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Publication numberUS3559628 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 2, 1971
Filing dateAug 5, 1969
Priority dateAug 5, 1969
Publication numberUS 3559628 A, US 3559628A, US-A-3559628, US3559628 A, US3559628A
InventorsBoldery Luther Evan
Original AssigneeTriangle Research Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Internal combustion engine
US 3559628 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent a corporation of Indiana. by direct & mesne assignments INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Primary Examiner-Wendell E. Burns Attorney-Melville, Strasser, Foster and Hoffman ABSTRACT: 'An internal combustion engine generally com- 11 Claims 10 Drawing Figs prising an elongated engine housing provided with a com- U.S. C1 123/61, bustion chamber at each end thereof separated by a fuel in- 123/56 duction and compression chamber therebetween, a power Int. Cl ..F02b 75/16, shaft centrally mounted for rotation in the engine housing and F02b 33/06 extending the length thereof through the chambers, and op- Field of Search 123/61, 62, posed slidable piston means mounted around the power shaft 58C, 56C for slidable movement therealong.

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as 2 44 52 I i W N' 6', 1's L: 113; 16 50 $5 PATENTED FEB 2 I97| sum 1 BF 2 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION l. Field of the Invention This invention relates to a new and improved construction for internal combustion engines, and more specifically to a two stroke cycle internal combustion engine employing spark ignition.

2. Description of the Prior Art Internal combustion engines wherein the power is produced by the explosion of a fuel-and-air mixture within a cylinder or cylinders have long been known. However, the prior art is continuously seeking to develop improved internal combustion engines which will operate more efficiently and produce more power.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a more efficient internal combustion engine which will produce substantially more power for its size than has been heretofore possible. The internal combustion engine of the present invention; in part, achieves this end by providing an engine which does not utilize either an induction or exhaust stroke and which does not need a gear system in order to reverse the engine. The internal combustion engine of this invention provides greatly improved power per pound of motor with substantially fewer moving parts than is possible with the conventional internal combustion engines.

Briefly, the present invention provides an internal combustion engine having an elongated engine housing which is provided with a combustion chamber at each end thereof separated by a fuel induction and compression chamber therebetween. A power shaft is centrally mounted for rotation in the housing and extends the length thereof through the chambers. At least one end of the power shaft is provided with extension means connecting the power shaft to the work. The portions of the power shaft at either end of the induction and compression chamber are provided with identical grooves extending therearound, and the portion of the power shaft within each compression chamber is provided at each end thereof in each chamber with a combination air and fuel mixture inlet and exhaust recess, the two recesses on the portion of the power shaft in each chamber being on opposite sides of the power shaft. The air and fuel mixture inlet and exhaust recesses in each of the combustion chambers are identical in position.

Opposed slidable piston means are mounted around the power shaft with slidable movement therealong. Briefly, each piston comprises a pressure sealed power piston mounted around the power shaft for slidable movement therealong substantially the length of a combustion chamber, a pressure sealed induction and compression piston mounted around the power shaft for slidable movement therealong in the induction and compression chamber, and a nonsealed camming piston mounted around the power shaft between the power piston and the induction and compression piston, the camming piston being provided with lug means which is received within one of the grooves on the power shaft. Additionally, means are provided to connect the power piston, the induction and compression piston and the cammin piston for movement together. Accordingly, as the opposed piston means move toward and away from each other, the lug means on the camming pistons in the grooves on the power shaft cause the power shaft to rotate.

Spark ignition means are located at either end of each one of the combustion chambers so that each power piston may be fired on either side thereof. Additionally, air and fuel mixture inlet means and exhaust means are located at either end of each one of the combustion chambers and communicate with the combination inlet and exhaust recess at each end of the power shaft as the power shaft rotates.

Carburetor means communicate with the induction and compression chamber so that when the power pistons fire away from each other, air and fuel mixture from the carburetor is inducted into the induction and compression chamber. Reservoir means communicate with the induction and compression chamber. When the power pistons fire toward each other the air and fuel mixture in the induction and compression chamber is initially compressed by the pressure sealed induction and compression pistons and forced into the reservoir means. The reservoir means also communicate with the air and fuel mixture inletmeans. Thus as a combination of the air and fuel mixture inlet recess on the power shaft communicates with the fuel inlet means, initially compressed air and fuel mixture from the reservoir means enters the combustion chambers, where it is further compressed by the power pistons and where the spark ignition means causes ignition thereof, first on one side of each power piston and then on the other side thereof.

Means are also provided for lubricating and cooling the internal combustion engine.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a side elevational view, partially in cross section, of the internal combustion engine of this invention.

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken on the line 2-2 of FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is a partial longitudinal cutaway view of the power shaft of this engine.

FIG. 4A is a cross-sectional view taken on the line 4A-4A of FIG. 1.

FIG. 4B is a cross-sectional view taken on the line 4B-4B of FIG. 1.

FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 5-5 of FIG. 1.

FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 6-6 of FIG. 1.

FIG. 7 is an enlarged perspective view of the lug means of the nonsealed camming pistons of this invention.

FIG. 8 is a schematic representation of one of the grooves on the surface of the power shaft.

FIG. 9 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 9-9 of FIG. 1.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Turning first to FIG. 1 it will be seen that the engine housing 12 of the internal combustion engine 10 of this invention is provided with a combustion chamber 14 at each end thereof separated by an induction and compressionchamber 16 therebetween. A power shaft 18 is centrally mounted for rotation within the housing 12 and extends the length thereof through the combustion chambers 14 and the induction and compression chamber 16. At least one end of the power shaft 18a is provided with extension means connecting the power shaft to any desired device, apparatus or machine.

The portion 18b of the power shaft at either end of the induction and compression chambers are provided with identical grooves 20 on the surface thereof extending therearound. FIG. 8 discloses a schematic representation of one of the grooves 20. The portions 18c of the power shaft 18 within each of the combustion chambers 14 are provided at the ends thereof in the chambers 14 with opposed combination air and fuel mixture inlet and exhaust recesses 22. The combination air and fuel mixture inlet and exhaust recesses 22 at the ends of the portion of the power shaft 18 in one of the combustion chambers 14 are identical in position with the comcamming piston 30 and means connecting the pistons for movement together. The pressure sealed power piston 26 is mounted around the power shaft for slidable movement therealong substantially the length of a compression chamber 14. The pressure sealed induction and compression piston 28 is mounted around the power shaft for slidable movement therealong in the induction and compression chamber 16. The nonsealed camming piston 30 is mounted around the power shaft 18 between the power piston 26 and the induction and compression piston 28. The camming piston is provided with lug means 34 which is slidably received within a groove 20 on the portion 18c of the power shaft 18. Rods 36 connect the three pistons 26, 28 and 30 together for slidable movement along the power shaft 18.

As can be seen, the pistons 26 and 28 generally conform to the contour of the chamber in which they act so that pressure rings and the like, as is well known in the art, may be used for purposes of pressure sealing. The camming piston 30 is nonsealed and, as best seen in FIG. 6, is of such a cross-sectional configuration so as not to conform with the circumference of the induction and compression chamber 16 in which it slides back and forth.

The lug means 34, as best seen in FIG. 6, comprises a lug 34a which is placed within a recess 30a on the camming piston 30, so as to be both movable and replaceable. As can be seen, when the opposed piston means move toward and away from each other, the lug means 34 of the camming pistons 30 in the grooves 20 of the power shaft 18 cause the power shaft to rotate.

Spark ignition means 38 are located at either end of each one of the combustion chambers 14. Preferably, the spark ignition means 38 comprises a spark plug 40, an electrical contact point 42 leading thereto, and means 44 on the power shaft 18 for camming the contact point 42 to instigate a spark and,

fire one of the combustion chambers 14 on one side of a power piston 26 as the power shaft 18 revolves. The camming means 44 is designed such that correspondingly positioned spark plugs 40 in the chambers 14 will fire together. Accordingly, the piston means will fire toward each other and away from each other.

An air and fuel mixture inlet port 46 and an exhaust port 48 are located at either end of each one of the combustion chambers 14 and communicate with the combination air and fuel mixture inlet and exhaust recess 22 at each end of the power shaft 18 as the power shaft rotates, as may be seen in FIGS. 1, 4A and 4B.

Carburetor means 50 communicates with the induction and compression chamber 16 and supplies an air and fuel mixture thereto when the power pistons 26, and thus the power means, fire away from each other. Preferably, a vacuum valve is provided between the carburetor means 50 and the induction and compression chamber 16. The vacuum valve 52 is actuated by the pressure sealed induction and compression pistons 28 to admit an air and fuel mixture from the carburetor means 50 into the induction and compression chamber 14 as the power pistons 26, and thus the piston means, move away from each other.

A reservoir 54 communicates with the induction and compression chamber 14 and receives initially compressed air and fuel mixture as the power pistons 26 fire toward each other, causing the induction and compression pistons to compress the air and fuel mixture in the induction and compression chamber 16. A pressure valve 56 may be provided between the reservoir 54 and the induction and compression chamber 16 to control the initial compression of the air and fuel mixture before its entrance into the reservoir 54.

The reservoir 54 containing the initially compressed air and fuel mixture also communicates with the air and fuel mixture inlet ports 46. Thus, as each recess 22 on the power shaft 18 communicates with an air and fuel mixture inlet port 46, initially compressed air and fuel mixture from the reservoir 54 enters the combustion chambers 14, where it is further compressed by the power pistons 26 and where the spark ignition means 38 causes ignition thereof, first on one side of each of the power pistons 26 and then on the other side thereof.

The internal combustion engine according to the present invention is preferably lubricated by means of a longitudinal lubricating shaft 58 which is located within the power shaft 18. The lubricating shaft 58 is provided with groove means 60 on the surface thereof extending for its entire length. The groove means 60 generally comprises a longitudinal groove 60a extending the length of the lubricating shaft and being interrupted on its course by a plurality of V-shaped drillings 60b. A circular groove 60c communicating with the groove 60a also extends around the lubricating shaft 58 in front of each V- shaped drilling 60b. A reservoir 62 containing lubricating fluid communicates with the groove means 60 on the lubricating shaft 58. A plurality of lubricating ports 64, as best seen in FIG. 2, communicate with the groove means 60 on the lubricating shaft 58. The lubricating ports 64 generally comprise a plurality of radial ducts which are spaced at intervals along the power shaft 18 and extend into the engine housing 12. Means are provided to impart back and forth movement to the longitudinal shaft 58. Such means may comprise a camming surface 66 on one end of the power shaft 18 which revolves therewith and which moves against a cam rider 68 located on the lubricating shaft 58. Accordingly, as the power shaft 18 revolves, the camming surface 66 pushes against the cam rider 68 and causes the lubricating shaft 58 to move in one direction. Resilient means, such as the spring 70, returns the lubricating shaft 58 in the other direction. The back and forth movement of the lubricating shaft 58 withinthe power shaft 18 causes lubricating fluid from the lubricating reservoir 62 to fill the groove means 60 on the surface of the lubricating shaft 58. Accordingly, as the lubricating ports 64 in the power shaft 18 communicate with the groove means 60, the surface of the power shaft 18 may be lubricated. It should be noted that the V-shaped drillings 60b which interrupt the groove 60a, are such that when the lubricating ports 64 are aligned therewith they are in the closed position and combustion chamber gases are precluded from escaping into the lubricating reservoir 62.

It should be noted also that it is important that desired pressure level of the lubricating fluid be maintained within the lubricating reservoir 62. Any suitable means, such as the pliable air filled tube 72 located within the lubricating reservoir 62, may be utilized to maintain a continuous and constant pressure against the lubricating fluid therein.

An exemplary cooling system for the internal combustion engine 10 of this invention may comprise a plurality of tubes 74 within the power shaft 18 surrounding the lubricating shaft 58 and extending the length thereof through the combustion chambers 14 and the induction and compression chamber 16, and a coolant reservoir 76 communicating with the tubes 74. Preferably, a coolant reservoir 76 is located adjacent each one of the combustion chambers 14, and the power shaft extends therethrough and is provided with apertures 78 therein which communicate between the coolant reservoirs 76 and the tubes 72. A pump 80 may be associated with one of the coolant reservoirs 76 to continually circulate the coolant fluid contained therein throughout the tubes 74 and the reservoirs 76.

In operation, as the piston means, which comprise the power pistons 26, the induction and compression pistons 28 and the camming pistons 30, move away from each other, the induction and compression pistons 28 cause the vacuum valve 52 to be opened and an air and fuel mixture to flow from the carburetor means 50 intothe induction and compression chamber 16. When the power pistons 26 are fired toward each other, the induction and compression pistons initially compress the air and fuel mixture within the compression chamber 16. When the compression of the air and fuel mixture within the chamber 16 reaches a desired level, the pressure valve 56 is caused to open and the initially compressed air and fuel mixture flows into the reservoir 54. The reservoir 54 communicates with the air and fuel mixture inlet ports 46 on either end of the combustion chambers 14. As the recesses 22 in the power shaft 18 pass the inlet ports 46, the initially compressed air and fuel mixture enters the combustion chambers 14,

where it is then compressed by the power pistons 26 and ignited by the spark ignition means 38. After ignition, the exhaust gases exit when the recesses 22 on the power shaft 18 communicates with the exhaust ports 48. In practice, when a recess 22 at one end of the portion 18c of the power shaft 18 in one of the combustion chambers 14 communicates with an inlet port 46, the other recess 22 at the other end of the portion 18c of the power shaft 18 communicates with an exhaust port 48. Accordingly, the combustion chambers 14 may be fired on either side of the power pistons 26, and the back and forth motion of the pistons 46 cause the lug means 34 on the camming pistons 30 to move in the grooves 20 in the surface of the power shaft 18, rotating the shaft. The power shaft 18 imparts rotation to any desired device, apparatus or machine through the extension 18a.

It will, of course, be understood that the internal combustion engine of the present invention may be reversed by means of a double electrical point and distributor system.

lclaim:

1. An internal combustion engine, which comprises:

a. an elongated engine housing, said housing being provided with a combustion chamber at each end thereof separated by a fuel induction and compression chamber therebetween;

. a power shaft centrally mounted for rotation in said housing and extending the length thereof through said chambers, at least one end of said power shaft being provided with extension means connecting said power shaft to any desired apparatus, the portions of said power shaft at either end of said induction and compression chamber being provided with identical grooves extending therearound, and the portion of said power shaft within each said combustion chamber being provided at each end thereof in each said chamber with at least one air and fuel mixture inlet and exhaust recess, said recesses being on opposite sides of said power shaft, said air and fuel mixture inlet and exhaust recesses on the portion of said power shaft in one of said combustion chambers being arranged with respect to each other in like manner to said air and fuel mixture inlet and exhaust recesses on that portion of said power shaft in the other one of said combustion chambers;

c. opposed slidable piston means mounted around said power shaft in said engine housing, said piston means comprising:

i. a pressure sealed power piston mounted around said power shaft for slidable movement therealong substantially the length of one of said combustion chambers;

' ii. a pressure sealed induction and compression piston mounted around said power shaft for slidable movement therealong in said induction and compression chamber;

iii. a nonsealed camming piston mounted around said power shaft between said power piston and said induction and compression piston, said carnming piston being provided with lug means which is slidably received within one of said grooves on said power shaft; and

iiii. means connecting said power piston, said induction and compression piston and said carnming piston for movement together, wherebyas said opposed piston means move toward and away from each other, said lug means of said carnming pistons in said grooves of said power shaft cause said shaft to rotate;

d. spark ignition means located at either end of each one of said combustion chambers;

e. air and fuel mixture inlet means and exhaust means at either end of each one of said combustion chambers, said air and fuel mixture inlet means and said exhaust means communicating with said inlet and exhaust recesses on said power shaft as said power shaft rotates;

f. carburetor means communicating with said induction and compression chamber, whereby when said power pistons fire away from each other, air and fuel mixture from said carburetor means is inducted into said induction and compression chamber;

g. reservoir means communicating with said induction and compression chamber, whereby as said power pistons fire toward each other said air and fuel mixture in said induction and compression chamber is initially compressed by said pressure sealed induction and compression pistons and forced into said reservoir means, said reservoir means also communicating with said fuel, inlet means, whereby as each said inlet and exhaust recess on said power shaft communicates with said air and fuel mixture inlet means, initially compressed air and fuel mixture from said reservoir means enters said combustion chambers, where it is further compressed by said power pistons and where said spark ignition means causes ignition thereof, first on one side of each said power piston and then on the other side thereof;

h. means for lubricating said internal combustion engine;

and

i. means for cooling said internal combustion engine.

2. An internal combustion engine according to claim 1, wherein said cooling system means comprises a plurality of tubes within said power shaft and running the length thereof through said combustion chambers and said induction and compression chamber, and at least one coolant reservoir communicating with said tubes.

3. An internal combustion engine according to claim 2, wherein coolant reservoirs are located adjacent each one of said combustion chambers, and wherein said power shaft extends therethrough and is provided with apertures therein which communicate between said coolant reservoirs and said tubes.

4. An internal combustion engine according to claim 3, wherein a pump is associated with one of said coolant reservoirs to continually circulate said coolant throughout said tubes and said reservoirs.

5. An internal combustion engine according to claim 1, wherein said lubricating means for said engine comprises:

a. a longitudinal lubricating shaft within said power shaft, said lubricating shaft being provided with groove means on the surface thereof extending for its entire length;

b. a lubricating reservoir communicating with said groove means on said lubricating shaft;

c. a plurality of lubricating ports in said power shaft which communicate with said groove means on said lubricating shaft;

d. means to impart longitudinal back and forth movement to said longitudinal shaft; and

e. means to maintain a desired pressure level within said lubricating reservoir;

whereby as said lubricating shaft moves back and forth within said power shaft, lubricating fluid from saidlubricating reservoir fills said groove means on the surface of said lubricating shaft and said lubricating ports in said power shaft communicate with said groove means so that the surface of said power shaft is lubricated to aid movement of said piston means.

6. An internal combustion engine according to claim 5, wherein said groove means comprise a longitudinal groove extending the length of said lubricating shaft, said longitudinal groove being interrupted on its course by V-shaped drillings, whereby said lubricating ports in said power shaft are aligned with said V-shaped drillings, said ports are in the closed position and combustion chamber gases are precluded from escaping into said lubricating reservoir.

7. An internal combustion engine according to claim 5, wherein said means to impart movement to said lubricating shaft comprises a carnming surface on one end of said power shaft which revolves therewith and which moves said lubricating shaft in one direction within said power.shaft,-and spring means associated with said lubricating shaft to move said lubricating shaft in a direction opposite to said movement by said camming surface.

8. An internal combustion engine according to claim 5, wherein said means to maintain a desired pressure in said lubricating reservoir comprises a pliable air filled tube located within said lubricating reservoir which maintains a continuous and constant pressure against said lubricating fluid therein.

9. An internal combustion engine according to claim 1. wherein said carburetor means includes a vacuum valve actuated by said pressure sealed induction and compression pistons to admit air and fuel mixture from said carburetor means into said induction and compression chamber as said piston means move away from each other.

10. An internal combustion engine according to claim 1, wherein said reservoir means includes a pressure valve actuated by said initially compressed air and fuel mixture when said piston means move toward each other and said pressure sealed induction and compression pistons initially compress the air and fuel mixture within said induction and compression chamber.

11. An internal combustion engine according to claim 1, wherein each said spark means comprises a spark plug, an electrical contact point leading thereto and means on said power shaft for camming said contact point to instigate said spark and tire one of said combustion chambers on one side of said power piston as said power shaft revolves.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4407240 *Jan 25, 1980Oct 4, 1983Fromson Bertram WOpposed piston internal combustion engine with special scavenging means
US4526141 *Feb 13, 1984Jul 2, 1985The Commonwealth Of AustraliaDrive arrangement for internal combustion engine
US5099854 *Mar 16, 1990Mar 31, 1992Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.Digital wristwatch with the function of a sphygmometer
US5285752 *Apr 23, 1993Feb 15, 1994Single-Stroke Motors, Inc.Internal combustion engine
US7137389Mar 15, 2004Nov 21, 2006Resmed LimitedMethod and apparatus for determining instantaneous inspired volume of a subject during ventilatory assistance
US8733351Sep 21, 2011May 27, 2014Resmed LimitedMethod and apparatus for providing ventilatory assistance
EP0009919A1 *Sep 21, 1979Apr 16, 1980Baron, Frances PatriciaReciprocating drive means
WO2003027458A1 *Sep 10, 2002Apr 3, 2003Julius DrewInternal combustion engine with compound piston assembly
Classifications
U.S. Classification123/61.00R, 123/55.3, 123/57.1
International ClassificationF01B3/04, F02B75/02, F01B3/00, F02B71/00
Cooperative ClassificationF02B71/00, F02B2075/025, F01B3/0005, F01B3/04
European ClassificationF02B71/00, F01B3/04, F01B3/00A2