US 3559661 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Patented John D. ORear Bee Tree Farm RFD-1, Woodstock, Vt. 05081;
Edward A. l-lanselman, Hodsick Falls; Kenneth 0. Gifford, Eagle Bridge, N.Y. 861,81 1
Sept. 29, 1969 Feb. 2, 1971 said Hanselman and said Gifford assignors to said QRear lnventors Appl. No. Filed Assignee FOLDABLE WIND-RESISTANT UMBRELLA 11 Claims, 11 Drawing Figs.
US. Cl 135/20, 160/134 Int. Cl A45b 19/00 Field of Search 135/195,
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,517,281 8/1950 Brown 160/134X 2,640,490 6/1953 Kramer 135/20 FOREIGN PATENTS 815,405 6/1959 Great Britain 160/ l 34 Primary ExaminerKenneth Downey Attorney-Blair Cesari & St. Onge ABSTRACT: A foldable wind-resistant umbrella having a top formed from a plurality of separate vanes which can lift to dissipate wind forces. The vanes are mounted over a collapsible frame which permits the umbrella to be folded. The umbrella may be rotatably supported on a pole to enhance its wind dissipating characteristics and may also be provided with interchangeable decorative caps to permit its use in varied decorative schemes.
PATENTED rm man I 3559,2361
SHEET 1 OF 3 /00 INVENTORS John D ORexr 1 5 4 Edward '2. Hanselmam i KBI'UZ eh 0. 9 iffard PAT ENTEU FEB 21971 SHEET 2 OF 3 PATENTED FEB 2191:
SHEET 3 BF 3' FOLDABLE WIND-RESISTANT UMBRELLA BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to an improved construction of the wind-resistant umbrella described in US. Pat. No. 3,386,455, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference. A disadvantage of the prior wind-resistant umbrella construction was its inability to be folded; this made it somewhat difficult to store, ship and to move from location to location in use. The present wind-resistant umbrella construction, while retaining all the advantageous features of the prior construction, can also be readily folded in typical umbrella fashion, and exhibits additional improved structural features which will become apparent from the following discussion.
Accordingly, representative objects of the present invention are to provide an improved wind-resistant umbrella which can be readily folded, which preferably incorporates intrinsic sound deadening characteristics and which is effective, simple in construction, lightweight and inexpensive.
Other objects of the invention will in part be obvious and will in part appear hereinafter.
The invention accordingly comprises the features of construction, combinations of elements, and arrangement of parts which will be exemplified in the construction hereinafter set forth, and the scope of the invention will be indicated in the claims.
SUMMARY OF TI-IE INVENTION The umbrella of the invention comprises an umbrella top formed from a plurality of generally triangular shaped vanes formed from a material such as plastic or metallic sheet. The vanes are adjacently mounted at their respective apexes and arranged to fan out in serially overlapping relationship over a supporting frame. One longitudinal edge of each vane is secured to the f rame while the other longitudinal edge remains free and overlaps the fixed longitudinal edge of the next adjacent vane. Thus, when subjected to wind, the free edge of each vane forming the umbrella top can lift clear of the adjacent vane to provide a vent for the relief of pressure. In this way the lifting force of the wind on the umbrella top is substantially reduced to the point where no dangerous and damaging displacement of the umbrella occurs.
The vanes are also preferably provided with a sound deadening and nonreflective surface on the underside of the umbrella top. Such a material serves to reduce or eliminate any noise due to flapping of the vanes and produces a more aesthetically pleasing umbrella top.
The supporting frame of the umbrella is collapsible so that the umbrella can be readily folded for ease of storage, shipment, or movement from location to location in use. For this purpose, each vane is conveniently pivotally connected at its respective apex to the supporting frame so that the vane can be folded toward the axis of the umbrella pole. The frame also comprises a substantially completely flexible ring support to which the fixed longitudinal edge of each vane is secured. The flexible ring support flxes the location of each vane when the umbrella is opened yet permits the vanes to increasingly overlap as the frame iscollapsed so that the umbrella top can fold.
Preferably, the umbrella top is provided on a rotating pole structure. In this way the top is capable of rotating when wind speeds are high. Such rotation serves to further dissipate the force of the wind, in addition to the venting produced by the vanes, so that displacement of the umbrella can be avoided even at excessive wind velocities.
The structure of the umbrella also provides for the use of various decorative caps on the pole over the umbrella top. The caps, which may be made interchangeable, can be used to vary the aesthetic qualities of the umbrella to suit various applications and decorative schemes.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS For a fuller understanding of the nature and objects of the invention, reference should be had to the following detailed description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. I is a top isometric view of the umbrella top of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a partial isometric view looking at the underside of the umbrella top of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged partial sectional view taken along line 3-3 of FIG. 1 and showing (in dotted lines) the lifting effect caused by wind on individual vanes of the umbrella top;
FIG. 4 is a partial sectional view taken along line 4-4 of FIG. 3 and showing the manner in which adjacent vanes overlap;
FIG. 5 is an enlarged broken sectional view taken along line 5-5 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 6 is a partial sectional view taken along line 6-6 of FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 is a broken bottom plan view taken along line 7-7 of FIG. 5;
FIG. 8 is an enlarged broken sectional view of the umbrella pole structure taken along line 8-8 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 9 is a sectional view taken along line 9-9 of FIG. 8 and showing an umbrella pole bearing;
FIG. 10 is a partial sectional view taken along line 10-10 of FIG. 8 and showing the umbrella spider as mounted on the umbrella pole structure; and I FIG. II is an elevation view of another form of decorative cap which may be used in place of the cap shown in FIG. 1.
Similar reference characters refer to similar parts throughout the several views of the drawings.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring to FIG. I, the umbrella of the invention comprises an umbrella top 20 formed of a plurality of individual vanes 22. The vanes 22 are essentially triangular in shape and are preferably formed from a material such as plastic or metallic, e.g., aluminum, sheet. As shown in FIG. 1, the vanes converge toward their respective apexes and are fanned out in serially overlapping relationship to produce an umbrella top of typical circular configuration.
Referring to FIG. 2, the vanes forming umbrella top 20 are supported from underneath by' an umbrella frame shown generally at 24, with the principal support being provided by the support struts 25. Umbrella frame 24 has a collapsible construction so that the entire umbrella may be readily folded for ease of storage, shipment and movement.
Specifically, frame 24 comprises a hinge plate means 26 to which vanes 22 and the supporting struts 25 therefore are each pivotally connected. Hinge plate means 26 is preferably formed as shown in FIGS. 5 and 8 from three separate components, a top hinge plate 26a; a middle hinge plate 26b and a bottom hinge plate 26c; each of these three components comprise a flat circular plate of rigid material, preferably metal, all having substantially the same diameter and being concentrically secured together in face to face relationship by bolts, clamps, screws or the like. As shown in FIG. 5, top hinge plate 26a has an uninterrupted peripheral edg'e28; Middle hinge plate 26b is provided with a plurality of keyhole shaped slots 30 in its peripheral edge with each slot 30 having a substantially circular terminus 32 of greater diameter than the main slot as shown by the dotted Iinesin FIG. 7. As will be seen from the following discusion, the number of slots 30 in middle hinge plate 26b corresponds to the number of vanes making up umbrella top 20 plus the number of support struts 25. Bottom hinge plate 26c also contains a plurality of slots 34 corresponding in position and number to slots 30 in middle hinge plate 26b. Slots 34, however, as shown in FIG. 7 are straight sided and of a width less than thecii'cular termini 32 of the slots in middle hinge plate 26b.
The various slots in hinge plate means 26 function to provide receptacles for a plurality of hinge rods 36 (FIG. 7) which provide pivotal connections for each'vane 22 and support strut 25. As shown in FIG. 7 each hinge rod 36 comprises a ball-shaped end 38 connected by a neck of reduced cross section 40 to a main body portion 42. Each hinge rod 36 is positioned in one keyhole slot 30 in middle hinge plate 26b with the ball end 38 thereof within the circular terminus 32. As shown in FIG. 5, top hinge plate 260 and bottom hinge plate 260 when assembled with middle hinge plate 26b maintain each hinge rod 36 in place; however, as further seen from FIG. 5, each hinge rod 36 is relatively free to pivot universally in any direction and to rotate about its axis within the receptacle formed by the various slots. Only the overhanging peripheral edge 28 of top hinge plate 26a restricts the movement of each hinge rod 36 somewhat in an upward direction. Each hinge rod 36 thus makes a substantially universal or ball joint connection with hinge plate means 26a.
As shown in FIGS. 5 and 7, each vane 22 is secured at its apex 22a to the top surface of the main body portion 42 of one hinge rod 36 by rivets or bolts 44, or similar fastening devices. Thus each vane 22, by reason of its substantially universal pivotal connection through hinge rod 36 to hinge plate means 26, is free to move freely in a downward direction, and also relatively free to pivot around the axis of hinge rod 36 (FIG. 5). As will be apparent from the following description, this freedom of movement of each vane 22 permits the folding of umbrella top it further facilitates venting since it permits the vanes to rotate easily to reduce the lifting force under the umbrella.
As mentioned above, umbrella top 20 is principally supported by a first plurality of struts 25; these support struts radiate in sunburst fashion from hinge plate means 26 adjacent the underside of top 20 as shown in FIG. 2. Referring to FIGS. 5, 6 and 7, each strut 25 comprises a T" channel member having a flat upper surface 250 and a dependent a flange 25b. Each strut 25 is secured by n'vets or bolts 46 to the underside of a hinge rod 36 (FIG. 5) permitting struts 25 to achieve a similar pivotal freedom to that previously mentioned in regard to vanes 22.
Struts 25 extend out along the underside of umbrella top 20, and the free ends thereof are interconnected by a substantially completely flexible support ring 48 as shown in FIG. 2. Support ring 48 preferably comprises a length of string, rope, cable, chain, or any similarly flexible material which for convenience will be designated hereinafter in the specification and claims merely as cable. Cable 48 is secured to the end of each support strut 25 by a U-shaped cable clip 50 (FIG. 5) which slides over the end of strut 25 and clamps cable 48 therebetween. It will also be seen from FIG. 7 that clip 50 is provided with a bottom slot 500 to accommodate the depending flange 25b of strut 25.
Cable 48 functions as a support ring for vanes 22. As shown in FIG. 2, one peripheral edge 22b of each vane 22 is secured to cable 48 by a fastener 54. Specifically with reference to FIGS. 3 and 4, each fastener 54 comprises a bolt having a flattened head 56, and a shank 58 which extends through each vane 22 to the underside thereof. Shank 58 is provided with a slot 60 through which is extended a portion of cable 48 as shown in FIG. 4, Cable 48 is then securely clamped against the underside of each vane 22 by a nut 62 FIGS. 4 and 7) which is threadedly secured over shank 58. As will be seen from FIG. 2, cable 48 preferably traverses a straight line path between each pair of struts 25 to prevent axial stresses on vanes 22.
Flexible support ring or cable 48 thus serves to fix each vane in a predetermined position when umbrella top 20 is opened as shown in FIG. 1; however, because of the substantially complete flexibility thereof, cable 48 permits vanes 22 to increasingly overlap as frame 24 is collapsed, as the vanes must do in order for umbrella top 20 to fold.
From the discussion so far it can be seen that vanes 22 can be readily replaced in the umbrella structure if they become damaged. Referring to FIGS. 5 and 7, to replace a vane one need merely loosen or remove top hinge plate 26a to release the hinge rod 36 connected to the vane in question. This leaves the vane secured only by single fastener 54 to cable 48. Fastener 54 can then be readily released by unscrewing the nut 62 thereof. A new vane having a hinge rod already secured thereto can then be easily slipped into engagement with the hinge plate. the hinge plate tightened, and the longitudinal edge of the new vane secured to cable 48 by the same fastener.
Each fastener 54 also serves several further functions in the umbrella structure. As shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, the flap head 56 of each fastener 54 serves as a platform upon which the overlapped free longitudinal edge of the next adjacent vane 22 rests. This reduces to some extent the undesirable noise of vanes flapping against each other. The overlapped portions of the vanes are also thus separated by a small amount at as shown in FIG. 4 even when theumbrella top is in a rest position, free from any action thereon by wind. The space d gives umbrella top 20 a degree of venting sufficient to dissipate low velocity winds without lifting of the free longitudinal edges of the vanes.
Under the influence of high velocity winds, however, the free longitudinal edges of the vanes are lifted as previously discussed. The lifting and dropping thereof may still cause some noise as the vanes flap against the supporting bolt head 56 shown in FIG. 4. To substantially eliminate such noise, each vane is preferably provided with a sound deadening undersurface 64 as shown in FIGS. 4 and 5. This is preferably accomplished by applying a layer of resilient material thereto such as a layer of solid foam, for example, rubber or plastic foam. Such foam materials substantially eliminate any undesirable flapping noises. Further, such a foam layer enhances the aesthetic qualities of the umbrella top by providing a nonreflective and therefore glareproof undersurface for the umbrella. The foam may also be colored, for example, to contrast with the umbrella top, or to suit various decorative color schemes.
Referring back to FIG. 2, umbrella frame 24 is also preferably provided with suitable lateral bracing, particularly in the larger umbrella diameters. Such bracing may be accom-v plished by a plurality of spacers 66 extending between pairs of support struts 25. Spacers 66 preferably comprise lengths of stiff rod, bar or channel which connect at their ends with each of the two support struts 25 they span.
As will be understood, each spacer 66 must be disengaged from the adjacent support struts 25 before umbrella top 20 can be folded. For this purpose, each spacer 66 may be made completely removable from the umbrella frame 24; preferably, however, spacers 66 are made an integral part of frame 24, and disengage from only one support strut 24 to permit the umbrella to fold. Specifically, as shown in FIGS. 6 and 7, each spacer 66 is preferably connected by a pivotal hinge 68 to one of the pair of support struts 25 which it spans. The other end 70 of each spacer 66 is provided with a locking cutout 72 which engages with a corresponding slot 74 in the opposite support strut 25. Preferably, spacers 66 are made alternately pivotal as shown in FIG. 7, that is, each support strut 25 has a spacer 66 pivoted at one side thereof while the spacer 66 extending from the opposite side is pivoted on the adjacent support strut. where two or more rows of spacers 66 are employed as shown in FIG. 2, the spacers are also preferably alternately pivoted from row to row (FIG. 7). In this way each spacer 66, when disengaged to close the umbrella, may be conveniently laid to rest along one side of the support strut 25 to which it is pivoted, over the flap portion 25a and against the depending flange 25b thereof. Accordingly, the chances of losing spacers 66 which become accidentally disengaged, or during storage, is substantially eliminated. Spacers 66 further serve to keep vanes 22 from sagging along their length, particularly in larger diameter umbrellas.
The portion of umbrella frame 24 which enables umbrella top 20 to be manually folded is shown in FIGS. 2 and 8. A spider 76 is slidably mounted on an umbrella pole structure 78 below bottom hinge plate 26c. A second plurality of struts 80 are each pivotally mounted to spider 76 at one end, and extend up to pivotal connections at the other end with support struts 25. It can be seen in FIG. 2 that as spider 76 is manually pulled downward along pole structure 78, struts 80 act to pull support struts 25 downward and thus fold umbrella top 20.
Specifically, referring to FIG. 8, spider 76 comprises a section of hollow tubing 82 having a cross section which conforms to the cross section of the portion of pole structure 78 upon which it slides. A flange 84 extends around the upper end, and a plurality of tabs 86 project in sunburst fashion from the periphery of flange 84 as shown in FIG. 10. The number of tabs 86 projecting from spider 76 preferably correspond to the number of support struts 25 as will be apparent from FIG. 2. A strut 80 is pivotally connected at one end 88 to each tab 86 as shown in FIGS. 8 and these struts 80 project upward in sunburst fashion to a pivotal connection 90 with the dependent flange b of a corresponding support strut 25 as shown in FIGS. 5 and 7.
Referring back to FIG. 8, spider 76 is also provided with means whereby it may be locked in at least one position along pole structure 78 corresponding to an open umbrella position; these means comprise a spring loaded plunger pin 92 mounted in an appropriate boss 94 containing a helical spring 96. Boss 94 is threadedly secured through one side of spider 76. At lease one aperture 98 is also provided in pole structure 78 to receive pin 92, thus producing in effect a detent for securing spider 76 and umbrella top 20 in an open position.
The umbrella of the invention is also preferably made rotatable on its pole. This is done so that the umbrella top can rotate when subjected to higher wind velocities to further dissipate the force of the wind and prevent the umbrella from being tipped or carried off. For this purpose, umbrella pole structure 78 is made up in several sections as shown in FIG. 8.
The rotatable umbrella pole structure 78 preferably comprises a fixed main support pole 100 of circular cross section as shown in FIGS. 9 and 10. Support pole 100 may be conveniently provided with a spring loaded detent button 102 at its lower end so that it may be telescopically mounted in an umbrella fixture 104 such as may be found in an umbrella table, or in a permanent umbrella stand.
A rotatable hollow beam 106 is telescopically mounted over support pole 100 and secured in position between a pair of ring bearings 108 each fastened to support pole 100 by a bolt or rivet 110 passing through both the ring bearing and the support pole as shown in FIG. 9. Ring bearings I08 are preferably circular in cross section as shown.
Hollow beam 106, however, for reasons which will become clear from the following description, is preferably of square cross section as shown in FIG. 10. Accordingly, to provide a substantially frictionless and matching bearing surface with lower ring bearing I08, hollow beam 106 is provided with a transition sleeve 112 at the lower end thereof. Sleeve 112 as can be seen in FIG. 8 has a flanged end 1120 which fits within and matches the square cross section of hollow beam 106. The bottom end 112!) of sleeve 1 12, however, tapers into a circular cross section'to match the bearing surface of lower ring bearing 108 (see FIG. 2).
Still referring to FIG. 8, the upper end of hollow beam 106 is securely fixed in a square opening formed in middle and hottom hinge plates 26b and 26c. Top hinge plate 26a, however, contains a circular opening through which only support pole 100 extends. An upper bearing sleeve 114 fits telescopically around support pole 100. Sleeve 1 14 has an upper flange 1 14a of circular configuration which rests on top of top hinge plate 26a and serves as a matching bearing surface for the upper ring bearing 108. Sleeves 112 and 114 are preferably formed of a self-lubricating material such as, for example, nylon or Teflon Accordingly, it can be seen that hollow beam 106 will freely rotate around support pole 100 between the two ring bearings 108.
Still referring to FIG. 8, spider 76 is slidably mounted on hollow beam 106, and has a matching square cross section so that it will interlock and rotate therewith. Also, spider 76 fits about beam 106 and is keyed thereto by spring loaded plunger 92; in this way spider 76 and shaft 106 may be locked together when the umbrella is in an open position, Since hollow beam 106 is secured both to hinge plate means 26 and to spider 76, the entire umbrella frame 24 as shown in FIG. 2 is rotatably supported thereon. Accordingly, the desirable rotation of umbrella top 20 about support pole velocities.
The umbrella may also be provided with a decorative cap structure 116 mounted on the umbrella pole over umbrella top 20 as shown in FIG. I. The function of cap structure 116 is to cover the umbrella pole structure which would otherwise be visible on umbrella top 20 and detract from the appearance thereof. For this purpose, an extension pole piece 118 may be telescopically mounted in the upper end of support pole it is preferably secured in place by the same pin "0 which secures the upper ring bearing 108 as shown in FIG. 8. Extension 118 is provided with a plug 120 at its upper end, and cap 116 may be secured over plug 120 by a bolt 122 which passes through both plug and cap. It can be seen that since cap structure I16 is mounted to fixed support pole 100, it will remain stationary while umbrella top 20 rotates below. Alternatively, cap structure 116 may be mounted directly to top hinge plate 26a in which case the cap will rotate with the umbrella top.
As shown in FIGS. 1 and 8, cap structure 116 may comprise an inverted, bowl-shaped base 124 topped by a decorative pointed finial 126. However, where other decorative effects are desired, differently shaped caps such as the pagoda type shown in FIG. 11 may be substituted. Since the caps are simply mounted by means of a single bolt 122 as shown in FIG. 8, any number of interchangeable caps may be provided so that the umbrella can be adapted for various applications or decorative schemes.
It will thus be seen that the objects set forth above, among those made apparent from the preceding description, are efficiently attained and, since certain changes may be made in the above constructions without departing from the scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
Having described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. A foldable wind-resistant umbrella comprising, in combination:
A. an umbrella pole structure;
B. a plurality of vanes each having an apex; a base portion and two longitudinal edges;
I. said vanes being adjacently mounted at their respective apexes for pivotal movement at least toward the axis of said pole structure, and arranged to fan out in serially overlapping relationship to form an umbrella top;
' C. frame means for supporting said umbrella top in an open position;
I. each said vane being secured to said frame means along one said longitudinal edge with the other longitudinal edge of each vane remaining free and overlapping the fixed longitudinal edge of the next adjacent vane; and
2. said frame means being collapsible to pivot said vanes toward the axis of said pole structure whereby said umbrella to'p assumes a folded position.
2. A foldable wind-resistant umbrella as defined in claim I wherein said frame means includes a flexible support ring underlying said umbrella top, the fixed longitudinal'edge of each said vane being secured to said flexible support ring whereby each said vane is fixed in a predetennined position when the umbrella is opened and the vanes may increasingly overlap as the frame is collapsed to permit said umbrella top to assume a folded position.
3. A foldable wind-resistant umbrella as defined in claim 2 wherein said frame means further comprises:
A. means forming a hinge plate mounted on said pole structure with said vanes being pivotally connected thereto;
B. a first pluralityof support struts pivotally connected to said hinge plate for movement at least tbward the axis of I00 can occur at high wind said pole structure, and projecting in sunburst fashion adjacent the underside of said umbrella top for support thereof;
l said flexible support ring being secured to said first plurality of struts;
.C. a spider slidably mounted on said pole structure below said hinge plate; and
D. a second plurality of struts pivotally connected to said spider at one end and projecting in sunburst fashion therefrom to pivotal connections on said first plurality of struts; whereby movement of said spider down said pole structure causes said frame means to collapse to a folded position.
4. A foldable wind-resistant umbrella as defined in claim 3 and including a plurality of spacers extending between pairs of said first plurality of support struts, each said spacer being disengageable from at least one strut of said pair to permit the collapsing of said frame to a folded position.
5. A foldable wind-resistant umbrella as defined in claim 3 including means for locking said spider in at least one position on said pole structure corresponding to an open umbrella position.
6. A foldable wind-resistant umbrella as defined in claim 3 including substantially universal pivotal joints connecting both said vanes and said first plurality of struts to said hinge plate.
7. A foldable wind-resistant umbrella as defined in claim 2 wherein said flexible support ring comprises a length of flexible cable secured to said first plurality of struts, each said vane being secured to said flexible cable by a fastener comprising a headed bolt having a slotted shank which passes through the vane to the underside thereof, said flexible cable extending through said slot and a nut threadedly secured to said shank and clamping said flexible cable against the underside of said vane.
8. A foldable wind-resistant umbrella as defined in claim 1 wherein the undersides of said vanes are covered with solid foam material.
9. A foldable wind-resistant umbrella as defined in claim 3 wherein said pole structure comprises a fixed main support pole, bearing means at two spaced positions on said main support pole, and a rotatable hollow beam telescopically mounted on said main support pole between said bearing means, said hollow beam being fixed to said hinge plate at the upper end thereof and carrying said spider, whereby said umbrella top and supporting frame means can rotate to dissipate the force of wind thereon.
10. A foldable wind-resistant umbrella as defined in claim I and including a removable decorative cap structure mounted on said pole structure over said umbrella top.
11. A foldable wind-resistant umbrella comprising, in combination:
A. a rotatable pole structure comprising:
1. a fixed main support pole;
2. bearing means at two spaced positions on said main support pole; and
3. a rotatable hollow beam telescopically mounted on said main support pole between said bearing means;
B. a collapsible frame comprising;
1. means forming a hinge plate mounted adjacent the top of said pole structure and secured to said rotatable hollow beam;
2. a first plurality of support struts pivotally connected to said hinge plate for movement at least toward the axis of said pole structure, and projecting in sunburst fashion therefrom;
3. a flexible support ring secured to said first plurality of struts;
4. a spider slidably mounted on said rotatable hollow beam; and
5. a second plurality of struts pivotally connected to said spider at one end and projecting in sunburst fashion therefrom to pivotal connections on said first plurality of support struts;
C. an umbrella top comprising:
1. a plurality of vanes each having an apex, a base portion and two longitudinal edges;
a. said vanes being adjacently pivotally mounted at their respective apexes to said hinge plate for pivotal movement at least toward the axis of said pole structure; and b. said vanes being arranged to fan out in serially over-