the wall when all edges of the panels are sealed is the dead air space between the backs of the panels and the structural wall which serves as an insulator.
Referring to FIG. 5, the clip 60 is a tie-back clip which is used intermediate the horizontal edges of the panel to assist the starter clip in holding the panel in place. The clip 60 comprises a body portion 62 secured by bolts 64 to the upper surface of a ledge or block 66 of a structural wall shown in an intermediate stage of construction. The body portion 62 extends outwardly beyond the vertical face of the structural wall 66 to form an intermediate portion connected to a downwardly depending projecting portion 68 which engages with the halfgroove 70 of the panel 72 in the same manner that the projecting portions of the clips shown in FIGS. 2, 3 and 4 engage in the half-grooves of their associated panels. Adjacent the projecting portion 68, the body portion 62 of the clip is provided with notches 74 on opposite sides of the clip. The notches are of suitable dimensions to permit the flange portion 76, which forms a part of the side wall of the half-groove 70, to have relative sliding movement with the clip during installation. To install such a clip and panel arrangement, the clip can first be positioned by using the panel itself, or a similarly shaped template, to locate the distance the projecting portion should be spaced from the wall. The clip is then secured in place on the wall 66 and the panel moved into place with the half-groove 70 in sliding engagement with the projecting portion 68.
Another clip which can be used for the same purpose as the clip 60 is illustrated in FIG. 6 at 78 and is comprised of a body portion 80 and a projecting portion 82. The body portion 80 comprises a series of corrugations adapted to hold the clip in place within a mortar groove between two vertically adjacent horizontal courses of building blocks. There are no notches provided in the body portion 80 of the clip 78, but the width of the body portion is narrow enough to permit sliding movement between the projecting portion 82 and the groove of a facing panel. In other words, the width of the body portion 80 corresponds to the distance between the notches 74 of the clip 60 illustrated in FIG. 5.
In FIG. 7 another type of tie-back clip is illustrated. In this embodiment, the clip 84 is provided with body portion 86, projecting portion 88 and notches 90. The notches are provided in an intermediate connecting portion 92 the length of which corresponds to the distance the projecting portion should be spaced from the structural wall to which the clip is secured. The body portion 86 is provided with a series of corrugations to permit it to be inserted in a mortar groove between adjacent rows of blocks. The body portion is in a plane at right angles to the plane of the intermediate connecting portion so that it may fit between the vertical side edges of adjacent blocks of a structural wall.
FIG. 8 illustrates a clip similar in some respects to the clip shown in FIG. 7. The clip 94 of FIG. -8 is comprised of a body portion 96 and a projecting portion 98, the body portion being aligned in a vertical plane when installed, as in the case of the clip 84 of FIG. 7, and being connected to the projecting portion 98 by intermediate connecting portion 100. The body portion 96 is adapted to be bolted to the side wall of a building block before the next adjacent building block forming a part of the structural wall is put into place. The width of the con-- necting portion 100 is substantially the same as the width between the bottoms of the notches 90 of the clip 84 shown in FIG. 7 to permit relative sliding movement between the projecting portion 98 and the grooves in a facing panel.
It should be understood that any combination of the hidden fastening system. The panels are not only supported by clips but are also spaced by them a suitable distance from the facing wall so that any unevenness in the facing wall will not make it diflicult or impossible to erect a facing panel wall in a smooth vertical plane. Furthermore, when the edges of the panels are sealed, the resulting dead air space between the panels and the structural wall acts as an insulator to assist in the insulating of the building. The simple clip arrangement permits a variations illustrated in FIGS. 5 through 8 can be used in a tie-back clip. For example, even though notches have been shown in the clip 60 of FIG. 5, it is contemplated that the entire body portion 62 may be of a lesser width, functioning with respect to permitting relative sliding movement with a panel in the manner illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 8. Similarly, the body portion may be corrugated or twisted with respect to the intermediate connecting portion as desired.
Referring to FIGS. 9 and 10, a connector clip arrangement is shown for use in combination with two vertically adjacent panels in a multicourse panel system. In this arrangement, the connector clip 102 is bolted to the structural wall 104 through body portion 106. Extending at right angles to the body portion 106 are intermediate connecting portions 108 and 110, each of which is connected at its extremity to a projecting portion 112 and 114, respectively. The projecting portion 112 cooperates with the half-groove 116 of panel 118 and the projecting portion 114 cooperates with the half-groove 120 of the next lower adjacent panel 122. The upper intermediate portion 108 is notched at 124 adjacent the end of the projecting portion 112 to permit the flange 126 of the side wall of the half-groove 116 of panel 118 to pass through the intermediate body portion during the relative sliding movement that occurs at installation between panel 118 and projecting portion 112. The lower intermediate body portion 110 is not notched, however, because it has to provide support for the bottom edge of the land portion 128 of panel 118. Thus the connector clip 102 combines the features of the tie-back clip and the starter clip to hold vertically adjacent panels in place.
It should now be apparent that the clip and panel system of the present invention permits cementitious panels, which ordinary cannot be provided with separate fastening means without resulting in at least some of the fastening means being exposed to view, to be held in place by a single piece of stock to be notched, where appropriate, and subsequently subjected to suitable bending operations to produce the finished clip. It is preferred that the tieback clips be notched because this permits the body portion of the clip to be of a greater width, thus providing greater strength and less waste. However, the clips and panels will function the same, as far as their installation is concerned, if the body portion is of lesser width, as illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 8. The same comments apply to the body portion 108 of the connector clip illustrated in FIGS. 9 and 10.
The scope of the invention is not limited to the specific embodiments disclosed herein, which may be modified without departing from the spirit of the invention, but is to be interpreted only in accordance with the appended claims, when read in the light of the foregoing disclosure.
What is claimed is:
1. In an exterior facing wall construction,
(a) a structural building wall,
(b) a structural clip, comprising (1) a body portion secured to the building wall,
(2) a projecting portion spaced from the building wall and extending substantially parallel thereto, and
(c) a pair of cementitious facing panels spaced from the building wall and having abutting side edges, each panel having a front face and a back face,
((1) the back face of each panel having a cutaway portion opening into the abutting side edge of the panel,
(e) the adjacent cutaway portions of the pair of panels forming a groove extending substantially parallel to the projecting portion of the clip,
(f) the side walls of the groove being more closely spaced adjacent the back faces of the panels than adjacent the bottom of the groove to define inwardly projecting flanges and a slot portion,
(g) the flanges of the groove being spaced a substantial distance from each other and from the abutting side edges of the panels and being of suflicient thickness to resist shearing when the panels are subjected to ordinary forces tending to pull the panels away from the wall,
(h) the projecting portion of the clip being located in the slot portion between the bottom of the groove and the flanges,
(i) the width of the projecting portion of the clip being greater than the distance between the flanges but less than the width of the slot to permit relative sliding motion between the projecting portion of the clip and the slot as the panels are moved into place,
(j) the body portion of the clip being connected to the projecting portion of the clip by an intermediate portion having a lesser width adjacent the projecting portion than the distance between the flanges of the groove to permit the entire projecting portion of the clip to be located at any point between the top and bottom edges of the panels.
2. A facing wall construction as recited in claim 1, wherein the projecting portion of the clip extends upwardly, and wherein theconstruction includes additionally a second intermediate clip portion beneath the first intermediate clip portion, the lower edge of the groove flanges resting on the second intermediate clip portion.
(References on following page) 7 8 References Cited FOREIGN PATENTS UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,340,757 9/ 1963 France 52489 59 5 2 2 1 9 spilling 52 450 819,668 9/1959 Great Britain 52545 704,771 7/1902 Baile 52450 1,006,424 10/1911 Ashe: 5 FRANK L. ABBOTT, Prlrnary Examlner 1,835,524 12/1931 Rinehart et a1. 52-45l J. L. RIDGILL, JR., Assistant Examiner 2,130,531 9/1938 Arand 52-379 2,202,568 5/1940 Worden 52481 US- Cl- X-R. 2,356,309 8/1944 Garbe --1-- 52 235 391 509 513 714 3,016,655 1/1962 Hosbein 52 509
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|U.S. Classification||52/379, 52/714, 52/509, 52/513, 52/235, 52/391|