US 3559416 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 2, 1971 I T. E. CORNWALL WATER ENERGIZED REFRIGERANT AND PACKAGE THEREFOR Filed April 21, 1967 INVENTOR.
CORNWALL Arm/ems) 1 3,559,416 WATER ENERGIZED 'REFRIGERANT AND PACKAGE THEREFOR Thomas E. Cornwall, Buena Park, Califi, assignor, b
mesne assignments, to Technology Investors, Inc., Los Angeles, Calif., a small business investment corporation Filed AprJZl, 1967, Ser. No. 632,775
Int. Cl. F25d /00 US. Cl. 62-4 Y Claims BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the invention The invention relates to a waterproof package in 'which a granulated material is contained in a dry state until a refrigerating action is required, 'at which time water is added to the package. Thereafter, the granulated material gradually goes into solution, and in so doing cools not only the package, but the area adjacent the package. The package is particularly adapted for use in refrigerating portable ice chests, as cold packs, or any application FIG. 3 is an exploded perspective view of the package when in the open position, and illustrating a clip used to seal the open end thereof;
FIG. 4 is a perspective view of the preferred form of the package showing how water is added thereto to energize the refrigerant contained therein;
FIG. 5 is a perspective view of the package in a sealed condition, after the addition of water;
'FIG. 6 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view of the invention shown in 'FIG. 5; taken on the line 6-6 thereof; FIG. 7 is a fragmentary view of the package showing the manner in which the clip removably maintains the same in a sealed condition;
FIG. 8 is a perspective view of an alternate form of package for use with the water energizable refrigerant;
FIG. 9 is a perspective view of an insulated chest in which a number of the preferred forms of the invention aredisposed for refrigerating purposes; and
FIG. 10 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view of a second alternate form of the device.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring to FIGS. 1, 2, 3 and 7 of the drawing for the general arrangement of the preferred form A of the invention, it will be seen to include an elongate sack B formed from a pliant sheet material of a waterproof nature, preferably a polymerized resin such as polyethylene. The sheet material is preferably transparent where a localized cooling action is required. It will be with which itmay be applied and because the energizing water is at all times sealed within'the confines of the package. 1 r
- (2) Description of the prior art" Prior to thefpresent invention, packaged liquid ma- J terials have been used for cooling purposes, but this eifect has been attained by first freezing the liquid in a refrigerator, afterwhich the package containing the frozen liquid could be employed as a refrigerant. Such devices, however, are not pertinent to the .present invention, for when the present package is employed, it is unnecessary to refrigerate the same to activate the contents of the package. p
SUMMARY-OF THE INVENTION The present invention is directed to a pliable, hollow waterproof package that is adapted to contain a granulated material, which package is equipped with means for introducing and mixing water with the granulated material contained therein to obtain a refrigerating action, with the contents remaining sealed in the package at'all times to prevent damage to any surface onwhich the package may be placed Also, when the waterproof package. is used as a cold pack, it providesthe advantage of cooling a localized area of the patient, without wetting the same, as occurs with a conventional crushed ice cold pack.
' BRIEF DESCRIPTION on THE DRAWING FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a preferred form of the waterprof package containing a quantity of the water energized refrigerant;
FIG. 2 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view of the device shown inFIG. 1, taken on-the line 2-2 thereof;
or translucent for reasons to be later explained.
The sack B is partially filled with a solid material C that is in a granular form. The material C is at least partially water soluble, which when water is added thereto, absorbs heat in forming an aqueous solution therewith. As the material C dissolves in the water added to sack B, the water and sack are cooled, as is any other object in close proximity thereto, such as would occur when one or more of the preferred forms A of the package are placed in a conventional refrigerated chest D, as shown in FIG. 9.
In providing the material C, ammonium nitrate is crushed to 200 mesh size particles and tumbled with a. suificient quantity of a finely divided clay as to coat the particles with a film thereof. A suitable clay for the above purposes is one containing alumina, black ferric oxide, magnesium oxide, potassium carbonate and natural soda.
Each four hundred pounds of ammonium nitrate that is so treated is blended with two and one-half pounds of ammonium alum, two and one-half pounds of talc,
. five pounds of sodium chloride and two ounces of a dry water soluble colorant, all of which have likewise been reduced to two hundred mesh size.
In practice, it has been found that the dimensions of the sack B should be such that it is but partially filled when it contains three pounds of the material C and two pounds of water.
The ammonium nitrate and sodium chloride both absorb heat as they dissolve in water. For sustained cooling, it is desirable that the ammonium nitrate go into solution gradually. The film of clay on each particle of ammonium nitrate is, to a degree, porous, and serves to slow down the action of the ammonium nitrate in going into solution. It will be apparent that when the material C is agitated when the water is in sack B, a very appreciable period of time will be required for water to reach each individual particle of ammonium nitrate, and a second period of time of substantial duration to migrate through the clay film coating each particle before the ammonium nitrate defining the particle dissolves. The
. sodium chloride is quite soluble in water, and serves to give a quick initial cooling to the material C when water is added thereto. For these reasons, the ammonium nitrate dissolves in the water at a slower rate than the sodium chloride, thus providing a prolonged cooling effect.
The ammonium alum is added to the material C to slow down the rate at which the ammonium nitrate dissolves in the water added to the sack B, as well as impart an extremely unpleasant taste to the resulting solution so that it will not be inadvertently consumed by a user or child. The colorant is added to enhance the appearance of the package prior to use, and to permit the ready detection of the solution should any of it be spilled from the sack B. Tale is added to the material C to increase the viscosity of the aqueous solution and hold the particles of the material in suspension therein.
The material C may be stored indefinitely in the sack B, and is readily available any time refrigeration is needed. Tests have shown that one three-pound charge of the material C in sack B will provide adequate refrigeration for a single days outing when used in an insulated ice chest D or like container. For longer periods of time, several of the preferred forms A of the invention can be placed in the chest D, and water added se quentially to the sacks B in twelve to sixteen-hour periods as required.
The sack B has an open end portion through which water can be added to the material C from a faucet 12, as shown in FIG. 4, or other desired source. A transverse line 14 is preferably imprinted on sack B, and is so located as to indicate when the desired amount of water has been added to material C. The water level is readily visible through the transparent or translucent sheet material from which the sack B is formed. The amount of water required for a three-pound charge of material C is two pounds.
The length of sack B is such that the oppositely disposed walls of the upper portion thereof can be formed into a roll 16, as illustrated in FIG. 7. A clip E is shown in FIG. 3, that is formed from an elongate resilient strip 18 of plastic or like material, in which an elongate slit 20 is formed. An elongate eye 22 is formed in a first end 24 of strip 18. Two oppositely disposed notches 26 are formed in a second end of strip 18 which serve to partially define a head 28 that extends outwardly and longitudinally therefrom.
After the roll 16 has been formed, the strip 18 is looped around the sack B, and the head 28 caused to removably engage eye 22. Such engagement is only possible if the strip 18 is twisted roughly 90 on its longitudinal axis. Slit 20 in strip 18 creates two elongate engaging portions 20a and 20b in the strip. When the clip E is in the looped position shown in FIG. 7, one of the engaging portions 20a is situated below the roll 16 and the other portion 20b is in gripping contact therewith. The clip E serves to contain the dry material C in sack B, as well as the aqueous solution thereof.
The use and operation of the preferred form of the invention A have been described previously in detail and need not be repeated.
DESCRIPTION OF FIRST ALTERNATE EMBODIMENT An alternate form F of the invention is shown in FIG. 8 that is particularly adapted for use as a cold pack. A completely enclosed container 30 is provided that is formed from sheet polyethylene or like pliable material. A partition 32 in container 30 divides it into first and second compartments 34 and 36, respectively. First compartment 34 contains the material C, and the second compartment 36 a quantity of water 38. One or more weakened areas 40 are formed in partition 32, which may be formed from the same material as the container 30. When that portion of container 30 defining the second compartment 36 is subjected to sudden pressure, the weakened areas 40 are ruptured whereby water 38 mixes with the material C, resulting in the refrigerating action described. The alternate form F of the invention may be conveniently used as a cold pack or for other uses where localized cooling is desired. Also, this alternate form provides the advantage that it may be used in locationswhen no water supply is available.
DESCRIPTION OF SECOND ALTERNATE EMBODIMENT A second embodiment G is shown in FIG. 10 which includes a first pliable waterproof envelope 42 fabricated from sheet polyethylene, or the like, that is loosely filled with the material C. A capsule 44 containing water is partially embedded in the material C disposed in envelope 42. The material defining capsule 44 is substantially weaker in strength than the material of envelope 42. When sudden pressure is applied to envelope 42, the capsule 44 will rupture, and the released water from the capsule will energize the material C to provide a refrigerating action.
1. A portable refrigerant package including:
(a) a waterproof container formed from a pliable sheet material;
(b) a first predetermined quantity of a dry refrigerant material disposed in said container, which material is in the form of particles, with the major portion thereof comprising particles of ammonium nitrate separately coated by a film of finely divided clay that slows down the rate at which said ammonium nitrate dissolves in water;
(c) minor amounts of ammonium alum and talc, disposed in said container with said refrigerant material;
(d) means for adding predetermined quantity of water to said refrigerant material, which quantity of water is sufficient to dissolve said ammonium nitrate, and said ammonium nitrate as it dissolves, cools said water and bag and a zone adjacent thereto.
2. A portable package as defined in claim 1 wherein said container is completely enclosed, and further includes:
(d) a partition that divides the interior of said container into first and second compartments, with said first compartment containing said first quantity of said material and said second compartment said second quantity of water, and with said means for adding said water to said mixture being at least one weakened area in said partition that is ruptured when a sudden pressure is applied externally to said package to permit said water to flow into said first compartment to dissolve said ammonium nitrate.
3. A portable package as defined in claim 1, wherein said means for adding said predetermined quantity of water comprises an opening in said container through which said water can be poured, together with a transverse line imprinted on said container that is so located on said container that when the level of water added thereto is in alignment with said mark a visual indication may be seen that said second predetermined quantity of water has been added to said container.
4. A portable package as defined in claim 3, wherein that portion of said container adjacent said opening can be formed into a roll, and said package further includes:
(d) clip means for removably engaging said package adjacent said opening and said roll to maintain said material in said container in both the dry state and after water has been added thereto.
5. A portable package as defined in claim 1, wherein said material also contains minor amounts of ammonium alum, talc, sodium chloride and a dry water-soluble colorant.
6. A portable package as defined in claim 1 wherein said refrigerant material comprises a portion of a blended mixture consisting of:
(d) 400 pounds of ammonium nitrate particles coated with a film of finely divided clay;
(e) two and one-half pounds of ammonium alum particles;
(f) two and one-half pounds of talc; and
(g) five pounds of sodium chloride.
7. A portable package as defined in claim 6 wherein the components of said refrigerant material are of substantially 200 mesh size.
8. A portable package as defined in claim 1 wherein said refrigerant material further includes:
(h) two ounces of a dry water-soluble colorant.
9. 'A portable package as defined in claim 1, wherein said container comprises a sealed envelope, and said means for adding a second predetermined quantity of water is a rupturable capsule containing water situated within the confines of said envelope.
10. A portable package as defined in claim 9, wherein the material defining said envelope is of substantially greater strength than the material forming said capsule.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS NORMAN YUDKOFF, Primary Examiner R. T. FOSTER, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R.