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Publication numberUS3559921 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 2, 1971
Filing dateApr 24, 1969
Priority dateApr 24, 1969
Publication numberUS 3559921 A, US 3559921A, US-A-3559921, US3559921 A, US3559921A
InventorsTimperman Eugene L
Original AssigneeTimperman Eugene L
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Standing take-off and landing vehicle (a gem/stol vehicle)
US 3559921 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent [72] Inventor Eugene L. Timperman 5565 Fox Road, Cincinnati, Ohio 45239 [21] Appl. No. 825,105 [22] Filed Apr. 24, 1969 [45] Patented Feb. 2, I971 Continuation of application Ser. No. 629,581, Apr. 10, 1967, now abandoned.


[52] U.S. Cl 244/12, L ll4/67.1; 180/124 [51] Int. Cl 1 B64c l/04, 860v 3/08 [50] Field of Search 244/7, 12, 23,100,10l;180/l15-130; ll4/67.1

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,412,848 4/1922 Dunajeff l14/67.1 3,165,280 l/l965 Shao Tang Lee 244/12 Primary Examiner-Milton Buchler Assistant Examiner-James E. Pittenger Att0rney-Frank L. Zugelter ABSTRACT: An aerodynamic vehicle having a peripheral jet ground effects machine system incorporated within the fuselage of the vehicle by which it can take off and land from a standing position either on land or on sea. An impeller or axial flow fan provides for generation of power required to assist the vehicle into a stable aerodynamic hovering condition after which conventional or other known power sources propel the vehicle through flight.

PATENTEDFEB PIE?! 7 7 3559.921

I saw 1 [IF 6 INVENTOR.


PATENTED FEB 2I97l 3559.921

SHEET 5 OF 6 I 3/2 I 25 2s 7o 65 Q 3 Ux D 7o 64 X Q 2s 92 FIG. 8

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SHEET 8 UF 6 HT-uh I26 H O 60 I32 n2 H8 2 a:

1 11,4 116 V i I32 Q am e U U 2 64 92 28 EUGENE L .TIMPERMAN INVENTOR 0 1mm "4 SaZa IAi/zas STANDING TAKE-OFF AND LANDING VEHICLE (A GEM/STOL VEHICLE) BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This application is a continuation application of my copending application. Ser. No. 629,581. filed Apr. l0, I967. now abandoned.

1. Field of the Invention The field of art to which the invention is most likely to pertain is generally located in the class of apparatus relating to aerodynamic structures. Class 244. Aeronautics, and Class 180, Motor Vehicles, US. Patent Office Classifications, appear to be the applicable general areas of art in which the claimed subject matter of the type involved here has been classified in the past.

2. Description of the Prior Art Aeronautical apparatuses, the art to which this invention most likely pertains, are disclosed in the following U.S. Pats. Nos. 3,275,270 and 3,177,959.

SUMMARY This invention relates to an amphibious and aerodynamic vehicle, and particularly relates to incorporation of a peripheral jet ground effects machine system into an aerodynamic design for an aircraft.

An object of this invention is to provide for an amphibious and hovering nature in a vehicle whereby the vehicle can land and take off at and from a point situs as distinguished from landing and taking off along a given path generally associated with flight patterns for known and conventional aircraft.

An object of this invention is to provide for a combination of an aerodynamically sound vehicle with a peripheral jet ground effects machine system and apparatus.

Another object of the invention is to provide for a peripheral jet ground effects machine (GEM) system and apparatus within the fuselage of an aircraft, as distinguished from supporting or mounting same externally upon a fuselage.

Another object of this invention is to provide for a singular power plant system for operation of both the GEM system and apparatus and the aerodynamic system and structure of an aircraft.

Another object of this invention is to provide for the elimination of various features common to and necessitated by aerodynamic and hydrodynamic design in aircraft heretofore conventionally known as amphibious, in particular, as to wing floats, stepped hydrodynamic hull, structure for impact hull, retractable landing gear, and oversized cruise power requirements.

Another object of this invention is to provide for an automatic transition of an aircraft from an aerodynamic condition to a hovering condition.

These and other objects of the invention will become more apparent upon a reading of the following description, appended claims thereto, and reference to the accompanying drawing comprising six sheets.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 1 is a perspective view of an aircraft embodying my invention.

FIG. 2 is an elevational view of the fuselage of an aircraft embodying my invention, partly in phantom, to show a combination of elements thereof.

FIG. 3 is a front view of an aircraft embodying my invention, partly in phantom.

FIG. 4 is a plan view of a fuselage of an aircraft embodying my invention.

FIG. 5 is a plan view from below a fuselage of an aircraft embodying my invention.

FIG. 6 is a perspective view of a fuselage of an aircraft embodying my invention, showing the air current flow through an axial fan employed in the operation of the GEM system.

FIG. 7 is another perspective view of a fuselage of an aircraft embodying a modified form of my invention, showing air current flow through a centrifugal fan employed in the operation of the GEM system.

FIG. 8 is a schematic view cross'sectionally of a fuselage and from which flow of air current in a GEM system through the vehicle is shown. to provide an air cushion to cause the vehicle to hover.

FIG. 9 is a graph plotting distance against altitude corresponding to landing. takeoff and flying steps of an aircraft embodying my invention FIG. 10 is a schematic view crosssectionally of a fuselage, showing the centrifugal fan employed in the modified embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 11 is a diagrammatic view of air current flow from the axial fan into and through a portion of the duct system and structure therefor.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring now to the drawing in which reference characters correspond to like numerals in the following description, FIGS. 1,2 and 3 illustrate an aircraft 20 embodying my invention. Air craft 20 comprises a fuselage 22, horizontal and vertical stabilizers 23 and 24, respectively, and a lift-producing airfoil 25 on which a plurality of full-feathering reversible pitch propelling means 26 for displacement of the craft is mounted. A peripheral duct system or means 30 (FIG. 2) is incorporated into and within the exterior limits of fuselage 22, being mounted along and immediately adjacent a relatively wide, flat bottom 28. A variable pitch ducted propeller 32 is mounted in a housing well 33 connected to the top wall 34 of fuselage 22 and communicating with the atmosphere for capture and continuous passage or ducting thereof to duct means 30. Operation of means 32 provides the power to cause fluid flow from well 33 to means 30. In this embodiment, well 33 is generally vertically disposed behind a passenger cabin 35 disposed forwardly in fuselage 22 and provided for pilot and occupants of aircraft 20. Housing well 33 communicates with duct system 30 for the purpose of inducting air from the atmosphere for the ground-effects-machine (hereinafter, GEM) system or means more fully described. A means such as air inlet louvers 37 is mounted in top wall 34 at the exterior termination of well 33 for opening and closing well 33 in regard to the need for power input the GEM system.

A propulsion system or means for the GEM and aerodynamic flying systems is provided in fuselage 22. Each of a pair of engines 38 is mounted at an end of a common drive shaft 40 through an overrunning clutch or other suitable connecting means 41 mounted between each engine 38 and shaft 40. Each engine 38 counterrotates to the other for effective transfer of power to turning means 26 and ducted propeller 32. Vents 42 may be provided in the top of fuselage 22 and in vertical proximity to the positioning of engines 38 for air cooling thereof.

In the illustrated embodiment which provides for an elevated wing configuration as shown in the drawing, power transfer means is provided between common drive shaft 40 and propelling means 26. As shown in FIGS. 2 and 5, the

power transfer means comprises a V-belt arrangement 43 connecting common shaft 40 to a drive shaft means 44 (FIG. 5) disposed lengthwise in airfoil 25. A suitable drive propeller turning gear 45 couples drive shaft means 44 to each propeller shaft 46 of each means 26. As an alternative to V-belt arrangement 43, a vertical drive shaft can be utilized together with suitable turning gears provided at each of its ends for respective coupling to common drive shaft 40 and drive shaft means 44. It should be noted that the V-belt itself is rotated through between its lower and upper ends so that its lower end portions are respectively aligned with shafts 40 and 44 for proper coupling thereto.

A turning gear mechanism whereby motive power is transmitted to and from means 26 and ducted propeller 32 is provided along common drive shaft 40 A clutch means 50 (FIG. 2) is mounted in shaft 40 and is adapted to cooperate with a turning gear means 52 in order to transmit the power of shaft 40 to ducted propeller 32. A vertically disposed shaft 54. which may be an extension of the shaft for propeller 32 or otherwise connected with the shaft of propeller 32. is'suitable secured to its corresponding meshing gear in means 52 thereby rotating propeller 32 as shaft 40 rotates and clutch means 50 is engaged.

The preferred embodiment of my invention contemplates dual power plants 38 for the purpose of obtaining twin-engine reliability. These power plants may take the form of known internal combustion engines utilized for conventional aircraft. It should be understood that the invention is not limited to use of dual power plants as illustrated. However. the advantage obtained in the mechanical linkage immediately heretofore described is elimination of an additional power plant for ducted propeller means 32, and thereby utilize a singular propulsion means for the GEM system in addition to such means for thrusting the vehicle through the atmosphere. Thus, no useless weight is carried in flight. The centrally located power drive shaft 40 from which power is traded to-and-fro between the two systems, viz., the system in which thrust is developed for flying and the GEM system for takeoff and landing operations, provides for this advantage.

It should be further understood that the invention is not limited to reciprocating engines 38, but other power plants, an example of which is turbo shaft engines, may be utilized.

The GEM peripheral duct-system 30 is integrally incorporated within relatively wide flat rigid bottom 28 of fuselage 22 and includes rigid structural characteristics. Preferably. peripheral duct system 30 protrudes (FIGS. 1, 3, 8) in a permanent configuration from the sides of fuselage 22 to conserve on frontal area and to provide for a maximum width hull. This system 30 comprises an endless duct 60 (FIGS. 5, 6, 7) extending around the periphery of bottom 28, preferably being partially formed by the inside walls of the external skin of fuselage 22 together with additional walls 62 as shown in FIGS. 6 and 7. A nonclosable jet slot or nozzle means 64 is continuously or endlessly formed peripherally about the base of duct 60 mounted in rigid duct-system 30 and which provides for discharge of a continuous curtain or stream of gase ous fluid during operation of the GEM system. The fuselage itself is designed with a double sealed hull for water capability, as shown at 65 in FIG. 8. The craft is capable of resting on water with sufficiency of buoyancy to eliminate sinking of the craft although water may enter nozzle 64. Nozzle 64 is not closed but is blown free of water whenever ducted propeller 32 is in operation.

A pair of flow path boundaries 68 is mounted about the plane of symmetry and aligned longitudinally of vehicle 20, and such boundaries lie within well 33, as shown in FIGS. 6 and 8. These boundaries 68 preferably take the form of alu minum or other suitable metal fabrication known in the aircraft industry. Boundaries 68 are connected with the interior walls of housing 33, at their fore-and-aft ends, and with the floor of double hull 65, to direct the flow of inducted fluid from propeller 32 into duct system 30 and peripheral nozzle 64 in order to achieve an air cushion effect. A cowl 69 for the shaft of ducted propeller 32 covers the elevated juncture of surfaces 68, as shown in FIGS. 6 and 8. All internal surfaces along which flow of fluid from propeller 32 is carried are designed in accordance with standard state of the art practices employed in internal aerodynamic designs with reference to flow areas throughout the duct system or means 30.

Flow splitters, such as shown at 70 and 72 in FIG. 11, are provided in duct system 30 for the purpose of dividing and directing fluid flow efficiently therethrough. Flow splitters 70, 72 are securely mounted in duct 60, preferably disposed in the vicinity of the juncture of housing well 33 and duct 60. Flow splitter 70 is disposed directly vertically below flow splitter 72, best seen in FIG. 11, and directs a flow of inducted air, shown by arrows a, into the portion of nozzle 64 adjacent the exit of housing well 33 while preventing this local portion of nozzle 64 from overflowing. The trailing edge 70e of splitter 70 is secured to the interior wall making up the skin of fuselage 22. Flow splitter 72 is mounted in duct 60 above flow splitter 70 and directs the flow of fluid excluded by splitter 70 through the remainder of peripheral duct 60, as shown by arrows b in FIGS. 1 I and 6. The'overall purpose of these splitters 70, 72 is to achieve a constant or uniform static pressure distribution along the entire length of continuous peripheral nozzle 64. The surfaces of flow splitters 70 and 72 are designed in accordance with flow area practices employed in aerodynamic design. It should be understood, of course',;that flow splitters 70, 72 are also mounted in duct 60 on the other longitudinal side of fuselage 22.

A spar 76 (FIG. 6) and a wing spar 77 extend throughout housing well 33, near its upper terminus and in a plane generally the same as airfoil 25, and are provided as supporting structure for propeller 32. These spars 76, 77 are fixedly secured to housing well 33 and airfoil 25, respectively, in a suitable and known manner, while also being securely connected to a dome 78 mounted upon the end of the rotatable shaft on which propeller 32 is securely attached.

The immediately following description is directed to a general description of components common to conventional aircraft, which are aerodynamically sound, and which are included in and as part of the preferred embodiment of my invention. I

The preferred embodiment of the invention as contemplated by me atthe present time includes a basic wing plan form being rectangular with uniform cross section for economical construction. Wing or airfoil 25 is located on top of fuselage 22 in a high wing configuration for amphibious purposes. Wing tips are sectioned and sealed to prevent water ingestion of such wing tips. Full span, split or slotted flaps 80 provide conventional high lift. Coupled spoiler-deflectors 82, located toward the end of each of the wings forming airfoil 25, are employed for aerodynamic lateral control. Wing tip end plates 84 are installed to reduce the intensity of tip vortexes Flight propellers 26 are located on the leading edge of the wing in a tractor configuration. Propeller nacelles 86 (FIG. 1) house only drive shafts 46' and known conventional propeller pitch reversing mechanisms (not shown) and, consequently, are of minimum size.

Horizontal and vertical stabilizers 23 and 24 are conventional. The vertical stabilizer 24 is of a dorsal fin and rudder configuration 88, while the horizontal stabilizer 23 may be an all moving flying surface which has become conventional on light planes in recent years. Horizontal stabilizer 23 can be a stabilator as shown in FIG. 1, being pivoted about a shaft (not shown) which extends through the aft fuselage structure.

A description of the operation of craft 20 follows, and same may be referred to, if necessary, to provide for a fuller knowledge of the heretofore description thereof, and it is to be understood that the following description is part of the disclosure of making and using the subject matter of the invention.

For the purposes of explaining the operation of aircraft 20, the landing operation will first be described and thereafter the takeoff maneuver will follow. FIG. 9 graphically portrays the following description. To land aircraft 20, thrust power is first reduced to idle, thereby providing for the aircraft to enter a steady state gliding flight path (indicated as APPROACH in FIG. 9) which retains near-flight velocities. Drive propellers 26 are feathered to a zero thrust setting. The GEM power clutch 50 is then engaged and inlet louvers 37 are opened smoothly. Plant power is then increased to a maximum setting while the pilot pushes forward on the control column (conventional) to trim out a positive growth in the pitching moment that would develop. Full span flaps 80 are then lowered as the craft enters its final approach. With flight velocity at a minumum and angle of attack moderately positive, the craft is flown into the ground effect region (TRANSITION, FIG. 9). As the craft approaches to within its transition height above the resting surface over which it hovers, the craft aerodynamically pitches its nose down and automatically assumes a near horizontal attitude without additional pilot control. This is provided for by the presence of the aft fuselage bottom 100 (FIG. 2) which gently slopes upwardly in a region from the aft portion of peripheral nozzle 64 to the rear extremity of fuselage 22 just under horizontal stabilizer 23. The pressure distribution on surface 100, and consequently the aircraft pitching moment, is modified by the flow patterns that exist in this region, said flow patterns being influenced by the varying action of the rear peripheral jet as flight speed and altitude change. For maximum craft pitching moment change due to this effect, surface 100 should be rather flat. If it is preferred that the pitching moment changes be less severe, then this aft fuselage surface 100 should be designed more curvilinearly with respect to the fuselage cross section.

At this point (DECELERATION, FIG. 9), landing transition has taken place and the craft is'now riding on its GEM system which is operating at maximum power through power plants 38. Immediately upon reaching this horizontal attitude,

reverse pitch can be applied to flight propellers 26 and the craft halted in its forward movement in a short distance. In other words, the aircraft is landed on a maximum energy air cushion which gives a maximum static hover height (indicated by dash lines in FIG. 9). This hover height is then reduced to provide power for stopping. Minimum hover height, that height necessary to clear ground obstacles, will provide the shortest ground deceleration run. A taxi procedure may then be employed, and when the craft is over its parking space, the power is reduced smoothly and the craft is gently settled onto resting skids 92 preferably provided on fuselage bottom 28 (FIG. 5).

' Taking off of the aircraft is also graphically described in FIG. 9. First, there is a GEM power input to ducted propeller 32 and its ducted system 30 through which air is discharged from nozzle 64 whereby craft 20 is made to hover over its re sting or standing position. Proper management of thrust propeller pitch setting will enable craft 20 to be translated and steered at low speeds to a takeoff locality (TAXI, FIG. 9). The takeoff run is then accomplished by first increasing power to the maximum and then increasing the pitch of drive propellers 26 at a moderate rate to climb pitch setting. The rate of pitch increase is adjusted so as to provide a constant hover height. As power gradually increases to the flight system, the GEM power input is automatically reduced. This power transfer is accomplished in accordance with the increase in forward speed and as aerodynamic lift increases, the base of the ground effect machine system or base of fuselage 22 is unloaded. At takeoff speed, the GEM power input can be essentially zero, with all remaining thrust available to flight propellers 26. The GEM power input becomes zero by reducing the pitch of ducted propeller 32. Subsequent disengagement of power clutch 50 and closing of inlet louvers 37 is accomplished to secure the ducted system for aerodynamic flight.

Control of vehicle 20, at low forward speeds, specifically during taxi maneuvers, is accomplished by differential pitch settings applied to thrust propellers 26 in either fore or aft directions.

The operation of closing and opening louvers 37 may be accomplished manually by the pilot, and conventional mechanical linkage between the cabin of the aircraft and such louvers may be utilized therefor, as such linkage constitutes well known structure readily adaptable to aircraft 20 by a skilled mechanic.

A modified embodiment of the ducting means and duct system is illustrated in FIGS. 7 and 10. This GEM system comprises a centrifugal or radial flow fan 1 10 having a plurality of spaced airfoil blades 112. Blades 1 12 are fixedly mounted in a generally vertical fashion on a rotatably disc 114 supported by a vertically disposed shaft 116. Shaft 1 16 is rotatably mounted on a pair of suitable bearings 118, the lower one of which is fixedly secured in double hull 65 and the upper one of which is fixedly secured to and at the intersection of cross-struts 120 provided as supporting members in the aircraft. For clarity,

laterally disposed cross-strut 120 is not shown in FIG. 7, whereas longitudinally disposed cross-strut I20 is. Likewise, longitudinally disposed cross-strut I20 is not shown in FIG. l0 while laterally disposed cross-strut I20 is. 5 Cross-struts 120 are fixedly connected to a bell-shaped housing 122 disposed in fuselage 22 in like manner to that of housing 33 in the earlier described embodiment. An airfoil faring I24 is provided in housing 122 at its upper terminus, and covers an aftwing spar 126 laterally extending through fuselage 22.

A drive mechanism is provided for shaft 116 by means of a pair of meshed turning gears 130, one of which is secured on the end of shaft 116 and the other being clutch-connected to common shaft 40.

A plurality of equally-spaced stator vanes [32 (FIG. 7) is circumferentially fixedly mounted, in a vertical fashion, to double hull 65, to cooperate with blades 112 in directing airflow to peripheral duct 60.

In operation, with louvers 37 in unclosed condition, air is drawn into housing 122 by the action of rotating blades 112 driven by common shaft 40. The capture and flow of this air, passes continuously through the vehicle as indicated by the composite arrows c shown in FIG. 7. To provide for efficient fluid turning into peripheral duct 60, curvilinear guide vanes 134 (FIG. 7) are fixedly and spacedly mounted on hull 65 at a juncture of radial fan 110 and an ingress to peripheral duct 60. It should be understood that vanes 134 illustrated in FIGv 7 are a representation of one of four sets of vanes, each of which is symmetrically oriented on hull 65 at each of four intersecting junctures of radial fan 110 with their respective ingresses to peripheral duct 60.

Pursuant to the requirements of the patent statutes, the principle of this invention has been explained and exemplified in a manner so that it can be readily practiced by those skilled in the art to which it pertains, such exemplification including what is presently considered to represent the best embodiment of the invention. However, it should be clearly understood that the above description and illustrations are not intended to unduly limit the scope of the invention, but that therefrom the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described and exemplified herein, by those skilled in the art, and having the benefit of this disclosure.


1. In an aerodynamicaIly-sound and amphibious vehicle including a fuselage and power plant means, the combination with said vehicle of a high wing lifting airfoil,

a rigid duct system structurally mounted within and comprising an endless duct extending around the periphery of the bottom of said fuselage,

nonclosable jet nozzle means formed peripherally about the base of said rigid duct system for discharging a continuous stream of gaseous fluid,

said fuselage being designed for buoyancy although water may enter said nonclosable jet nozzle means,

means in said fuselage for ducting fluid flow to said rigid duct system,

means in said ducting means for impelling such fluid flow to said duct system,

said power means constituting a singular propulsion means for propelling said vehicle to out of ground effects region and for providing power to said impelling means, the power of said singular means being traded between flying and hovering functions, and 1 whereby said vehicle is provided with standing takeoff and landing characteristics.

2. The vehicle of claim 1 having an aft fuselage bottom 70 gently sloping upwardly from the rear portion of said non closable peripheral jet nozzle to a rear extremity of said fuselage.

3. The vehicle of claim 1 having wings, the outer wingtips thereof being sectioned and sealed to prevent water ingestion 75 of such wingtips.

4. The vehicle of claim 1 having a duct, flow path boundaries, and flow splitters forming said rigid duct system for effeiently directing such fluid flow into said nonclosable nozzle means.

5. The vehicle of claim 1 having a wide bottomed base in said fuselage for disposing said rigid duct system and nonclosable peripheral jet nozzle means therein.

6. The vehicle of claim 1 having power and transmission means common to said propulsion means and impelling means for interchangeable use therebetween.

7. In combination with an airborneable and amphibious vehicle including a ground effects machine system,

an aerodynamically sound aircraft including a fuselage, said fuselage being designed for buoyancy,

a wing airfoil mounted to said fuselage in a high wing configuration,

propulsion means for said aircraft,

well means in and communicating with the exterior of said fuselage,

means mounted in said well means for impelling fluid flow from the atmosphere therethrough,

means for operating said impelling means,

nonclosable jet nozzle means formed in the base of said fuselage, said design of the fuselage preventing sinking of the vehicle although water enters said nonclosable means,

a rigid duct system mounted in and comprising an endless duct extending around the periphery of the bottom of said fuselage connecting said nonclosable nozzle means to said well means, and

whereby fluid flow impelled through said well means and duct system discharges through said nonclosable nozzle means thereby providing for standing takeoff and landing characteristics in said vehicle.

8. The vehicle of claim 7 having a wide bottomed base in said fuselage for disposing said rigid duct system and nonclosable nozzle means therein.

9. The vehicle of claim 8 including a duct, flow path boundaries, and flow splitters forming said rigid duct system for efficiently directing such fluid flow into said nonclosable nozzle means.

10. An aerodynamically sound and amphibious aircraft having a fuselage, comprising in combination,

a wing airfoil mounted on said fuselage in a high wing configuration,

said fuselage being designed for buoyancy,

a ground effects machine means within said fuselage and comprising,

nonclosable jet nozzle means mounted and formed in the base of said fuselage,

a rigid duct system mounted and disposed in and comprising an endless duct extending around the periphery of the bottom of said fuselage for ducting fluid to said nonclosable nozzle means, and means in said fuselage for impelling such fluid through said rigid duct system to said nonclosable nozzle means, and

means for propelling said vehicle to out of ground effect region.

11. The vehicle of claim 10 having a singular propulsion means for both said impelling and propelling means.

12. The vehicle of claim 10 having an aft fuselage bottom gently sloping upwardly from the rear portion of said nonclosable jet nozzle means to a rear extremity of said fuselage.

13. The vehicle of claim 12 including a wide-bottomed base in said fuselage for disposing said rigid duct system and nonclosable jet nozzle means therein.

14. The vehicle of claim 10 in which said rigid duct system includes an endless duct, flow path boundaries forming said endless duct, and flow splitters between said impelling means and endless duct for efficiently directing such fluid into said nonclosable nozzle means. i

15. The vehicle of claim l0including power and transmission means common to said propelling and impelling means for interchangeable use therebetween.

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORR ECTION patent 3, 559,921 Dated February 2 1971 Inventor(s) Eugene Tlmperman It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

Column 6 line 66 cancel "and" second occurrence.

9 D Column 7 line 29, cancel "and".

Signed and sealed this 17th day of August 1971 (SEAL) Attest:

EDWARD M.FLETCHER,JR. WILLIAM E. SCHUYLER, Attesting Officer Commissioner of Pate FORM PO-IOSD (10-69) sc M-nc 50 7

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U.S. Classification244/12.3, 180/129
International ClassificationB60V3/08, B60V3/00, B64C29/00
Cooperative ClassificationB60V3/08, B64C29/0025
European ClassificationB64C29/00B2B, B60V3/08