US 3559527 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
O United States Patent 1 113559527  Inventor Hans-Georg Schallehn  Field of Search 89/36T, Kassel, Germany 36.4, 40.] l [21 App]. N0v 683,320  Filed Nov. 15, 1967 References Cited  Patented Feb. 2, 1971 UNITED STATES PATENTS I 1 Assignee Rheinstahl-lienschel 3.401598 9/1968 Sons 89/40 Kassel, Germany a corporation of Germany Primary Exammer-Samuel Felnberg 32] Priority 9, 1966 Assistant Examiner-Stephen C. Bentley [3 3] Germany Attorney-James E. Bryan  R4476l ABSTRACT: A combat vehicle comprises an armored hull  Q W M VEHICLE protected against nuclear radiation, an armored turret alms rawmg mounted on the hull, an opening connecting the turret and the  US. Cl 89/36 hull, and vertically movable, ivotal, closin means, protected P g [5 l Int. Cl F4lh 5/22 against nuclear radiation, for closing the opening.
ARMORED COMBAT VEHICLE The present invention relates to rotatable turrets for combat vehicles which turrets are equipped with weapons, such as cannons or machine guns, which are mounted either inside or outside the turret.
These turrets make it possible for a member of the crew of the vehicle to survey from a high. protected point of the vehicle the areas surrounding the vehicle and also to observe enemy targets. These activities are facilitated in that the turrets are provided with panoramic sights adapted to be rotated through 360.
In conventional combat vehicles it is known to mount rotatable turrets upon armored vehicle hulls and to store ammunition not only in the turret but also within the vehicle itself. ln these known constructions, the upper portion of the body of one member of the crew is positioned within the rotatable turret and rotates therewith in order to operate the sighting means and the weapon. Since, in case of atomic at tack, the vehicles additionally must be provided with protection against nuclear radiation, the construction of the rotatable turret involves considerable difficulty. On the one hand, the dimensions of the rotatable turret would become too great since it must be considered that, given the relatively signifi cant wall thicknesses of the protection means against nuclear radiation, sufficient space still must be available within the vehicle for accommodating the operating crew, the ammunition, and the like. On the other hand, when the conventional dimensions of the rotatable turret are maintained while a lining providing protection against nuclear radiation is provided therein, the spatial conditions within the turret are narrowed to such an extent that the crew and ammunition stored therein no longer have sufficient room.
The present invention provides a rotatable turret for an armored combat vehicle, protected against nuclear radiation, in such a manner that the disadvantages outlined above are effectively eliminated.
in the present invention, the opening connecting the armored turret with the armored hull, protected against nuclear radiation, is adapted to be closed by means of a pivotal armored element, provided with protection against nuclear radiation, and which is vertically movable. The closing element is mounted on a guide member secured to the roof of the turret and extending into the hull of the vehicle.
A further feature of the present invention is that the closing element is pivotally mounted on a guide member connected with the sheathing of the turret so that the closing element is rigid against torsion. At the circumference thereof, the closing element preferably has a stepped configuration and includes a seal at the circumference thereof as well as at the portion thereof in engagement with the guide member.
Further, an essential characteristic of the present invention resides in the fact that the guide member is a tube which receives sighting means, which later projects out of the roof of the turret and extends downwardly into the crew space inside the hull. v
According to a further embodiment of the inventive concept, the guide member includes, at the lower end thereof which terminates in the hull, a collar or flange which serves as an abutment for the downward movement of the closing element.
One embodiment of the present invention is schematically illustrated in the accompanying drawing and will be further described with reference thereto.
Referring to the drawing, rotatably mounted on the hull l, which hull may be a portion of a tank or armored car supported by wheels or endless tracks, is an armored turret 3 equipped with a weapon 2, which may be a cannon or one or more machine guns, for example. The armored walls of the hull l are provided with a protection against nuclear radiation which may result, for example, in the case of atomic attack. The opening 4 between the hull 1, provided with protection against nuclear radiation, and the armored protective turret 3 is adapted to be closed by means of an armored element 5,
which also is equipped with protection against nuclear radiation. This closing element 5 is mounted in a manner such as to be movable upwardly and downwardly and also pivotally on the tube 6, which latter is secured to the roof of the turret 3 and extends into the hull I. The guide tube 6 for the closing element 5 is also secured by means ofa web portion 7 which is attached to the turret 3 and extends parallel to the upper edge of the hull l. Positioned in the guide tube 6 is a sighting means 8 which projects out of the roof of the turret 3 and extends into the protected crew space at the lower end thereof.
The closing element 5, which is provided with protection against nuclear radiation and which is pivotally mounted on tube 6 which is connected with the turret so that the closing element is rigid against torsion, may be lowered until it abuts against a collar or flange 9 positioned at the lower end of the guide tube 6, and the closing element 5 is pivotal in this position into the position shown in phantom in the drawing. In this position of the closing element 5, it is possible to obtain access to the turret 3 from the inside of the vehicle, i.e., from the crew space, in order to replenish the ammunition supply, for example, or in order to eliminate malfunctions in the ammunition feed to the weapon in case it should not be feasible to perform such operations through an outside hatch 10 in the turret roof. By virtue of the fact that the sighting means 8 extends through the protection against nuclear radiation on the closing element 5, the crew may be accommodated within the hull l, which is provided with protection against nuclear radiation, so that the space 11 in the turret 3 around and behind the weapon 2 is available exclusively for storing ammunition. The turret 3 together with the weapon 2 and the ammunition is thus positioned outside of the protection against nuclear radiation. The closing element 5 has a stepped configuration at the circumference thereof and is equipped with a seal 12 at the circumference thereof and a further seal (not shown) at the portion thereof in engagement with the guide tube 6.
The advantages afforded by the construction of the present invention are particularly that (a) the rotatable turret can be maintained small because of the absence of protection against nuclear radiation therein, (b) the weapon and the ammunition are positioned outside of the protection against nuclear radiation and the protected space within the vehicle hull is thus free for accommodating the crew, (c) easy access to the weapon and to the ammunition delivery from the crew space is made possible despite the protection against nuclear radiation of the latter, (d) a separate guiding means during movement of the closing element is dispensed with because the member receiving the sighting means is utilized for that purpose and (e) the turret remains fully rotatable despite the fact the that the sighting means extends into the hull of the vehicle.
I. A combat vehicle comprising an armored hull, an.- armored turret mounted on the hull and having an opening in the bottom thereof, an opening in said hull providing communication between the turret and hull through said opening in the turret, substantially horizontally disposed closing means for closing the opening in the hull, and substantially vertically extending elongated guide means mounting said closing means for vertical movement relative to the hull and for pivotal movement with respect to the hull in 'a substantially horizontal plane.
2. Apparatus as defined in claim I wherein said closing means is slidably mounted with respect to said guide means for movement in a substantially vertical direction.
3. Apparatus as defined in claim 1 wherein said turret is mounted for rotation about a substantially vertical axis.
4. Apparatus as defined in claim 3 wherein said guide means has an axis which is offset from the axis of rotation of the turret.
5. Apparatus as defined in claim 1 wherein said guide means is supported by said turret and extends into said hull.
6. Apparatus as defined in claim 5 wherein said guide means is also connected to the turret by web means extending substantially parallel to said hull.
9 Apparatus as defined in claim 1 wherein said guide means is supported by said turret and extends into said hull said guide means including at the end thereof extending into said hull flange means acting as an abutment for limiting downward movement of said closing means.