US 3559631 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Inventor Elmer F. Mangis Frankfort, Ind.
July 1 2 l 968 Feb. 2, 1971 E & R Manufacturing Co. Inc. a corporation of Indiana Appl. No. Filed Patented Assignee HYDRAULIC MASONRY CUTTING MACHINE 9 Claims, 5 Drawing Figs.
US. Cl 125/23 Int. Cl. B28d 1/32 Field of Search 125/23; 83/(Inquired)  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,453,216 11/1948 Graham 125/23 2,768,620 10/1956 Jenkins 125/23 FOREIGN PATENTS 34,082 8/1905 Switzerland 125/23 Primary Examiner-Harold D. Whitehead Attorneys-Clarence A. OBrien and Harvey B. Jacobson 34 I a L I as i I r0 8 a4 '92 4 -'.9
| 32 as 9a 26 I00 I0 104 9% I02 I I I I2 I l W-J LWJ HYDRAULIC MASONRY CUTTING MACHINE The instant invention is generally concerned with masonry or stone cutting apparatus, and more particularly relates to a unique cutting head which is so constructed as to accommodate surface irregularities in the unit being cut.
While it is appreciated that stone cutting heads having individually adjustable knives for the accommodation of surface irregularities are know, substantial difficulty is encountered in both adjusting the individual knives to the irregularities and stabilizing the knives during the actual cutting operation. It is to overcome the deficiencies in the known machines that the instant invention has been devised.
Basically, it is a highly significant object of the instant invention to provide a high speed cutting head wherein the knives are automatically both adjusted so as to accommodate themselves to the surface irregularities and locked in their adjusted positions until the cutting operation is complete.
Another significant object of the instant invention resides in the provision of a cutting head which, through the utilization of individual cooperating sections or units, can be easily assembled to any desired length.
Furthermore, it is considered to be particularly significant that the cutting head of the instant invention is, notwithstanding its uniqueness of a relatively simple construction easily adapted for mounting within any appropriate cutting apparatus regardless of the type of power utilized thereby.
Basically, the apparatus of the instant invention includes a cutting head formed of a plurality of oommunicatively interrelated independent sections or units, each of which mounts a cutting knife controlled by a fluid pressure responsive piston. Each of the pistons is slidably mounted within a block cylinder comprising a closed system in conjunction with a common reservoir and valve means whereby flow of fluid between the individual cylinders and the reservoir can be blocked so as to effect a positive locking of each piston, and thereby the associated knife, in an adjusted position. The actual adjusted positions of the knives is achieved through direct engagement with the irregular surface of the stone to be cut and the resultant pressure equalizing flow of the fluid. Once an engagement of all of the knives is effected under equal pressure, the continued application of pressure results in a shifting of the valve means and a positive locking of the knives for effecting a smooth guided cutting of the stonev These together with other objects and advantages which will become subsequently apparent reside in the details of construction and operation as more fuliy hereinafter described and claimed, reference being had to the accompanying drawings forming a part hereof, wherein like numerals refer to like parts throughout, and in which:
FIG. 1 is an elevational view of a portion of a stone cutting machine with two cutting heads constructed in accordance with the instant invention incorporated therein;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged partial cross-sectional view taken substantially on a plane passing along line 2-2 in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view through one of the cutting heads taken substantially on a plane passing along line 3-3 in FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is an exploded perspective view of the various components of one of the cutting head sections or units; and
FIG. 5 is a schematic elevational view of the apparatus illustrating generally the manner in which the cutting head knives accommodate themselves to surface irregularities on a stone to be cut.
Referring now more specifically to the drawings, reference numeral 1-0 is used to generally designate a stone cutting machine incorporating a pair of cutting heads 12 constructed in accordance with the instant invention. These heads 12 are adapted to be mounted within the supporting frame 14 and operated in much the manner of the heads conventionally provided whereby one head, the lower head in the illustrated embodiment, is fixed to the frame 14 and the other head, the upper head in the illustrated embodiment, is mounted for vertical movement powered in any appropriate manner such as by a hydraulic ram 16. The stone l8, noting FIG. 5, is positioned in overlying relation to the lower head 12 and the upper head 12 is brought down into forceful engagement therewith for effecting a splitting or cutting of the stone 18. The instant invention differs from the conventional apparatus in the provision of unique cutting heads which, upon a movement of the cutting heads 12 relatively toward each other for the accommodation and cutting of a received stone 18, will automatically conform to irregularities appearing in the surfaces of the stone.
Basically, noting FIG. 3 in particular, an assembled one of the cutting heads 12 includes a series of adjacent cylinder blocks 20, each slidingly receiving an outwardly projectable piston 22 within a fluid receiving cylinder chamber 24. Each of the piston receiving chambers 24 is communicated with an elongated fluid reservoir 26 by means of a relatively narrow fluid passage 28 extending from the inner end of the chamber. An elongated continuous valve chamber 30 parallels the elongated reservoir 26 between the piston receiving chambers 24 and the reservoir 26, intersecting the communicating fluid passages 28. A series of abutting or operatively interconnected valves 32 are slidably mounted within the elongated valve chamber 30 and selectively operate so as to open and close the fluid passages 28.
A stone cutting knife or blade 34 is associated with each piston 22 and retained for longitudinal sliding movement in response to a movement of the corresponding piston 22 by a cap or bracket 36. The cap 36 will normally be constructed in two sections 38 including enlarged blade embracing and stabilizing outer portions 40 and inner mounting legs or flanges 42. Both of the'bracket sections 38 extend the full length of the head 12 and are bolted directly to each of the cylinder blocks 20 by threaded bolts 44 which extend through the legs or flanges 42 and are threaded into internally threaded bores formed in the cylinder blocks 20. The elongated outer enlarged portions 40 of the cap sections 38 are stabilized and retained in position by a plurality of transversely extending bolts or threaded rods 46, each one of which passes through a vertically elongated slot 48 in a received blade or knife 34. In this manner. the bolts 46, having enlarged heads 49 on one end thereof and nuts 50 removably threaded on the other end thereof, not only act so as to properly retain the cap sections 38, but also so as to, in conjunction with the slots 48, provide stop means defining the inner and outer limits of the knives 34.
The knives 34 are to be positioned snugly although slidably between the cap sections 38 through an adjustment of the bolts 46 whereby the desired sliding adjustment of the knives 34 can be effected while still providing for the necessary lateral stability required to effect a proper cutting of the stone. In order to maintain the knives 34 free of dust or stone chips, it is contemplated that full length wipers 52 will be provided to the opposite sides of the knife 34 in wiping engagement therewith along the outer extremities of the cap sections 38, such wipers 52 being retained by appropriate plate-like brackets 54 removably bolted to the cap sections 38 so as to facilitate a replacement of the wipers 52 as needed.
Each of the cylinder blocks 20 is also provided with an annular wiper 56 set in an annular recess at the outer end of the cylinder chamber 24 for wiping engagement with the sliding piston 22. In addition, an appropriate O-ring seal 58 is provided about each cylinder block chamber 24 in sealing engagement with the moving piston 22.
Each of the valves or valve pistons 32 within the valve chamber 30 includes a cylindrical body having a reduced rodlike central portion 60 interconnecting enlarged chamber filling rear and forward portions 62 and 64. The enlarged forward portion 64 includes a reduced cylindrical leading end 66 which abuts against the flat following end of the valve 32 forward thereof. Each of the valves 32 in its normal or at rest position has the reduced rod-like central portion 60 thereof aligned with the fluid passage 28 between the corresponding cylinder chamber 24 and the reservoir whereby a free flow of fluid is permitted as will possibly be best appreciated from FIG. 2. A fluid chamber 68, in direct communication with the rear of the reservoir 26, is provided directly behind and in direct communication with the rearmost valve 32, this valve 32 being positioned immediately forward of the fluid chamber 68 by an appropriate relatively small stop block 70 which, while providing an effective abutment for the rearward movement of the chain of valves 32. exposes a major portion of the flat rear face of the rear valve 32. The forwardmost valve 32 differs slightly from the remainder of the valves 32 through the provision of a forward portion 64 which is of a greater length and which is maintained in sealed relation to the elongated valve chamber 30 by means of an appropriate O-ring seal 72. This forwardmost valve 32 additionally includes a central forwardly projecting cylindrical spring seating rod 74. The expanded coiled compression spring 76 in turn has the outer end seated within an appropriate cap 78 mounted on the inner end of an adjusting screw or bolt 80 which is threaded through a nut 82 fixed to a housing 84 surrounding the spring 76 and spring seating members 74 and 78. As will be appreciated, an adjustment of the screw 80, through the tool receiving outer end thereof, will vary the biasing force of the spring 76 which is used to normally maintain the valves 32 in their reannost position providing a direct communication between the elongated reservoir 26 and all of the piston receiving chambers 24.
In use, the head 12 is to include a closed fluid system with the fluid, normally oil, being introduced into the reservoir through one end thereof in a sufficient amount so as to fully extend approximately one third of the knife controlling pistons 22 when unresisted, after which an appropriate plug 86 is fixed within the fluid introducing end of the reservoir 26. Thus, in actual operation, as the upper and lower heads 12 come together against a received stone 18, the knives 34 associated with the extended pistons 22 will initially engage the stone and retract in response to the pressure developed by engagement with the stone. This retraction of the normally extended pistons 22 will, through the closed hydraulic system, result in an extension of the normally retracted pistons 22 until intimate contact is achieved between each of the knives and the surface of the stone, the knives accommodating themselves to the irregularities in the surfaces of the stone. Once each of the knives 34 engages the stone 18 and develops a resistance to the introduction of further pressure exerting oil into the corresponding piston receiving chamber 24, a continued application of pressure to the head 12 will effect a pressure buildup in the reservoir 26 which is transferred to the chamber 68 located immediately rearward of the rearmost valve or valve piston 32. This buildup of pressure in the chamber 68 results in a forward sliding of the chain of valves 32 against the biasing force of the spring 76, thereby effectively sealing the fluid passages 28 and trapping the fluid within the piston receiving cylinder chambers 24, thereby resulting in a positive locking of the pistons 22 in position and the corresponding knives 34 into engagement with the stone 18. This automatic locking of the knives 34 in their stone-engaging positions is deemed particularly significant in insuring that a proper cut or fracture is made along the full length of the stone 18 where desired. If the pistons and knives were not locked in position during the actual splitting operation, and a free flow of fluid maintained between the various chambers 24, once the split is started at the point having the lowest compressive strength, the other knives, bearing on portions of the stone with higher compressive strength, would, through the free flow of fluid, cause the knives engaged with the area of the partial split to bury further in at this point, causinga wedging action and eventually a cross fracture. With all of the knives locked into position through the pressure responsive sliding valves 32, this significant problem of cross fracturing is avoided and a constant cutting pressure is applied along the full length of the heads 12. It will of course be appreciated that the amount of oil within the system will be such so as to adjust the head to the particular material being cut, including the degree of irregularity to be encountered. In use, oil will be added or withdrawn from the system until the system is adof the head 12 is the fact that the head is formed of individual independent units clamped in sealed abutting side-by-side relation to each other along the full -length of the head 12 whereby heads of any desired length can be easily assembled. With particular reference to FIGS. 3 and 4, it will be appreciated that each cylinder block 20 is independent of the adjacent cylinder blocks and includes, within itself, both a section 88 of the valve chamber 30 and a section 90 of the reservoir 26 which, aligned with similar sections 88 and 90 in the adjacent cylinder blocks 22, define the elongated valve chamber 30 and elongated reservoir 26. An appropriate sealing ring 92 encircles the sections 88 and 90 for abutting sealed engagement against the adjacent cylinder block 20. In addi-' tion, each cylinder block 20 is of course provided with one of the valves 32 so as to be in effect a self-contained unit. The cylinder blocks 20 are locked together in the formation of the head 12 by four elongated rods 94 extending through four aligned holes 96 in the four comer portions of each of the cylinder blocks 20, these rods 94 having enlarged bearing" heads 98 on one end thereof and lock nuts 100 threaded on the opposite ends thereof. Appropriate end plates 102 would also be provided at the opposite ends of the head 12 in engagement with the opposed endmost cylinder blocks 20 for assisting in effecting a positive clamping of the blocks together into an integral unit, as well as to provide an appropriate mount for the spring housing 84 and the components used in forming the chamber 68. The two sections 38 of the cap 36 are continuous along the full length of the head 12 and will be formed so as to accommodate the particular number of cylinder blocks 20 utilized. The actual bolting of these cap sections 38 to the blocks 20 by the bolts 44 further acts to stabilize the blocks 20, as does the bottom or base bar 104 on which the cylinder blocks 20 set for locked engagement thereto by appropriate threaded bolts 106 which extend through the bar 104 and are threaded within internally threaded bores in the blocks 20.
Once the blocks 20 have been locked together in an integral unit, the system can be charged with fluid and sealed, thereby v preparing the head 12 for use as described supra.
The foregoing is considered as illustrative only of the principles of the invention. Further, since numerous modifications and changes will readily occur to those skilled in the art, it is not desired to limit the invention to the exact construction and operation shown and described, and accordingly all suitable modifications and equivalents may be resorted to, falling within the scope of the invention as claimed.
1. An automatically adjustable stone cutting head compris- 1 ing a plurality of independently movable cutting knives, pressure responsive adjusting means for automatically adjusting said knives to the surface of a stone to be cut through a pressure engagement of the knives with the stone, and pressure responsive locking means for automatically locking said knives in an adjusted position through a continued application of pressure on the knives subsequent to the adjustment of the knives.
2. The construction of claim 1 wherein said pressure responsive adjusting means comprises a piston operatively associated with each knife for the selective adjustment thereof, and a closed fluid system communicating all of the pistons with each other whereby a movement of one piston will effect a resultant movement in one or more of the remaining pistons until a stabilization of the pistons is achieved.
3. The construction of claim 2 wherein said locking means comprises a valve associated with each piston, each of the valves being selectively movable so as to lock the associated A Di ut o cnmmunica inn i h t e remaininn Dams.
4. The construction of claim 3 wherein said valves are spring-loaded to an open position and simultaneously movable to the piston locking position.
5. The construction of claim 4 including an elongated fluid reservoir lying along and outward of said valves, fluid passage means communicating said reservoir with each of said pistons, said passage means extending through said valves for the control of fluid therethrough by said valves, said reservoir, aside from said passage means communicating with the pistons, being sealed.
6. The construction of claim 5 including a cylinder block slidably mounting each piston and defining a fluid receiving cylinder chamber therefor, each cylinder block being an independent unit incorporating a portion of said reservoir therein and independently mounting. a valve, piston and knife, said cylinder blocks being selectively lockable to adjacent cylinder blocks in a sealed manner providing for the provision of a continuous reservoir through the adjacent reservoir sections and an operative engagement between the valves.
7. The construction of claim 6 including a continuous cap overlying said cylinder blocks and being rigidly afiixed thereto, and means on said cap slidably engaging said knives for retaining said knives and providing for limited guiding movement thereof.
8. An automatically adjustable stone cutting head comprising a plurality of releasably interlocked sections, each of said sections including a cylinder block defining a piston receiving cylinder chamber and a piston selectively extensible and retractable relative thereto, a cutting knife engaged with the outer end of said piston for control thereby, a fluid reservoir portion, fluid passage means extending between said reservoir portion and said piston receiving chamber, and a valve interposed in said passage means for the selective closing thereof, and means for fixing said sections together with the reservoir portions in direct fluid passing communication with each other and with the valves in operative engagement with each other for a simultaneous operation thereof.
9. The construction of claim 8 including an elongated continuous cap and means for locking said cap to said sections in limited guiding relation to said knives.