US 3561036 A
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Fab. -a.V J, CRANE HOLD-OPEN APPARATUS Fon nook Filed June 24.y 196e.
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Feb. 9., 1971 B. J. CRANE HOLD-OPEN APPARATUS FOR DOOR 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Jima 24, 1968 jizz/edo?? @re 'uze 5m v @m United States Patent Office 3,561,036 Patented Feb. 9, 1971 3,561,036 HOLD-OPEN APPARATUS FOR DOOR Burke J. Crane, Lombard, Ill., assignor to Rixson Inc., Franklin Park, Ill., a corporation of Illinois Filed June 24, 1968, Ser. No. 739,239 Int. Cl. E051? 3/22 U.S. Cl. 16-49 3 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE The apparatus controls axial movement of a shaft longitudinally of its own axis, which shaft is arranged for axial movement in response, respectively, to opening and closing movement of a door upon a lfixed hinge axis. A boss having a camming surface is mounted in a fixed axial position along the shaft. Owing to a holding arrangement of an expandable group or ring of balls encircling the shaft, which balls are acted upon by resilient means, an axial pulling force on the shaft is required to permit axial movement of its camming boss through the ring of balls, when the shaft moves in a door closing direction. Because of the configuration of the boss or cam, a lesser axial pulling force on the shaft suffices to permit axial movement of the cam through the ring of balls, when the shaft is moving in a door opening direction.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention pertains to apparatus for controlling axial movement of a shaft which is arranged for backward and forward axial movement in response, respectively, to opening and closing movement of a door upon a fixed hinge axis, particularly in combination with door controlling mechanism of the type having a rotatable spindle to which the shaft is linked.
Many different door controlling mechanisms of the aforementioned type are known in the art. Many of these mechanisms are door closers particularly adapted to being mounted in a oor in cement or concrete or in other seamless ilooring. Conventionally, they are provided with spring means acting on the spindle through an appropriate linkage for tending to return the door to its closed position, or to some other preselected position, and with damping means for damping at least the closing movement of the door. In most instances, the damping means is in the form of a hydraulic damping mechanism of the type including a hydraulic cylinder and a piston which works within the hydraulic cylinder, with an elongated rod connecting the piston to the spindle through an appropriate linkage. For convenience, such door closers may be referred to hereinafter as spindle-type door closers.
It is desirable to provide hold-open apparatus for use with a spindle-type door closer, permitting the door to be held open at a preselected position and to be closed upon the application of a slight positive external effort. The hold open means should be designed to withstand the closing force exerted on the door by the spring means of the door closer, so that the door is held open at a preselected position, and to release the door upon closing movement of the door slightly away from the preselected position, in response to an external force by a person, so that the operation of the door closer is not further impeded by the hold-open means.
In many prior hold open arrangements the hold open structure has been so associated with the door closing mechanism that it is not feasible to repair or replace it and, as a result, when the hold open structure fails, it has required replacement of the entire door closing mec-hanism with which it is associated.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is a general object of this invention to provide apparatus for controlling movement of a shaft longitudinally of its own axis which shaft is arranged for backward and forward movement in response, respectively, to opening and closing movement of a door upon a fixed hinge axis.
It is another object of this invention to provide such apparatus for use in combination with door controlling mechanism of the type having a rotatable spindle to which the shaft is linked.
It is another object of this invention to provide hold open apparatus for use in combination with a spindletype door closer permitting the door to be held open at a preselected position and to be closed upon the application of a slight positive external effort.
It is yet another object of this invention to provide hold open apparatus, as described, for use with a spindle-type door closer which has dead stop means for stopping opening movement of the door upon the fixed hinge axis either at one preselected position or at a preselected one of a plurality of positions.
Preferably, these objects are attained by provision of apparatus comprising an expandable ring of balls encircling the shaft, means for biasing the ring of balls toward the shaft while permitting radial expansion of the ring of balls, and a camming boss mounted in a fixed axial position along the shaft for radially expanding the balls during movement of the boss through the ring of balls. In the preferred arrangement the cam may be fixed at different locations relative to the shaft in order to provide different hold open positions for the door.
Another object is to provide a door hold open device which may be used with various door closing mechanisms by reason of its structure and place of operation.
Yet another object is to provide a door hold open structure which is sufficiently self-contained and independent of the door closing mechanism that it can be easily removed for repair or replacement, without the necessity of removing or replacing the door closing mechanism These and other objects, features and advantages of this invention will be evident from the following detailed description of the presently preferred embodiment of this invention, reference being made hereinafter to the annexed drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS In the drawings:
lFIG. 1 is a plan view of a spindle-type door closer with its cover plate removed to expose hold-open apparatus constituting the presently preferred embodiment of this invention;
FIG. 2 is a vertical sectional view taken substantially along section line 2 2 of FIG. l in the direction of the arrows with the cover plate in place;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged detail of the hold open apparatus showing certain of the elements in section;
FIGS. 4 and 5 are views similar to FIG. 3, showing certain of the elements in changed positions;
FIG. 6 is an end view taken substantially on the plane of line 6 6 of FIG. 5, with some portions being broken away; and
FIG. 7 shows a modified form of one of the elements of the hold open apparatus.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Introduction FIGS. 1 and 2 illustrate hold-open apparatus, indicated generally by the reference numeral 10, which constitutes 3 the presently preferred embodiment of this invention. The hold-open apparatus is combined with a spindletype door closing mechanism 12, indicated generally by the reference numeral 12, for enclosure in the same waterproof outer case 14. The spindle-type door closer is shown solely by way of example.
The door closer In addition to the outer case 14, the door closer 12 comprises a removable cover plate 16 from which the door closing mechanism of the door closer 12 is carried. The outer case 14 has a plurality of anchor-supporting ange portions 18. Anchors 20, which are designed to anchor the door closer 12 in cement or concrete or in other seamless flooring, are associated with the flange portions 18. The cover plate 16 is removably fastened to the anchors 20, and thereby to the outer case 14, by a plurality of countersunk screws (not shown). Support for the cover plate 16 is provided by the ange portions 18 and by an inner shoulder 28 around the perimeter of the outer case 14. An upstanding rim 30 is provided at the perimeter of the outer case 14 entirely around the edge of the cover plate 16. A thin decorative plate 32, which may be made of brass or the like, is removably fastened to the cover plate 16, over both the cover plate 16 and the upper edge of the lip 30, by means of a plurality of countersunk screws (not shown).
A bracket 36, which has a at bottom portion 38 and two upstanding end portions 40 and 41, is riveted or otherwise suitably fastened to the underside of the cover plate 16 by mounting flanges 42 and 43 extending from the respective end portions 40 and 41.
A rotatable vertical spindle 44, which passes through suitable openings (not shown) in the cover plate 16 and in the superposed plate 32, is journalled in suitable upper and lower bearing means 46 and 48. The spindle 44 has crank means to be described hereinafter, which turns with the spindle.
The exposed upper portion 51 of the spindle 44 is hexagonal in section and thereby is adapted to be either engaged with and turned by a lever arm (not shown) which is fastened to the pull side of a door or fitted into and turned by a socket (not shown) which is located in the bottom of the door itself, depending upon the type of hinges or other pivotal supports to be used with the door. Suitable connections of the spindle 44 to the door are well known in the art and form no part of this invention.
The door closing mechanism 12 includes an elongated coiled compression spring 52 and a damping device or dash pot 72, both of which are operatively associated with the spindle 44 by linkage which is indicated generally by the reference numeral 50. The spring 52 bears by its first end 54 against the end portion 40 of the bracket 36 and is guided by a tube 56, which is suitably mounted to the underside of the cover plate 1'6. The second end (not shown) of the spring 52 bears against an annular disc 60, which freely fits within the tube 56 and has an internally threaded hub 62. An elongated rod 64 passes through the spring 52 and is threaded to the hub 62 by a threaded end 70. The rod 64 has its other end 66 extending through an enlarged aperture 68 in end portion 40 of the bracket 36 and into the confines of the bracket 36 for connection with the linkage 50.
The damping mechanism or dashpot 72, which preferably is of the hydraulic type, is supported from the underside of the cover plate 16 adjacent to the tube 56 by its housing 74 which is suitably mounted in place. It is suicient for purposes of the present disclosure to understand that the hydraulic damping mechanism 72 controls the rate of movement of an elongated rod 76, which is connected by one end to a piston (not shown) in the housing of the damping mechanism and is connected by its other end 82 with the linkage S0. When the rod 76 is substantially fully drawn out of the damp- 4 ing mechanism 72, the end 82 of the rod 76 extends through a guide 248 which is held in an aperture 84 in the end portion 40 ofthe bracket 36.
It should be understood that the foregoing combination of the compression spring 52 and the hydraulic clamping mechanism 72 is described solely by way of example and that other mechanism for controlling the opening and closing of doors may be used.
Any suitable linkage may be used in the door closer 12. The illustrated linkage 50 includes crank means 86 which comprises horizontal upper and lower crank members suitably connected to the spindle 44 to turn therewith. In addition to forming part of the door closer 12, the crank means 86 also forms part of a dead stop device indicated generally by the reference numeral 148.
Details of the construction of the dead stop device 148 are not needed for an understanding of this invention, so only some of them are set forth below. Further details are set forth in the copending application of William A. Czapar, Ser. No. 775,569 filed Sept. 30, 1968. The dead stop device 148 comprises stop means 150 for blocking movement of the crank members 90 of the crank means 86 and thereby blocking opening movement of the door. The stop means 150 which comprises an elongated cylindrical stop pin 152 may be mounted selectively in any of three positions A, B and C (FIG. l) with the bracket 36 providing a lfixed support for the stop means 150 in each position. The mounting ange 43 and the bottom portion 38 of the bracket 36 provide respective spaced walls between which the stop means 150 in each position extends in the path of movement of the crank members 90 of the crank means 86.
The hold-open apparatus As may be seen in FIGS. 1 through 6, the hold-open apparatus comprises a boss or cam 202 which is mounted in a fixed position on the shaft 76 and a detent means 200 encircling the shaft 76 and disposed adjacent the wall 40 of the bracket means 36 as shown in FIG. 2. The detent means 200, as may be best seen from FIGS. 3-6, comprises a housing 201 having an end threaded at 203 and an opposed end wall 207 apertured at 209; an axially compressible resilient annular means 204 encircling the shaft 76 but out of contact with it; a rigid metallic annular member 206 encircling and spaced from the shaft 76 and having a flat side 205 axially adjacent and in contact with the resilient means 204 and an opposite inwardly tapered side 208. While the resilient means 204 could be a metallic coil spring, for example, or other resilient means I prefer the illustrated resilient means which is made of an elastomer material.
Side 208 of annular member 206 provides a ramp for a ring of balls 210 encircling the shaft 76. An externally threaded annular end wall 212 providing a hard metallic reaction surface 213 encircles the shaft 76 on the other side of the ring of balls 210 from the washer 206. As shown, the reaction surface 213 may be the surface of a washer 211 set in a recess 21S of the threaded annular end wall 212. The threaded end wall 212 is spaced from the adjacent flat annular surface portion 217 of the annular member 206. Preferably a thin annular washer 214 is disposed between the resilient annular member 204 and the apertured end wall 207 of the housing 201, the aperture 209 of the latter freely permitting movement of the shaft 76 therethrough. Similarly, the end wall 212 has an aperture 216 of sufficient diameter to freely permit the movement of the shaft 76 through it. Wall 212 has sockets 218 for a spanner wrench by means of which the threaded end wall 212 may be threaded into the housing 201. Threading wall 212 to the right, as viewed in FIGS. 3, 5 and 6, will force the balls 210 and annular member 206 to the right thereby varying the degree of compression of the resilient annular member 204.
The cam or boss 202 is formed as a surface of revolution with an axis coaxial with the shaft 76 although it could be formed as a differently shaped cam or boss. It has a relatively long tapered surface 256 which, when it enters the space between the ring of balls 210, causes those balls to expand radially and separate from each other and bear against the ramp, or tapered surface, 208 of the Washer 206 and also against the reaction surface 213- of washer 211 which is carried by the treaded end wall 212. Continued movement of the cam 202 through the ring of balls toward the right, as viewed in FIGS. l through 6, causes the balls to further move radially and, by means of the washer 206, causes the resilient means in the form of a non-metallic, elastomer ring 204 to be compressed. The cam has a pea'k surface area 258 which preferably provides a flat cylindrical surface parallel to the axis of the shaft 76 which then joins with an inwardly curved surface 260 of small radius which blends into a tapered surface 2-62 of substantially greater incline than the tapered surface 256 of cam 202. The tapered surface 262 and curved surface 260 provide the detent area of the cam and when the cam has reached the position shown in FIG. 5 the resilient means 204 causes the washer 206 to transmit a radial component of force to the balls to cause them to move radially inwardly toward the shaft 76. In this position the hold-open apparatus will retain the shaft, and therefore the door, against the closing action exerted by the spring 52 of the door closing mechanism 12.
While it would be possible to have a curved surface extending from the left end of the tapered surface 256, rather than the flat surface 258, or even a sharp dropol from the maximum diameter of the tapered surface 256, it is preferred that the surfaces 258, 260 and 262 be employed since the flat surface intervening between the surfaces 256 and 260 provides an additional area for drag for the rollers and also tends to eliminate undesired clicking noises which would occur if there were an abrupt drop-off following the tapered surface 256.
In order to release the hold-open apparatus it will be appreciated that an external force applied by a person against the door, or by pulling a handle of the door, can cause the cam 202, by its surfaces 262 and 260 to radially expand the balls against the ramp or tapered surface 208 of washer 206 with the resulting compression of the resilient member 204, whereupon the ring balls will reach the flat cylindrical surface 258 and drag along them until the tapered surface 256 is reached, whereupon the balls will begin to move radially inwardly as the tapered surface passes through them, until the balls return to the position shown in FIG. 3.
The cam or boss 202 is provided with a central bore 220. While the boss has a close fit on the shaft 76 it is slidable along it to different predetermined positions to provide for different locations of the door when it is held open by the hold-open apparatus. Shaft 76 (FIG. l) has a transverse bore 222 and the cam 202 has a cross bore 224 of the same diameter as that of the transverse bore 222. A pin 226 is adapted to fit in the aligned bores 222 and 224 with a friction fit. When it is desired to dispose the cam 202 at a different location axially along the shaft 76 the pin 226 may be driven out and may then be reinserted when the bore 224 of the cam is aligned with another bore such as 222' or 222" (FIGS. 4 and 5) inthe shaft 76.
Alternate positions of the cam 202 on the shaft 76 need to be established in a relationship corresponding to the above-described dead-stop device 148. When, for example, the dead-stop device is adapted to stop the door upon 85 opening of the door relative to the door frame, it is necessary to have the cam 202 so located on shaft 76 that it will become effective by cooperation with the detent means 200 before the shaft moves to its ultimate stopped position as determined by the dead-stop blocking the crank arms 90, 90.
The housing 201 of the detent means 200 has threaded bores 230 (FIG. 1) which are adapted to receive screws 6 232 (FIG. 2) by which the detent means 200 is fixed to the same cover plate 16 as the door closing mechanism 12. As can be readily seen, this arrangement, together with the construction of the cam or boss 202, permits the door hold open apparatus to be a self-contained structure which, though it cooperates with the shaft 76 of the door closing mechanism 12, can be readily removed for repair or replacement without rendering the door closing function ineffective. Heretofore, many door hold open devices have been so closely associated with, or integrated with, the door closing mechanism that upon failure of the hold open device the most practical solution to the repair problem was to replace the entire door closing mechanism. Since the door hold open device of my invention can be added to an existing door closing mechanism if the closing plate 16 is initially provided with screw holes for screws 232 and if the shaft 76 has bores 222, 222 and 222" in it, a dealer is not required to keep as many different types of door closing mechanisms in stock.
In FIG. 7 there is illustrated a modified resilient means 204' which may be used in place ofthe above-described resilient annular member 204. It has a radially inwardly directed flange 204a whichfits more closely adjacent the shaft 76 (shown in dash lines) than the resilient means 204 of FIGS. 1 through 6. Consequently, upon deformation of the resilient means 204' during axial compression of it when the cam 202 is radially expanding the ring of balls 210 the flange 204a may engage the initial portion of the tapered cam surface 256 so that a slight drag upon it will be provided in both directions of movement of said cam.
Other modifications, within the scope of this invention will be readily suggested by the present disclosure to those skilled in the art.
1. A door hold-open apparatus adapted to position a door at one of a plurality of positions comprising a housing through which a shaft member is adapted to pass, said housing having a peripheral wall, a threaded open end and an opposed end wall with an opening of a diameter adapted to accommodate the passage of a shaft which is operatively connected with a door the open position of which is intended to be controlled, a generally annular resilient member reactable against said opposed end wall and adapted to surround said shaft, a rigid metallic generally annular member disposed axially adjacent said resilient member, said rigid annular member having a ramp, an annular end wall positioned within the open threaded end of said housing and having a rigid reaction surface in a plane generally perpendicular to the axis of the shaft and housing, said end wall being adjustable inv position relative to said housing to control the degree of compression of the resilient member, a plurality of rigid metallic balls supported between said ramp and reaction surface and encirgling the shaft, and a cam adapted to be connected to'said shaft at one of a plurality of positions along the length of the shaft, said cam having a relatively long tapered surface adapted to enter between and radially spread said balls against the reaction of the resilient member, and said cam having at its peak a short at area fol- `lowed by a radially inwardly curved surface of short radius which is followed by a relative steep tapered surface, said last two surfaces providing the holding side of the `cam for said balls.
2. For use with door closing mechanism which includes a shaft member connected to the door for axial movement in response to opening and closing thereof, supporting means for said door closing mechanism, a housing removably supported by said supporting means with the shaft passing therethrough, detent means carried in said housing, means associated with said shaft member for cooperation with said detent means whereby said door may be yieldingly held in an open position against the action of the door closing mechanism, said last means associated with said shaft member being adjustable to different positions axially of the shaft such that the cooperation of said last mentioned means with said detent means can be varied to provide more than one position at which the door may be held open.
3. The invention of claim 2 wherein the detent means comprises an encircling expandable structure through which the shaft is adapted to be moved, means supporting said structure, resilient means urging said structure toward the shaft, and wherein said means associated with said shaft member comprises cam means on the shaft, said cam means having a leading surface adapted to er1- ter and expand said expandable structure against the force exerted by said resilient means when the shaft moves axially in a rst direction, said cam having a peak surface area and a detent surface area beyond such peak surface area for receiving at least a portion of the expandable structure, whereby the shaft is releasably held against movement in an opposite direction.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS McGrath 285-315X Stenberg 287-Ball Digest Scheiwer 285-277X Hanssen 16-49(HO) Carlson 16-49(HO) Truhon 16-49(HO) Schmid 16-49X Bergstrom 285-321X Hansen 285-277 IAN A. CALVERT, Primary Examiner U.S. CI. X.R.