Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3559887 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 2, 1971
Filing dateMay 8, 1969
Priority dateMay 8, 1969
Publication numberUS 3559887 A, US 3559887A, US-A-3559887, US3559887 A, US3559887A
InventorsLarry P Meyer
Original AssigneeNelson Mfg Co Inc L R
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Sprinkler head
US 3559887 A
Abstract  available in
Images(5)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent [72) lnventor Larry P. Meyer East Peoria. Ill. [21 Appl. No. 823,026 [22] Filed May 8, 1969 [45] Patented Feb. 2, 1971 [73] Assignee L. R. Nelson Mfg. Co., Inc.

Peoria, II]. a corporation of Illinois [54] SPRINKLER HEAD 15 Claims, 12 Drawing Figs.

[52] US. Cl 239/233 [5 1] Int. Cl B05b 3/08 [50] Field of Search 239/230. 231, 232, 233

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,710,107 4/1929 Orr 239/233 2,649,268 8/l953 Stein 239/230 FOREIGN PATENTS 975,525 12/1961 Germany 239/233 Primary Examiner-Mv Henson Wood, Jr. Assistant ExaminerMichael Y. Mar Attorney-Cushman, Darby & Cushman ABSTRACT: A high capacity agricultural irrigation sprinkler head of the type which is rotated in step by step fashion by an oscillating arm having a reactant element provided with fixed surfaces for effecting both the oscillating movement of the impulse arm and the incremental rotational movements of the head, the surfaces of the reactant element automatically compensating for changes in water pressure and nozzle outlet size through a wide range to produce a generally constant oscillatory arm speed and a generally constant intermittent rotational speed by varying the reactant area in response to variation in the energy of the stream engaged thereby. The sprinkler head also includes a reversing arm having a reactant element which is moved into and out of the stream by an overriding cam mechanism, the reactant element being normally biased out of the stream and retained in the stream when initially moved therein by the cam mechanism solely by the action of the stream thereon against its normal bias, thus preventing accidental start up during the reversing cycle and severe shock or damage due to override at the normally operable beginning and end of the reversing cycle.

PATENTED m 2197:

SHEET 1 [IF 5 I 42m Hiya? ATTORNEYS PATENIEUFEB 2:911 I I 3559-887 I sum 2 or 5 Z8 INVENTOR ATTORNEYS SPRINKLER HEAD This invention relates to sprinkler heads and more particularly to high capacity sprinkler heads of the type used in agricultural irrigation sprinkling.

High capacity sprinkler heads have increased in use with the increase in agricultural sprinkler irrigation. High capacity sprinkler heads of the type to which the present invention relates are adapted to operate in a range of approximately 290 to l025 gpm and to cover an area having a diameter of from 370 feet to 590 feet.

Such high capacity sprinkler heads are contrasted with the more common low capacity sprinkler heads which find use in agricultural sprinkler irrigation as well as lawn and athletic field maintenance. Low capacity sprinklers are adapted to operate within a range of something less than 1 gpm to up to about 35 or 40 gpm for lawn and athletic field and in the range of 38 gpm to l gpm covering a diameter of 170 to 235 feet.

While both high capacity and low capacity sprinkler heads are operable to cover the area to be sprinkled with a step-bystep rotary movement, the manner in which the step-by-step movement is accomplished differs. Most low capacity step-bystep rotary sprinklers embody an impulse arm which is mounted for oscillatory movement about an axis coincident with the rotational axis of the sprinkler head body. The incremental rotational movement of the sprinkler body is accomplished by the force of the impulse arm striking a portion of the sprinkler body at the end of the return stroke of the impulse arm. While most high capacity sprinkler heads embody an oscillating impulse arm, in general, the impulse arm does not effect the incremental rotational movement of the sprinkler body by striking a portion of the same at the end of its return stroke, as is the case with the low capacity sprinklers.

One type of prior art high capacity sprinkler head achieves incremental rotation of the sprinkler body by a reaction force applied by the stream to a reactant element carried by the impulse am. An example of a device of this type is illustrated in US. Pat. No. 2,649,268.

Since high capacity sprinkler heads are efficiently used primarily in agricultural irrigation and are not suitable to the lawn and athletic field mass market, they must be produced on a limited basis as compared with low capacity sprinkler heads. Moreover, because of their greater capacity and the greater operating water pressures involved, they must be of much sturdier construction. Due to this situation, it is not practical to manufacture a variety of different size high capacity sprinkler heads to accommodate different portions in the overall range of use as is the case with low capacity sprinklers. Thus, it is desirable to provide a single high capacity sprinkler head construction which can be modified to suit the desired conditions by simply changing the size of the nozzle outlet. Moreover, high capacity sprinkler heads must be readily adapted for use with pressure sources ranging from 60 p.s.i. to 130 p.s.i.

The efficiency of any sprinkler is, of course, determined by the effectiveness with which it can distribute the water available to the area to be covered. The effectiveness of the distribution of water by a high capacity sprinkler head of the type which is incrementally rotated in response to the oscillation of an impulse arm is dependent upon two primary functions, first, the distance of incremental rotational movement of the incremental rotation displacement and second, the rate at which the incremental rotational movement takes place or the frequency of incremental rotation.

With respect to incremental rotational displacement, an optimum condition is one in which a minimum overlap between adjacent incremental areas receiving water is achieved. Too little displacement can result in too much overlap between incremental areas and hence too much water falling on the overlap area resulting in possible soil and crop damage. On the other hand, too much displacement can result in a gap between adjacent incremental areas receiving water which gap is not adequately irrigated. Incremental rotational displacement is determined by the frictional force of the brake used to control rotation and the impulse force applied to effect rotation under the control of the brake friction.

With respect to frequency of incremental rotation. an optimum condition is to obtain distribution in each incremental area receiving water which extends outwardly in a stream as far as the source pressure permits while still insuring adequate coverage at the inner extent of the incremental area by break up of the stream Too low a frequency can result in the outer reaches of the incremental area receiving too much water with the attendant possibility of soil and crop damage and the inner reaches not being adequately covered. Too high a frequency can result in the outer reaches of the incremental area not being adequately covered. The frequency of incremental rotation is, of course. the same as the frequency of impulse arm oscillation and it is determined by the impulse force applied by the stream to effect the impulse stroke of the impulse arm and the manner in which the return stroke of the impulse arm is accomplished. It is unaffected by the frictional force applied by the brake to control the amount of incremental rotation.

An exemplary incremental rotational displacement which will give effective distribution is within the range of 0.9 to L6". An exemplary frequency of incremental rotation which will give effective distribution is within the range of 45 to 50 oscillatory cycles per minute,

It can be seen that any given sprinkler head can be constructed to operate within these ranges under any given water source condition, however, because high capacity sprinkler heads must be capable of operating under a wide range of pressure source conditions, it has been the practice heretofore to provide manual adjustments which can be made by the operator where different pressure source conditions are encountered or contemplated.

For example, in the aforesaid US. patent, the reaction element is adjustably mounted on the outer end of the impulse arm so as to permit the reaction element to be retained in a plurality of adjusted positions wherein the angle of the reaction surface to the stream is varied to vary the frequency of the incremental rotational movement for the particular nozzle size and pressure source utilized. Moreover, a compensating adjustment to the brake pressure controlling the rotational movement may also be required to vary the incremental rotational displacement. It will be noted, however, that these adjustments must be made manually so that where the pressure source conditions vary during operation, the necessary adjustments are, as a practical matter, simply not made.

While adjustments of this type provide a measure of flexibility in operation, they are subject to accidental displacement from their adjusted positions. Moreover, in situations where the reactant element is adjusted to accommodate low pressures and the sprinkler head is subjected to a high pressure source, excessive vibrations and impact while operating under such high pressure source can cause severe damage. For these reasons as well as the inconvenience to the operator in effecting adjustment, it is desirable to provide a sprinkler head which is operable under a wide range of pressure conditions and in a wide range of nozzle outlet orifice sizes to provide a substantially constant frequency of incremental rotation without the necessity of adjustment.

Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a high capacity sprinkler head which will accomplish this result. in accordance with the principles of the present invention this result is achieved by providing surface means on the reactant element of the impulse arm defining reactant areas for accomplishing both the oscillation of the impulse arm and the incremental rotation of the sprinkler body which varies in response to the energy conditions of the stream issuing from the nozzle. Thus, in accordance with the principles of the present invention, as the pressure source and/or nozzle size increases, the reactant areas of the surfaces fixed on the reactant element which are engaged by the stream decrease so that the resultant produce of the energy level of the stream and the reactant areas engaged thereby are substantially constant resulting in a substantially constant reaction force on the impulse arm both to effect the oscillatory movement thereof and the incremental rotational movement of the sprinkler bodyv In this regard, it should also be noted that the engagement of the reactant element within the stream is utilized to effect the precipitation rate in the area to be sprinkled ad acent the sprinkler head whereas the precipitation rate of the areas adjacent the periphery of the circular area to be sprlnkled is accomplished when the reactant element is out of engagement with the stream. Thus, not only IS it desirable to have a generally constant rotational speed but a generally constant oscillatory speed of the arm as well.

In the specific embodiment of the present invention the functional relationships noted above are achieved by providing a plurality of fixed vanes on the reactant element which are spaced in the direction of movement of the reactant ele ment into the stream. These spaced vanes include spaced sur faces which provide spaced reactant areas which are progressively engaged by the stream as a result of the energy level thereof. For example. where the stream is at a high energy level (i.e. high velocity) the surfaces of only one set of vanes may be engaged by the stream, whereas when the stream is at a low energy level, the surfaces of three sets of vanes may be engaged. The surfaces of the vanes provide the reactant areas for effecting the oscillatory movement of the impulse arm. Extending between the vanes are surfaces which provide reactant areas to effect the incremental rotation of the sprinkler head. Thus, the more vanes that are engaged, the more reactant area is provided therebetween to effect incremental rotation of the sprinkler body.

In many uses of high capacity sprinkler heads it is desirable to cover an area which is less than a full circle. For example, when such sprinkler heads are mounted on a traveling vehicle it is sometimes desirable to leave the area in front of the vehicle dry and to provide a pattern of precipitation which extends approximately 270 or 300 so as to cover the area at the sides and rear of the vehicle only. Various mechanisms have been provided in the prior art for accomplishing part-circle sprinkling. For example, in the aforesaid US. patent there is provided a second reactant element which is moved into the stream issuing from the nozzle when the sprinkler body reaches one end of its rotational movement. The reaction of the stream on the second reactant element effects a continuous rotation of the sprinkler body in a direction opposed to the normal operating direction of the sprinkler head and when the sprinkler body reaches the beginning of its rotational movement the second reactant element is moved out of the stream, permitting the impulse arm to commence normal operation. Reversing mechanisms of this type are considered desirable since they commence the normal operation at the position within the area to be sprinkled which is the driest.

A further object of the present invention is to provide a reactant reversing mechanism of the type described above which is capable of two operational functions which are not achieved by the mechanism disclosed in the aforesaid US. patent First, the reversing reactant element in accordance with the principles of the present invention, is maintained within the stream issuing from the nozzle by the stream itself so that accidental start-up during the reverse cycle can not take place. Second, the reversing reactant element is moved into the stream to be retained therein by the action of the stream itself and then moved out of the stream by an overriding cam arrangement which prevents jamming and breakage which may occur where the movement of the reversing reactant element into and out of the stream is accomplished by the engagement of stops or the like.

It is a further object of the present invention to provide a high capacity sprinkler head of the type described which is simple in construction, efficient in operation and economical to manufacture and maintain.

These and other objects of the present invention will become more apparent during the course of the following detailed description and appen ed claims.

The lnvention may best be understood with reference to the accompanying drawings wherein an illustrative embodiment is shown,

In the drawings.

FIG I is a perspective view of a high capacity sprinkler head embodying the principles of the present invention;

FIG 2 is a side elevational view of the swivel and spring brake assembly of the sprinkler head shown in FIG. I with parts broken away for purposes of clearer illustration;

FIG. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view taken substantially along the line 33 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 4 is an enlarged fragmentary top plan view of the impulse arm assembly showing the relationship of the reactant element thereof with the nozzle of the sprinkler body;

FIGS. 5, 6 and 7 are side elevational views of the structure shown in FIG. 4 illustrating the extent to which the reactant element of the impulse arm assembly enters the stream issuing from the nozzle under varying water source pressures;

FIG. 8 is a fragmentary sectional view taken along the line 88 of FIG. 3;

FIG. 9 is a fragmentary sectional view taken along the line 99 of FIG. 3;

FIG. 10 is a fragmentary top plan view of the reactant element of the reversing arm assembly;

FIG. 11 is a fragmentary side elevational view of the structure shown in FIG. 10; and

FIG. 12 is a fragmentary top plan view of the sprinkler head showing one position of adjustment of the cam elements of the reversing arm actuating mechanism with the path of movement of the cam roller shown in phantom lines therein.

Referring now more particularly to the drawings, there is shown in FIG. 1 thereof a sprinkler head, generally indicated at 10, embodying the principles of the present invention. It will be understood that the sprinkler head 10 is adapted to be mounted on the upper end of a riser pipe, the lower end of which is communicated through suitable conduit to a source of water under pressure. Where the head 10 is used to sprinkler irrigate, the riser may be stationarily mounted in the field or may be carried by a traveling vehicle. For example, the sprinkler head 10 of the present invention would find particular utility in a traveling sprinkler irrigation device of the type disclosed in commonly assigned copending application Ser. No. 677,221 filed Oct. 23, I963.

The sprinkler head 10 of the present invention includes, in general, a swivel and spring brake assembly, generally indicated at 12, which is adapted to be connected at its lower end with the riser. A sprinkler body, generally indicated at 14, is connected with the upper end of the swivel and spring brake assembly in hydraulic communication with the riser pipe for directing the flow of water upwardly and outwardly, the swivel and spring brake assembly 12 mounting the sprinkler body for controlled rotational movement about a generally vertical axis. The sprinkler body 14 directs the water under pressure communicated therewith in a stream flowing therefrom in generally symmetrical relation to a plane passing through the axis of rotation.

An impulse arm assembly, generally indicated at 16, is pivotally mounted on the sprinkler body for oscillatory movement about an axis extending transverse to the aforesaid plane. The impulse arm-assembly 16 includes a reactant element, generally indicated at 18, on the outer end thereof and is normally biased intoa limited position wherein the reactant element 18 is disposed within the path of a stream issuing from the sprinkler body. The reactant element 18 is operable in response to the energy of a stream issuing from the sprinkler body to effect movement of the arm through repeated oscillatory cycles, each of which includes an impulse stroke wherein the reactant element leaves the stream and moves away from the latter in one direction and a return stroke wherein the reactant element moves in the opposite direction toward the stream and enters the latter. The reactant element 18 is also operable during the portion of each oscillatory cycle when it is disposed within the stream to impart an incremental rotational movement to the sprinkler head which is controlled by the swivel and spring brake assembly 12.

The sprinkler head also includes a reversing arm assembly, generally indicated at 20. which is pivotally mounted on the sprinkler body for oscillatory movement about an axis extending transverse to the aforesaid plane and which. preferably, is concentric with the pivotal axis of the impulse arm assembly 16. The reversing arm assembly also includes a reactant element 22 on the outer end thereof and is normally biased into a limited position wherein the reactant element 22 is disposed out of the path of a stream issuing from the sprinkler body. The reversing arm assembly 20 is adapted to be used when it is desired to sprinkler irrigate an area less than a full circle, as for example, a segmental portion of a circle proceeding from one end thereof to the opposite end thereof. The reversing arm assembly 20 is operable to rotate the sprinkler head from the opposite end back to the one end and in order to accomplish this operation. there is provided a reversing arm actuating mechanism, generally indicated at 24, which is operable in response to the sprinkler body reaching the opposite end of its rotation to effect a pivotal movement of the reversing arm assembly from its normally biased position into a position wherein the reactant element 22 is engaged by the stream issuing from the sprinkler body and maintained therein by the stream against its normal bias. The reversing arm actuating mechanism 24 is operable, in response to the reversing rotational movement of the sprinkler body back to its one end to effect a pivotal movement of the reversing arm assembly 20, back into its normally biased position wherein the reactant element 22 is disposed out of the path of the stream.

Referring now more particularly to FIG. 2, there is shown therein a preferred embodiment of the swivel and spring brake assembly 12. While it will be understood the assembly 12 may assume many different forms, as shown, there is provided a lower fitting 26 having connecting means thereon for engagement with the upper end of the riser pipe as, for example, interior threads 28. The fitting 26 is provided with an annular flange 30 extending radially outwardly from the upper end thereof for sealing engagement with a radially extending annular flange 32 formed on the lower end of a swivel housing member 34. Any suitable means may be provided for securing the fitting 26 and housing member together in sealing relation as, for example, a plurality of circumferentially spaced bolt assemblies 36 extending through the flanges 30 and 32 and a sealing gasket 38 mounted between the flanges 30 and 32.

Disposed within the swivel housing 34 is the lower end of an elbow member 40 which forms a part of the sprinkler body 14. As best shown in FIG. 2, the lower outer periphery of the elbow member 40 has a bearing sleeve 42 formed thereon which provides an exterior sealing surface for an O-ring 44 carried in a suitable annular groove formed on the interior periphery of the swivel housing 34. Formed on the outer periphery of the elbow member 40 in upwardly spaced relation from the bearing 42 is a downwardly facing annular shoulder 46 arranged to receive the inner race of a ball bearing assembly 48 thereagainst. The ball bearing assembly 48 may be retained in engagement with the shoulder 46 by any suitable means such as a retainer ring 50 or the like. The outer race of the ball bearing assembly 48 seats within an upwardly facing shoulder 52 formed in the upper interior periphery of the swivel housing 34.

The upper end of the swivel housing member 34 has an annular flange 54 extending radially outwardly therefrom which is provided with a series of circumferentially spaced vertical openings for receiving a corresponding series of bolt assemblies 56. The bolt assemblies 56- serve to fasten an annular cover member 58 on the upper surface of the flange 54 which has an inner peripheral portion disposed in engagement with the outer race of the ball bearing assembly 48.

Formed on the exterior periphery of the elbow member 40 in vertically spaced relation to the cover member 58 is an annular flange 60 which extends radially outwardly therefrom.

The flange 60 IS formed with a series of circumferentially spaced openings for receiving a series of bolts 62 therethrough which threadedly engage within an annular friction ring 64 to thus secure the latter beneath the annular flange 60. The friction ring 64 includes an upwardly facing outer annular friction surface 66 which is engaged by a downwardly facing annular friction surface of a brake ring 68.

The brake ring 68 is provided with a series of circumferentially spaced apertured lugs and certain of the bolt assemblies 56 are provided with extensions 70 which extend upwardly therethrough. Mounted over each of the bolt extensions 70 is a spring spacer 72 disposed in engagement with the upper surface of the brake ring and having a coil spring 74 mounted in surrounding relation thereto. The upper end of each coil spring 74 is engaged by a washer 76 and a nut 78 threaded on the upper extremity of the bolt extension 70 serves as a means for adjusting the brake spring pressure. It will be noted that the outer peripheral portion of the friction ring 64 and adjacent peripheral portion of the cover 58 are formed with outwardly diverging annular surfaces for receiving an annular O-ring seal 80 in sealing engagement therewith.

The elbow member 40, which forms a part of the sprinkler body, curves upwardly from the flange 60 and has an auxiliary outlet 82 communicating with the interior thereof having its axis disposed at an angle of approximately 20 with respect to the horizontal. As shown, the auxiliary outlet 82 has a plug 84 sealingly secured within the outer end thereof, although it will be understood that the plug may be replaced with a suitable spreader nozzle if desired in accordance with conventional practice. The elbow member 40 also includes a vertical opening 86 extending downwardly into communication with the interior thereof which likewise is normally plugged but which, when the plug is removed, is adapted to receive a pressure gauge G, as shown in FIG. 1.

Fixedly secured to the upper end of the elbow member 40, as by welding or the like, is the lower end of a tubular barrel member 88 which likewise forms a part of the sprinkler body 14. As best shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, the inner periphery of the barrel member is provided with a series of circumferentially spaced flow guiding fins or ribs 90 which extend radially inwardly from the interior periphery thereof. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 1, the axis of the tubular barrel member 88 is disposed at an angle of approximately 27 with respect to the horizontal although it will be understood that this angle may be varied. For example, an angle of approximately 21 is desirable where it is expected that the sprinkler head will be used extensively under strong wind conditions.

Detachably secured to the upper outer end of the barrel member 88 is a nozzle member 92. It will be understood that the noule member 92 may be provided with a tapered bore orifice in which case it is necessary to replace the entire noule member to change the orifice size. Alternatively, the nozzle member may have a ring insert detachably secured therein which forms the outlet orifice providing the operator with the option of changing orifice size merely by the selection of a desired ring size. Exemplary taper bore nozzle member sizes in diameter dimension expressed in inches, are 1.05, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6 and 1.75. Exemplary ring insert orifice sizes are 1%, 1%, 1%, 1%, 1%, 1% and 2.

Referring now more particularly to FIG. 3, the preferred manner of pivotally mounting the impulse arm assembly 16 to the sprinkler body 14 is shown therein. Fixedly secured, by any suitable means, such as welding or the like, to the upper periphery of the barrel member 88, in spaced relation to the nozzle member 92, is a saddle member 94. The saddle member 94 is provided with a transverse bore 96 through which a shaft 98 extends with its ends disposed outwardly on each side of the barrel member 88. The impulse arm assembly 16 includes a tubular hub portion 100 within which one end of the shaft 98 is disposed. The hub 100 is joumaled on the shaft by any suitable means, such as a pair of axially spaced roller bearing assemblies 102 mounted between the inner periphery of the hub portion and the outer periphery of the shaft. The

inner races of the bearing assemblies are retained in spaced relation by a spacer sleeve 104 disposed in surrounding relation to the shaft between the bearing assemblies.

Pivotally mounted on the portion of the shaft 98 between the impulse arm assembly 16 and the saddle member 98 is a counterweight member 106. The counterweight member includes a tubular hub portion 108 which is journaled on the shaft 98 by any suitable means, such as a ball bearing assembly 110 having its outer race engaged with the inner periphery of the pub portion 108 and its inner race engaged with the periphery of the shaft 98. The counterweight member 106 is maintained in axially spaced relation between the impulse arm assembly and the saddle 94 by a spacer sleeve 112, similar to the sleeve 104 positioned between the inner races of the adjacent bearing assemblies of the impulse arm assembly and the counterweight member and a centering spacer 114, one end of which engages the inner race of the bearing assembly 112 and the opposite end of which is formed into a frustoconical configuration to engage within a similarly shaped surface on the adjacent end of the bore 96.

The outer end of the shaft 98 has a nut 116 threadedly engaged thereon which nut contacts the inner race of the adjacent bearing assembly 102. The portion of the shaft adjacent the opposite end of the bore 96 includes an enlarged section 118 upon which a centering nut 120 is threadedly engaged. It can be seen that the bearing assemblies, and spacers as well as the shaft 98 will be fixedly secured to the saddle member 94 by tightening the nuts 1 16 and 120.

Preferably, the bearing assemblies 102 and 110 are sealed for lifetime lubrication. To this end, a cap 122 is detachably engaged within the outer end of the hub portion 100, as by a retainer ring 124, the cap having an O-ring 126 providing a seal for the periphery of the hub portion adjacent its outer end. The opposite inner end of the hub portion is sealed by an annular sealing assembly 128 of any conventional design. In a like manner, the opposite ends of the hub portion 108 is provided with annular sealing assemblies 130 which likewise may be of any conventional design.

Referring now more particularly to FIG. 8, it will be noted that the impulse arm assembly is formed with a lug 132 which extends transversely beyond the hub portion in rearwardly spaced relation thereto. The lug 132 includes a lower abutment surface 134 which is adapted to engage an upwardly facing abutment surface 136 provided on the saddle member 94 in the path of movement of the abutment surface 134. The position of the hub portion 100 of the impulse arm assembly with respect to the reactant element 18 on the forward end thereof and with respect to a counterweight 138 on the opposite end thereof is such that the impulse arm assembly under static conditions is biased to pivot in a clockwise direction as viewed in FIG. 8. This normal biased clockwise movement is limited by the engagement of abutment surfaces 134 and 136. In this way, when the sprinkler head is not in operation, the impulse arm assembly 16 is normally biased into a limiting position in which the reactant element 18 is disposed in a posi tion to be engaged by the stream when operation is commenced by communicating the sprinkler head with a source of water under pressure. While the counterweight 138 is of a size to normally bias the reactant element 18 upwardly into its normal limiting position, the shape of the counterweight 138 is chosen so as to present a surface area generally equal to the surface area of the reactant element so as to minimize the tendency of the impulse arm assembly to be moved by high winds.

As best known in FIG. 8 the counterweight member 106 is positioned substantially entirely in one radial direction from the hub portion 108 and is retained in a position extending in.a direction generally parallel with the extent of the barrel member 88. To this end, the saddle member 94 is formed with a transversely extending lug 140 which is apertured to threadedly receive a bumper member 142. The counterweight member 106 includes an integral transversely extending lug 144 disposed in a position to engage the bumper member 142 when the counterweight member is disposed in its normal inoperative position as shown in FIG. 8. The rearwardly and downwardly facing surface of the bumper member and the forwardly and upwardly facing surface of the lug 144 constitute interengaging abutments which retain the counterweight member in its normal inoperative position when the impulse arm assembly 16 is in its normal inoperative position.

The counterweight member 106 also includes a second radially extending lug 146 which is adapted to be engaged by a bumper member 148 threadedly engaged within the lug 132 of the impulse arm assembly. With this arrangement, during the pivotal movement of the impulse arm assembly away from its normal inoperative position, after a travel of approximately 63, the forwardly facing abutment surface of the bumper member 148 will engage the rearwardly facing abutment surface of the lug 146 so that in subsequent pivotal movement during the impulse stroke the counterweight member 106 is carried with the impulse arm. Likewise, during the initial portion of the return stroke, the counterweight member 106 becomes effectively a part of the impulse arm assembly until the abutment surface of the lug 144 engages the abutment surface of the bumper 142 at which time the movement of the counterweight member is stopped while the impulse arm assembly continues to move through the completion of its return stroke.

Referring now more particularly to FIGS. 4-7, the construction of the reactant element 18, which forms such an important part of the present invention, can best be seen. The reactant element 18 includes an arm attaching portion 150 which is generally. of a trapezoidal shape in plan, as best shown in FIG. 4. One end of the portion 150 is rigidly secured to the outer end of the impulse arm assembly 16 by anysuitable means, such as a pair of bolt assemblies 152. One or more of the openings to which the bolt assemblies 152 extend may be transversely elongated to permit the reactant element 18 to be precisely positioned and secured. Such an adjustment however is provided for manufacturing accuracy to compensate for the tolerances in the manufacture. It is contemplated that the securement of the reactant element 18 to the impulse arm assembly will be a permanent rigid factory securement and it is not intended thatthe adjustment provided is for the purpose of adjustment to the operator after purchase.

The opposite end of the arm attaching portion 150 has a wall 154 extending upwardly and outwardly therefrom. Extending outwardly from the wall 154 in generally perpendicular relation thereto are five vanes, 156, 158, 160, 162 and 164. The vanes are spaced on the wall 154 in the direction of movement of the reactant element 18 into the stream issuing from the nozzle 92. The upper or leading vane 156 is disposed in the central upper portion of the wall and is generally straight through its extent. The next three vanes, 158, 160 and 162, extend substantially throughout the entire length of the wall 154 and include an inner, relatively long, straight portion generally parallel to the straight upper vane 156 and an outer, relatively short, portion which curves upwardly and outwardly from the outer end of the straight portion. The lower vane 164 is disposed in the outer lower end portion of the wall 154 and includes a short straight inner portion and an outer portion which curves upwardly and outwardly therefrom.

When the reactant element 18 is disposed in its normally biased limiting position, the underside of the upper vane 156 and the undersides of the straight portions of the vanes 158, 160 and 162 provide reentrant surfaces 166 which are disposed at an angle of approximately 4 with respect to the direction of flow of the stream, these surfaces providing reactant areas which, when engaged by the stream, provide a force component in a direction tangential to the pivotal axis of the impulse arm assembly tending to move the reactant element 18 into the stream. The upper sides of the curved portions of the vanes 158, 160, 162 and 164 provide impulse surfaces, indicated at 168, disposed radially outwardly from the reentrant surfaces 166 which are adapted to receive the water flowing from the reentrant surfaces 166 immediately thereafter. The impulse surfaces 168 provide reactant areas which, when engaged by the stream. by virtue of their greater angle due to the curvature thereof establish a greater force component tangential to the pivotal axis of the impulse arm assembly tending to move the impulse arm assembly away from the stream Since this greater force acts through a greater level arm than the force tending to move the reactant element into the stream. there is a net component force tangential to the axis of the impulse arm assembly which will effect the impulse stroke thereof. Moreover, as can be seen from FIG. 4, the curved portions of the vanes 158, 160 and 162 providing the impulse surfaces 168 are somewhat wider than the straight portions of the vanes and the upper vane 156 which provides the reentrant surfaces 166.

The side of the wall 154 adjacent the vanes presents a series of sprinkler head rotating surfaces 170 extending between the vanes which, when the reactant element 18 is disposed in its normally biased position. is disposed at an angle of approximately 12 with respect to the direction of flow of the stream. The surfaces 170 provide reactant areas which, when engaged by the stream, establish a force component tangential to the rotational axis of the sprinkler body tending to move the sprinkler body in a clockwise direction as viewed in FIG. 4.

OPERATION OF THE IMPULSE ARM ASSEMBL Y As previously noted, when the sprinkler head is in inoperative condition, the size of the counterweight 138 on the rearward end of the impulse arm assembly 16 is such as to bias the impulse arm to pivot in a clockwise direction as viewed in FIG. 8. This pivotal movement is limited by the engagement of abutment surface 134 of the lug 132 fixed to the impulse arm assembly with the surface 136 formed on the saddle member 94 and fixed with respect to the barrel member 88 (see FIG. 8). When disposed in the normally biased limiting position with abutment surfaces 134 and 136 in engagement, the reactant element 18 is disposed so as to be in the path of a stream issuing from the nozzle 92 when the sprinkler head is communicated with a source of water under pressure. This normally biased limiting position of the reactant element constitutes the maximum extent to which the reactant element enters the stream and is slightly greater than that illustrated in FIG. 7. Because of the normally biased position of the reactant element 18, the impulse arm assembly will commence its operation in response to the communication of a source of water under pressure with the sprinkler head 10.

The action of the stream on the reactant element 18 when the latter is disposed within the stream is such as to effect oscillatory cycles of the impulse arm and incremental rotational movements of the sprinkler body about its axis of rotation. The oscillatory cycle includes an impulse stroke during which the reactant element leaves the stream and moves in a direction away from the stream and a return stroke in which the reactant element moves toward the stream and then enters the stream. The angular displacement of the stroke is generally constant within the range of 78 to 90. The action of the stream on the reentrant and impulse surfaces 166 and 168 of the vanes 156, 158, 160, 162 and 164 establishes a net force having a component tangential to the pivotal axis of the impulse arm sufficient to move the impulse arm through its impulse stroke. As noted above, the reentrant surfaces 166 are initially acted upon by the stream to insure that the reactant element 18 will be pulled sufficiently into the stream. The impulse surfaces 168 when engaged by the stream, establish the net impulse force to accomplish the impulse stroke.

During the time that the reactant element is within the stream, the action of the stream on the sprinkler body rotating surfaces 170 establishes a force having a component tangential to the rotational axis of the sprinkler body sufficient to impart an incremental rotational movement to the sprinkler body under the control of the swivel and spring brake asseriiblyil As was previously noted, the distribution effectiveness of the sprinkler head on the area to be sprinkled is determined by the rate of incremental rotation of the sprinkler body about its rotational axis. In addition. since the entrance of the reactant element 18 within the stream IS utilized to break up the stream and provide adequate water to the portion of the area to be sprinkled adjacent the sprinkler head, the distribution effectiveness is further determined to this extent by the oscillatory rate of the impulse arm assembly Efficient agricultural sprinkling irrigation requires that the precipitation rate be maintained within a relatively limited range. It is important that enough water be provided to insure penetration to the roots of the plants. while the application of too much water will result in inefficient runoff.

An important functional attribute of the present sprinkler head is that it is capable of maintaining a generally constant precipitation rate throughout a wide range of pressure source conditions and throughout a wide range of nozzle sizes. This generally constant precipitation rate is obtained by maintaining a generally constant incremental rotation rate of the sprinkler body and a generally constant oscillatory rate of the impulse arm assembly. FIGS. 5, 6 and 7 illustrate how the reactant element 18 of the present invention functions under different pressure source conditions to achieve this result.

FIG. 5 illustrates a high pressure condition, as for example, when the pressure source is within the range of to I30 p.s.i. Under these conditions, the energy of the stream issuing from the nozzle which is substantially all in the form of velocity energy is relatively great. The net force component tangential to the pivotal axis of the impulse arm assembly which effects the impulse stroke is equal to the product of the velocity energy of the stream and the reactant area of the impulse surfaces 168 engaged by the stream. Where the velocity energy of the stream is relatively high, a sufficient force component to effect the impulse stroke is established when the impulse reactant surface 168 of the vane 158 is engaged by the stream. Likewise, the force component tangential to the rota tional axis of the sprinkler body which effects the incremental rotation of the latter is the product of the velocity energy of the stream and the reactant area of the surfaces 170 engaged thereby. The shaded area of FIG. 5 illustrates the reactant area of the surfaces 170 engaged by the stream when the reactant element 18 has reached its furthest penetration with the stream and is ready to commence the impulse stroke. It will be noted that the reactant area engaged by the stream is limited to the surface 170 extending between the upper vane 156 and the next adjacent vane 158.

FIG. 6 illustrates an intermediate pressure condition within the range of 80 p.s.i. to I00 p.s.i. Under these conditions the energy of the stream, which again is substantially all in the form of velocity energy, is at an intennediate level. Under these conditions the reactant element 18 enters the stream to an extent greater than that of the example illustrated in FIG. 5. As shown, the reentrant surfaces 166 of the upper vane 156 and the next adjacent vane 158 are engaged by the water as well as the impulse surfaces 168 of the vanes 158 and 160 before sufiicient force is established by the stream to effect the impulse stroke. Again, since the force which accomplished the impulse stroke is equal to the product of the velocity energy of the stream and the net reactant area engaged thereby, this force will be generally equal to the force under the conditions of FIG. 5, since the reactant area has increased in response to the decrease in the energy level of the stream. Likewise, it will be noted that the reactant area engaged by the stream which is shaded in FIG. 6, has increased with the decrease in the energy level of the stream so that the product of the stream energy and this reactant area establishes a component force tangential to the rotational axis of the sprinkler body to effect incremental rotation thereof which is generally equal to that established under the conditions of FIG. 5.

FIG. 7 illustrates a low pressure source condition within the range of 30 p.s.i. to 80 p.s.i. In this instance, the reentrant surface 166 of the third vane 160 and the impulse surface 168 of the fourth vane 162 are engaged by the stream as well as those surfaces previously mentioned. Again, there is an increase in the reactant area in response to the decrease in the velocity energy of the stream so that the product of the stream energy and the reactant area engaged will establish a force com ponent tangential to the pivotal axis of the impulse arm assembly to effect the impulse stroke which is generally equal to the force components established under the conditions of FIG 6 and FIG. 5. Likewise. the sprinkler body rotating surface 170 extending between the vane 160 and 162 is engaged in this instance as well as the surfaces 170 previously mentioned. Again, there is an increase in the reactant area in response to the decrease in the velocity energy of the stream so that the product of the stream energy and the reactant area engaged will establish a force component tangential to the rotational axis of the sprinkler body to effect incremental rotation which is generally equal to the force components established under the conditions of FIG. 6 and FIG. 5.

It can be seen that since the force components which effect the impulse stroke of the impulse arm and the intermittent rotational movement of the sprinkler body are generally constant irrespective of the pressure source conditions, the rate of impulse arm oscillation and the rate of incremental rotation of the sprinkler body and hence the distribution effectiveness will be generally constant irrespective of the pressure source conditions. Likewise, since the reactant element 18 is selfcompensating for changes in the energy condition of the stream a generally constant distribution effectiveness will also be achieved throughout the range of nozzle sizes since the effect of change in nozzle size is the same as the effect of change in pressure source. namely, to change the energy level of the stream.

It will be understood that the sprinkler head as thus far described is capable of operation where the pattern of precipitation is within a full circle. The reversing arm assembly 20 and reversing arm actuating mechanism 24 utilized therewith is readily adaptable for use with other sprinkler heads and the sprinkler head 10, thus far described, can be utilized with other reversing arm assemblies and mechanisms. However, the reversing arm assembly 20 and the actuating mechanism 24 constitute a preferable construction in the present sprinkler head 10 where it is desired to irrigate in a pattern having less than a full circle.

Referring again to FIG. 3, the reversing arm assembly 20 includes a hub portion 172 which is journaled on the shaft 98 by any suitable means, such as spaced sleeve bearings 174. A nut 176 is threadedly engaged on the adjacent extremity of the shaft to retain the hub portion in operative position on the shaft 98.

As shown in FIGS. 1 and 9, the reversing arm assembly 20 includes a rearward extension 178, the extension having a transversely inwardly extending lug 180 formed integrally thereof. The lug 180 includes a downwardly and forwardly facing abutment surface which is adapted to engage an adjacent upwardly and rearwardly facing abutment surface 182. formed on the saddle member 94.

The rearward end of the extension 178 is grooved to receive one end of a spring 184, the opposite end of which is anchored in a manner here and after more fully described. Spring 184 serves to resiliently bias the reversing arm assembly 20 into a limiting position wherein the abutment surface of the lug 180 is disposed in engagement with the abutment surface 182. With the reversing arm assembly 20 in this inoperative limiting position, as shown in FIG. 1, the reversing reactant element 22 is disposed out of the stream issuing from the nozzle 92.

The reversing arm assembly 20 also includes a second transversely inwardly extending lug 186 which is apertured to threadedly receive a stop element 188. The stop element includes a downwardly and forwardly facing abutment surface which is adapted to engage an upwardly and rearwardly abutment surface 190 formed on the saddle member 94. The engagement of the abutment surface 190 by the abutment surface of the lug 188 serves to limit the pivotal movement of the reversing arm assembly 20 into an operative limiting position wherein the reactant element 22 is engaged within the stream issuing from the nozzle 92.

Referring to FIGS. 10 and ll. it will be noted that the reversing reactant element 22 is formed as an integral part of the outer end of the reversing arm assembly 20. The reversing reactant element 22 includes a laterally extending wall 192 formed with a leveling surface 194 which is inclined at an angle of approximately 45 with respect to the direction of the flow of the stream when the reactant element 22 is disposed in its operative limiting position The surface 194 provides a reactant area which, when engaged by the stream. establishes a force component tangential to the pivotal axis of the reversing arm assembly which maintains the reactant arm assembly in its operative position against th -bias of the spring 184.

The reversing of the reactant element 22 also includes a second wall 196 which extends perpendicularly from the outer edge of the wall 192. The wall 196 provides an inclined reversing surface 198 which, when the reversing arm assembly is in its operative limiting position, extends at an angle of approximately 30 with' respect to the direction of the flow of the stream. The surface 198 provides a reactant area which, when engaged by the stream, establishes a force component tangential to the rotational axis of the sprinkler body sufficient to effect a rotation thereof in an opposite or reversing direction.'

The reversing arm actuating mechanism 24 preferably includes a level arm 200, the upper end of which is integrally formed with hub portion 172 of the reversing arm assembly and the lower end of which is apertured to receiving-a pivot pin 202. The pivot pin also extends through a clevis 204 which is connected to one end of an elongated connecting rod 206. As best shown in FIG. 1, it will be noted that the lower end of the biasing spring 184 is connected with the clevis 204.

The rearward end of the connecting rod 206 is bent transversely and pivotally engaged, as indicated at 208, within an apertured boss formed on one leg of a generallyY-shaped yokelike level 210. As best shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the legs of the lever 210 embrace the upper end of the elbow member 40, the upper extremities thereof being apertured to receive a pivot pin 212 which also extends through an apertured boss 214 rigidly formed on the upper end portion of the elbow member 40. The lower extremity of the level 210 is provided with a cam roller 216 which is adapted to cooperate with a pair of cam members, generally indicated at 218 and 220.

As best shown in FIGS. 2 and 12, the outer periphery of the cover member 58 includes an upwardly extending annular flange 222. Each of the cam members 218 and 220 are arranged to be mounted on the annular flange 222 in any desired position of circumferential adjustment thereon. To this end, each of the cam members is provided with a throat 224 which engages over the flange 222 and provides a space beneath the flange. A tightening element 226 is disposed in each space and connected with the associated cam member for relative vertical movement with respect thereto, as by a pin 228 extending through appropriate lugs formed on the associated cam member and the tightening element 226, respectively. Each cam element also includes a depending apertured boss 230 within which a securing bolt 232 is threadedly engaged. It can be seen that by tightening the bolt 232, the inner end thereof will engage the tightening element 226 which, in turn, will move up into tight frictional engagement with the under surface of the flange, to thereby secure the cam member in adjusted position on the flange 222.

As best shown in FIG. 12, the cam member 218 includes an up standing wall 234 defining an inwardly facing cam surface 236. The cam member 220 includes up standing wall 238 defining in outwardly facing an incline cam surface 240.

OPERATION OF THE REVERSING ARM ASSEMBLY Where it is desired to irrigate in a part circle pattern, the cam members 218 and 220 are first adjustably positioned along the annular flange 222, in the manner previously described, to correspond with the ends of the. sprinkler pattern, the cam member 218 being positioned to define the trailing end of the pattern where the operative rotation ends and the reverse rotation begins and the cam member 220 being positioned to define the leading end of the pattern where the reverse rotation ends and the operative rotation begins.

It will be understood that during normal operation of the sprinkler head 10. the reversing arm assembly is biased by the spring 184 to an inoperative limiting position wherein the reversing reactant element 22 is disposed out of the path of the stream. The path of the centerline of the cam roller 216 during the incremental rotational movement of the sprinkler body about its axis of rotation in the operative direction is shown in the phantom line indicated by a zero in FIG. 12. As the sprinkler body reaches the end of its part circle pattern. the cam roller 216 will engage the outer end of the cam surface 236 and, upon further operative rotation of the sprinkler body, the cam roller 216 will be moved by the cam surface 236 in a generally radially inward direction toward the axis of rotation. This movement of the cam roller pivots the lever 210 in a clockwise direction as viewed in FIG. 1 which motion is transmitted to the reversing arm assembly through connection link 206 and lever arm 200. During this clockwise pivotal motion of the reversing arm assembly, the reactant element 22 thereof will be moved into the stream issuing from the noule. As soon as the stream engages the surface 194, the action of the stream on the reactant area thereof establishes a force having a component tangential to the pivotal axis of the reversing arm assembly which moves the reversing arm assembly further into the stream until the abutment surface of lug 188 engages the abutment surface 190. The action of the stream on the surface 194 serves to maintain the reactant element 22 within the stream in its operative limiting position against the bias of the spring 184. Also, when the reactant element 22 enters the stream the latter will also engage the reversing surface 198. The action of the stream on the reactant area provided the surface 198 establishes a force having a component tangential to the axis of rotation of the sprinkler body sufficient to move the sprinkler body in a reverse direction.

The path of movement of the center of the cam roller 216 is shown in the phantom line indicated at R in FIG. 12. When the cam roller 216 engages the cam surface 238 of the cam member 220 during this movement, the cam roller 216 will be moved in a generally radially outward direction by the cam surface 238. This outward radial movement is transmitted through the lever 210, connecting rod 206, and lever arm 200 to the reversing arm assembly 20 to move the reactant element 22 out of the stream permitting it to be biased into its inoperative limiting position by the spring 184.

The reversing arm assembly 20 and its actuating mechanism 24 includes two significant functional attributes. First, since the reversing arm is maintained in its operative position by the stream itself, in the event that the pressure source should be shut off during a reverse stroke, the reversing arm mechanism will be biased into its inoperative limiting position as soon as the stream stops. Thus, when operation is again commenced, the sprinkler head will proceed in a normal operative fashion to the end of the pattern before the reversing stroke is accomplished. This arrangement prevents an accidental start up in the reverse stroke. Second, the cam and the cam roller arrangement for effecting the initial movement of the reversing arm assembly into and out of the stream are overriding in operation thus eliminating any severe shocks or damage that could occur where positive stops are provided for effecting the movement of the reversing arm mechanism. As shown in FIG. 12, each of the cam surfaces 236 and 240 are disposed out of engagement with the cam roller when the associated radial movement of the cam roller 216 is accomplished.

While the sprinkler head 10 0f the present invention is particularly advantageous as a high capacity agricultural irrigation sprinkler, it will be apparent that the principles of the present invention could readily be embodied in low capacity sprinkler heads for use on lawns, athletic fields and the like.

It thus will be seen that the objects of this invention have been fully and effectively accomplished. It will be realized,

however. that the foregoing specific embodiment has been shown and described only for the purpose of illustrating the principles of this invention and is subject to extensive change without departure from such principles. Therefore, this invention includes all modifications encompassed within the spirit and scope of the following claims l claim:

1. A sprinkler head comprising:

a sprinkler body having an inlet and an outlet;

means for mounting said sprinkler body for controlled rotational movement about a generally vertical axis with said inlet in communication with a conduit arranged to communicate a source of water under pressure therewith;

said outlet being disposed to direct water under pressure communicated with said inlet in a stream flowing therefrom in a direction upwardly and outwardly in generally symmetrical relation to a plane passing through the axis of rotation;

an impulse arm pivotally mounted with respect to said sprinkler body for oscillatory movement about an axis extending transverse to said plane; said impulse arm having a reactant element thereon and being normally biased into a limited position wherein said reactant element is disposed within the path of a stream issuing from said outlet a predetermined maximum extent and being operable in response to the energy of a stream issuing from said outlet to move through repeated oscillatory cycles each of which includes an impulse stroke wherein said reactant element leaves the stream and moves away from the latter in one direction and a return stroke wherein said reactant element moves in the opposite direction toward said stream and enters the latter;

said reactant element including arm oscillating surface means fixed with respect to said arm to provide a reactant area engaged by the stream which increases as the extent of entry of said reactant element within said stream approaches said maximum extent so that the product of the energy level of the stream and the reactant area of said arm oscillating surface means engaged thereby establishes an impulse force having a component tangential to the pivotal axis of said arm for effecting the impulse stroke thereof which is maintained generally constant by varying the extent of entry of said reactant element within said stream in response to variation in the pressure of the source of water under pressure and hence by increasing or decreasing the reactant area of said arm oscillating surface means in response to a decrease or increase in the energy level of the stream engaged thereby; and

said reactant element also including sprinkler body rotating surface means fixed with respect to said arm to provide a reactant area engaged by the stream which increases as the extent of entry of said reactant element within said stream approaches said maximum extent so that the product of the energy level of the stream and the reactant area of said body rotating surface means engaged thereby establishes an impulse force having a component tangential to the rotational axis of said body for effecting an incremental rotational movement thereof in one direction which is maintained generally constant by varying the extent of entry of said reactant element within said stream in response to variation in the pressure of the source of water under pressure and hence by increasing or decreasing the reactant area of said body rotating surface means in response to a decrease or increase in the energy level of the stream engaged thereby.

2. A sprinkler head as defined in claim 1 wherein said arm oscillating surface means are defined by a plurality of vanes spaced in the direction of movement of said reactant element with said stream.

3. A sprinkler head as defined in claim 2 wherein said vanes include first surfaces facing in a direction such that when engaged by the stream will cause the reactant member to move into said stream and second surfaces spaced outwardly of said first surfaces in a position to receive thereon the portion of the stream deflecting therefrom, said second surfaces facing in a direction opposed to said first surfaces such that when engaged by the stream will cause the reactant member to move in the opposite direction.

4. A sprinkler head as defined in claim 2 wherein said sprinkler body rotating surface means are defined by a wall interconnecting said vanes along one side thereof.

5. A sprinkler head as defined in claim 4 wherein:

said wall extends at an angle of approximately 12 to the direction of said stream when said reactant element is disposed in said normally biased position;

said vanes including an upper generally straight vane extending generally perpendicular to said wall and at an angle of approximately 4 to the direction of the stream when said reactant element is disposed in said normally biased position;

three vanes spaced below said upper vane each including a straight portion generally parallel with said upper vane and a curved outer portion extending upwardly and outwardly from the outer end of the straight portion and potion;

the underside of said upper vane and the straight portions of the two lower vanes immediately therebelow providing said first surfaces and the upperside of the curved portions providing said second surfaces.

6. A sprinkler head as defined in claim 1 wherein:

said sprinkler body comprises a lower elbow member;

a tubular barrel member extending upward and outwardly therefrom with its axis disposed at an acute angle to the horizontal in operation;

a nozzle member detachably secured to the upper outer end of said barrel portion; and

said barrel member having a series of circumferentially spaced radially extending flow guiding fins on the interior periphery thereof.

7. A sprinkler head as defined in claim 6 wherein:

said barrel member has a horizontal shaft mounted on the upper portion thereof intermediate its ends with the axis of said shaft extending in a direction perpendicular to the axis of said barrel portions,

said impulse arm being pivotally mounted intermediate its ends on one end of said shaft and balanced to pivot in a direction toward said normally biased position; and

interengaging abutment means fixed with respect to said impulse arm and said barrel member for limiting the pivotal movement of said arm beyond said normally biased position.

8. A sprinkler head as defined in claim 7 including:

a counterweight member pivotally mounted on said shaft between said impulse arm and said barrel member;

interengaging abutment means fixed with respect to said counterweight member and said barrel member for retaining said counterweight member in a normally biased position; and

normally spaced interengaging abutment means fixed with respect to said impulse arm and said counterweight member operable to engage during the latter part of the impulse stroke and the initial part of the return stroke of said impulse arm so as to pivot said counterweight therewith.

9. A sprinkler head as defined in claim 7 including:

a reversing arm pivotally mounted to the opposite end of said shaft;

a reversing reactant element on the outer end of said reversing arm;

means biasing said reversing arm into an inoperative limiting position wherein said reversing reactant element is disposed out of the path of said stream;

a motion transmitting mechanism operative connected with said reversing arm for effecting a pivoted movement thereof from said inoperative limiting position to an operative limiting position wherein said reversing reactant element is disposed within said stream;

said motion transmitting mechanism including a cam roller movable in an arcuate path about the rotational axis of said sprinkler body during the rotation of the latter about its axis when said reversing arm is disposed in either of said limiting positions and in a generally radial direction with respect to the rotational axis of said sprinkler body during the pivoted movement of said reversing arm between said limiting positions;

a pair of separate cam members;

means for fixedly mounting said cam members in a plurality of adjusted positions spaced arcuately about the rotational axis of said sprinkler body'in the path of arcuate movement of said cam roller;

one of said cam members including a cam surface engageable by said cam roller in response to the arcuate movement thereof in said one direction and disposed to effect a radial movement of said cam roller in a direction to move said reversing arm from said inoperative limiting position into said operative limiting position when engaged by said cam roller;

said reversing reactant element including first surface means facing in a direction such that when engaged by said stream said reversing arm is urged toward said operative limiting position with a force greater than the force of said means biasing said reversing arm into said inoperative limiting position and second surface means facing in a direction such that when engaged by said stream the latter establishes a force on said reversing arm having a component tangential to the rotational axis of said sprinkler body sufficient to move the latter in the opposite direction; and

said other cam member including a cam surface engageable by said cam roller in response to the arcuate movement thereof in said opposite direction and disposed to effect a radial movement of said cam roller in a direction to move said reversing arm from said operative limiting position to said inoperative limiting position when engaged by said cam roller. 7 1 1 10. A part circle sprinkler head comprising:

a sprinkler body having an inlet and an outlet;

means for mounting said sprinkler body for controlled rotational movement about a generally vertical axis with said inlet in communication with a conduit arranged to communicate a source of water under pressure therewith;

said outlet being disposed to direct water under pressure communicated with said inlet in a stream flowing therefrom in a direction upwardly and outwardly in generally symmetrical relation to a plane passing through the axis of rotation;

an impulse arm pivotally mounted with respect to said sprinkler body for oscillatory movement and having a reactant element thereon;

said impulse arm being normally biased into a limited position wherein said reactant element is disposed within the path of a stream issuing from said outlet and having means thereon operable l in response to the energy of a stream issuing from said outlet to move through repeated oscillatory cycles each of which includes an impulse stroke wherein said reactant element leaves the stream and moves away from the latter in one direction and a return stroke wherein said reactant element moves in the opposite direction toward said stream and enters the latter, and (2) during each oscillatory cycle thereof to effect controlled incremental rotational movement of said sprinkler body in one direction;

a reversing arm pivotally mounted with respect to said sprinkler body of oscillatory movement and having a reversing reactant element thereon;

means biasing said reversing arm into an inoperative limiting position wherein said reversing reactant element is disposed outpf the pat'n of said stream; 1

a motion transmitting mechanism operatively connected with said reversing arm for effecting a pivotal movement thereof from said inoperative limiting position to an operative limiting position whereln said reversing reac tant element is disposed within said stream.

said motion transmitting mechanism including a cam roller movable in an arcuate path about the rotational axis of said sprinkler body during the rotation of the latter about its axis when said reversing arm is disposed in either of said limiting positions and in a generally radial direction with respect to the rotational axis of said sprinkler body during the pivotal movement of said reversing arm between said limiting positions;

a pair of separate cam members;

means for fixedly mounting said cam members in a plurality of adjusted positions spaced arcuately about the rotational axis of said sprinkler body in the path of arcuate movement of said cam roller;

one of said cam members including a cam surface engageable by said cam roller in response to the arcuate movement thereof in said one direction and disposed to effect a generally radial movement of said cam roller in a direction to move said reversing arm from said inoperative limiting position into said operative limiting position when engaged by said cam roller;

said reversing reactant element including first surface means facing in a direction such that when engaged by said stream said reversing arm is urged toward said operative limiting position with a force greater than the force of said means biasing said reversing arm into said inoperative limiting position and second surface means facing in a direction such that when engaged by said stream the latter establishes a force on said reversing arm having a component tangential to the rotational axis of said sprinkler body sufficient to move the latter in the opposite direction; and

said other cam member including a cam surface engageable by said cam roller in response to the arcuate movement thereof in said opposite direction and disposed to effect a generally radial movement of said cam roller in a direction to move said reversing arm from said operative limiting position to said inoperative limiting position when engaged by said cam roller.

1 l. A part circle sprinkler head comprising:

a sprinkler body having an inlet and an outlet;

means for mounting said sprinkler body for controlled rotational movement about a generally vertical axis with said inlet in communication with a conduit arranged to communicate a source of water under pressure therewith;

said outlet being disposed to direct water under pressure communicated with said inlet in a stream flowing therefrom in a direction upwardly and outwardly in generally symmetrical relation to a plane passing through the axis of rotation;

a shaft fixedly mounted on said sprinkler body with its axis disposed perpendicular to said plane and opposite end portions extending outwardly on opposite sides of said sprinkler body;

an impulse arm pivotally mounted on one end portion of said shaft for oscillatory movement and having a reactant element thereon;

said impulse arm being normally biased into a limited position wherein said reactant element is disposed within the path of a stream issuing from said outlet and having means thereon operable l) in response to the energy of a stream issuing from said outlet to move through repeated oscillatory cycles each of which includes an impulse stroke wherein said reactant element leaves the stream and moves away from the latter in one direction and a return stroke wherein said reactant element moves in the opposite direction toward said stream and enters the latter and (2) during each oscillatory cycle thereof to effect controlled incremental rotational movement of said sprinkler body in one direction;

a reversing arm pivotally mounted on the opposite end portion of said shaft for pivotal movement between inoperative and operative positions; I

said reversing arm having a reactant clement thereon engageable within said stream when said reversing arm is disposed in said operative position;

said reversing reactant element having surface means thereon engageable by the stream when said reversing arm IS disposed in said operative position for establishing a force component tangential to the rotational axis of said sprinkler body for effecting a continuous controlled rotational movement of said sprinkler body in the opposite direction; and

means operable l in response to the rotational movement of said sprinkler body in said one direction into any one of a plurality of selected positions for effecting movement of said reversing arm into said operative position and (2) in response to the rotational movement of said sprinkler body in said opposite direction into any one of a plurality of selected second positions for effecting movement of said reversing arm into said inoperative position.

12. A sprinkler head comprising:

a sprinkler body having an inlet and an outlet means for mounting said sprinkler body for controlled rotational movement about a generally vertical axis with said inlet in communication with a conduit arranged to communicate a source of water under pressure therewith;

said outlet being disposed to direct water under pressure communicated with said inlet in a stream flowing therefrom in a direction upwardly and outwardly in generally symmetrical relation to a plane passing through the axis of rotation;

an impulse arm pivotally mounted with respect to said sprinkler body for oscillatory movement about an axis transverse to said plane;

said impulse arm having a reactant element thereon and being nonnally biased into a limited position wherein said reactant element is disposed within the path of a stream issuing from said outlet a predetermined maximum extent and being operable in response to the energy of a stream issuing from said outlet to move through repeated oscillatory cycles each of which includes an impulse stroke wherein said reactant element leaves the stream and moves away from the latter in one direction and a return stroke wherein said reactant element moves in the opposite direction toward said stream and enters the latter; and

said reactant element including surface means fixed with respect to said arm to provide a reactant area engaged by the stream which increases as the extent of entry of said reactant element within said stream approaches said maximum extent so that the product of the energy level of the stream and the reactant area of said arrn oscillating surface means engaged thereby establishes an impulse force having (1) a component tangential to the pivotal axis of said arm for effecting the impulse stroke thereof which is maintained generally constant by varying the extent of entry of said reactant element within said stream in response to variation in the pressure of the source of water under pressure and hence by increasing or decreasing the reactant area of said surface means in response to a decrease or increase in the energy level of the stream engaged thereby and (2) a component tangential to the rotational axis of said body for effecting an incremental rotational movement thereof in one direction which is maintained generally constant by varying the extent of entry of said reactant element within said stream in response to variation in the pressure of the source of water under pressure and hence by increasing or decreasing the reactant area of said surface means in response to a decrease or increase in the energy level of the stream engaged thereby.

13. A part circle sprinkler head as defined in claim 11 wherein said reversing arm movement effecting means comprises:

motion transmitting mechanism operatively connected with reversing arm for effecting movement of said reversing arm from into and out of said operative position:

said motion transmitting mechanism including a cam roller a pair of separate cam members; means for fixedly mounting said cam members in a plurality of adjusted positions spaced arcuately about the rota tional axis of said sprinkler body in the path of arcuate movement of said cam roller;

one of said cam members including a cam surface cngageable by said cam roller in response to the arcuate movement thereof in said one direction and disposed to effect a generally radial movement of said cam roller in a direction to move said reversing arm from said inoperative position into said operative position when engaged by said cam roller;

said reversing reactant element including second surface means facing in a direction such that when engaged by said stream said reversing arm is urged toward said inoperative position with a force greater than the force of said spring means biasing said reversing arm into said in operative position and said other cam member including a cam surface cngageable by said cam roller in response to the arcuate movement thereof in said opposite direction and disposed to effect a generally radial movement of said cam roller in a direction to move said reversing arm from said operative position to said inoperative position when engaged by said cam roller 14. A part circle sprinkler head as defined in claim 13 wherein:

said motion transmitting mechanism further includes;

a second arm portion fixed with respect to, said reversing arm and extending downwardly with respect to said shaft;

a lever member pivotally supported on said sprinkler body and having an end portion rotatably supporting said cam roller; and

a connecting rod pivotally interconnecting said lever member and said second arm portion.

15 A part circle sprinkler head as defined in claim 14 wherein said spring means comprises:

a coil spring having one end connected with said connecting rod and an opposite end, said reversing arm having a third arm portion thereon extending outwardly with respect to said shaft in a direction opposed to the direction of extent of said reversing arm and having an outer end portion connected with said opposite end of said coil spring.

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION PATENT NO. 3,559,887

DATED February 2, 1971 INVENTOR(S) I Larry P. Meyer It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

Column 19, lines 27-28 change "said inoperative" to --said operative-.

Signed and sealed this 29th day of April 1975.

(SEAL) Attest:

C. MARSHALL DANN RUTH C. MASON Commissioner of Patents Attesting Officer and Trademarks

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3623666 *Jul 30, 1970Nov 30, 1971Nelson Mfg Co Inc L RSprinkler head
US3669353 *Jul 21, 1970Jun 13, 1972Nelson Mfg Co Inc L RPivot move agricultural irrigation system with improved water distribution and sprinkler head utilized therewith
US3680778 *Jul 21, 1970Aug 1, 1972Nelson Mfg Co Inc L RImproved water distribution in the operation of pivot move agricultural irrigation sprinkler systems
US3744720 *Mar 28, 1972Jul 10, 1973Nelson Irrigation CorpSprinkler head with improved brake and bearing assembly
US4094467 *Apr 1, 1977Jun 13, 1978Nelson Irrigation CorporationSprinkler head selectively operable in a part-circle mode or a full circle mode
US4109866 *Apr 11, 1977Aug 29, 1978Gerhard BrandlReciprocable sprinkler
US4153202 *Oct 19, 1977May 8, 1979Nelson Irrigation CorporationPart-circle sprinkler head with improved quick-return mechanism
US4193548 *Oct 18, 1978Mar 18, 1980Nelson Irrigation CorporationHigh capacity sprinkler head with improved brake mechanism
US4342424 *Nov 3, 1980Aug 3, 1982Nelson Irrigation CorporationCombined rotary impulse sprinkler head and shut-off valve
US4449668 *Apr 21, 1981May 22, 1984Arno DrechselImpact irrigators in general
US4669663 *Apr 23, 1985Jun 2, 1987Nelson Irrigation CompanyLarge volume sprinkler head with part-circle step by step movements in both directions
US4720045 *Sep 30, 1986Jan 19, 1988Nelson Irrigation CorporationLarge volume sprinkler head with part-circle step by step movements in both directions
US4730773 *Jun 6, 1986Mar 15, 1988Nelson Irrigation CorporationAccess assembly for underground irrigation systems and accessing assembly cooperable therewith
US4809910 *May 14, 1987Mar 7, 1989Nelson Irrigation CorporationApparatus for providing a semiautomatic irrigation system
US4842199 *May 23, 1988Jun 27, 1989Arno DrechselSelf-adjusting rotary-arm irrigation sprinkler
US5238188 *Jul 30, 1991Aug 24, 1993Naan Irrigation SystemsSprinkler
US5390858 *Sep 20, 1993Feb 21, 1995Watson; Galen T.Remotely controlled, moving sprinkler apparatus
US6607147Apr 2, 2002Aug 19, 2003Nelson Irrigation CorporationHigh volume sprinkler automated arc changer
US8905326Jan 6, 2012Dec 9, 2014Nelson Irrigation CorporationHigh-volume, part-circle sprinkler head
DE2813515A1 *Mar 29, 1978Oct 5, 1978Nelson Irrigation CorpSelektiv ueber einen teilkreis oder einen vollkreis drehbarer rieslerkopf
EP0003630A1 *Feb 7, 1979Aug 22, 1979Arno DrechselImpact irrigator
EP2130427A1 *Mar 23, 2009Dec 9, 2009Sime-Idromeccanica S.r.L.An irrigator
Classifications
U.S. Classification239/233
International ClassificationB05B3/00, B05B3/16
Cooperative ClassificationB05B3/003, B05B3/0477, B05B3/0481
European ClassificationB05B3/00E, B05B3/16B