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Publication numberUS3561377 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 9, 1971
Filing dateMay 15, 1970
Priority dateMay 15, 1970
Publication numberUS 3561377 A, US 3561377A, US-A-3561377, US3561377 A, US3561377A
InventorsAmundsen Howard R
Original AssigneeAmundsen Howard R
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Open pit vortex incineration arrangement
US 3561377 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent Howard R. Amundsen Los Angeles, Calif. (6782 Homer St. Westminster Calif. 92683) [21] Appl. No. 037,658

[22] Filed May15, 1970 [45] Patented Feb. 9, 1971 [72] Inventor [54] OPEN PIT VORTEX INCINERATION Primary Examiner-Kenneth W. Sprague AttorneyFinkelstein and Mueth ABSTRACT: There is disclosed herein an advanced solid waste disposal system comprising an open pit incineration arrangement for heterogeneous waste and refuse such as that collected by various municipalities and private organizations for disposal. In this incineration arrangement the heterogeneous refuse is fed into an open pit incineration chamber where it is transferred throughout the length thereof by an oscillating hearth. Solid materials not converted into gaseous products of combustion in this first traversal are recirculated within the open pit incineration chamber in the opposite direction by a second oscillating hearth and automatically returns to the first oscillating hearth adjacent the input to the incineration chamber. Such continuous recirculation continues until the material is substantially rendered into a state of incombustible solids. Grates or other waste removal devices are provided within the incineration chamber to allow removal of the solid incombustible materials left in the incineration chamber. Thermodynamic control is exercised to measure the flame temperature within the open pit incineration chamber The flame temperature is controlled so that a gas producer zone is provided adjacent to the oscillating hearths, wherein the waste is, in general, burned to products of incomplete combustion. Primary air is directed into the open pit incineration chamber from regions adjacent to the top thereof to establish a vortex having an axis substantially parallel to the direction of the travel of the waste on the oscillating hearth by a'plurality ofindividually controlled air nozzles. A plurality of thermocouples or other temperature sensing devices are also provided to monitor continuously the flame temperature in different portions of the gas producer zone and, through appropriate control means, the air flow is responsively varied to maintain the flame temperature within a predetermined temperature range. Water cooled baffles are provided adjacent the top of the gas producer zone to separate it from the furnace zone. The baffles define an orifice through which the products of incomplete combustion move, in altered and reduced laminar flow characteristics, to the furnace zone for burning to products of complete combustion. Secondary air flow (natural, forced or induced draft) may be provided through the feed mechanism so that materials having a large surface area to mass ratio may be burned with great rapidity to products of complete combustion and/or gasify with increased rate into other carbon and hydrogen reactions. Many materials in this category will contain oxygen up to 30 percent. Under the above-stated conditions, no additional temperature sensing devices or air volume controls are required to offset the effect of secondary air penetrating into the length of the producer zone. The primary air temperature sensing devices automatically reduce the quantity of primary air delivered in inverse ratio to the increased availability of secondary air, in maintaining the propenquantity of total air required to maintain set-point temperature in any zone. Additional temperature sensing devices are provided in the furnace zone. Water spray through nozzles are used as auxiliary flame temperature control and are located adjacent to the primary air nozzles to provide a dousing stream of water for lowering the flame temperature in the gas producer zone in the event that the flame temperature should suddenly rise to a value greater than the predetermined temperature range. The heat of the flame is diluted in the conversion of water to steam. The heated gases of the products of complete combustion may be utilized as the heat source in a conventional steam generator-steam turbine power plant for providing electrical energy to drive the air compressor for the primary and secondary air flows as well as the mechanical power necessary for the feed and transfer mechanisms.

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saw u or 5 s52 eAs VOLUME CONTROL WAS E FEED RATE CONTROL PRODUCER FURNACE TEMP TEMP CONTROL CONTROL wanna I? 7 v M/VE/VT'OR HOWMDRAMUA/OSEA/ OPEN PIT VORTEX INCINERATION ARRANGEMENT BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the lnvention This invention relates to an environmental pollution control system in the incineration art and more particularly to an improved arrangement for burning heterogeneous waste products to products of complete combustion.

Related Patents This invention is an improvement of my invention of US. Pat. No. 3,465,696.

Description of the Prior Art As noted in my above-mentioned patent, waste and refuse disposal, a major factor in world wide pollution control, is presenting increasing problems substantially throughout the world as the number of people in the world increases, as the concentration of people in limited geographic areas increases and as in the industrial civilization level rises throughout the,

world. Thus, the disposal of both solid and liquid refuse and/or waste products that are inevitably generated can no longer be handled in the traditional methods of waste disposal. That is, inefficient incineration cannot be utilized since the inefficient incineration often gives rise to smog or highly odoriferous gases emitted from the place of incineration. Land fill processes whereby solid and liquid waste and refuse are utilized to fill land which subsequently may be utilized for other purposes at best has only a limited applicability since the amount of land conveniently adjacent to the source of the waste and refuse is constantly dwindling as the population density increases and, further, the 40 to 50-year wait in time before such land is structurally stable so it can be utilized, for example, for buildings of one nature of another is often impractical. Additionally, the constant emission from such filled land of various gases adds to the smog problem as well as emitting noxious gases. Thus, the land is not stable or fit for human habitation until the end of 40 to 50 years when all organic materials have been broken down.

For example, in certain areas of California, filling land with solid wastes has been shown to produce more smog, higher temperature and more frequent and denser winter fogs and the loss of rain fall. Summer temperatures in certain areas, could rise by approximately 5 and drop by approximately 2 to 3 in winter. The summer temperature rise could result in a reduction of winds bringing relief to the western shores of the United States. Smog would increase because new land masses would produce more frequent temperature inversion which holds smog captive at ground levels.

The disposal of garbage by upstream water users has reached the point where water pollution as well as air pollu-v tion is a major problem. For example, in the City of San Francisco approximately 8 pounds per person of garbage is generated and San Francisco has traditionally dumped this garbage in the Brisbane area tide lands. The growing population in the Brisbane area has now made such dumping practices controversial and subject to Court litigation.

Additionally, the nature and characteristics of the waste and refuse is constantly changing. For example, waste and refuse once consisted primarily of garbage and ashes. However, now it may include dead animals, industrial wastes, demolition and construction refuse, old appliances, junk automobiles and machinery, glass containers, plastics, and the like. Thus, the waste and refuse may contain anything from a bed spring to a watermelon rind; from an automobile to a telephone pole with climbing cleats attached. While a 165,000,000 tons of solid waste was discarded nationally in 1966 in the United States, it is estimated that this amount will reach 260,000,000 tons by 1976. Further, the many important inorganic materials such as metals and the like, must be recoverable from the waste disposal arrangement in order that shortages in such materials do not become prevalent. For example, by the year 2000 the United States population will be consuming as estimated 33.7 million tons of canned food and beverages each year, compared to only 16.7 million tons consumed in I960. lf most of these containers are not reprocessed, the can makers will run short of the primary can materials. In the year 2000, in the United States, it is estimated that some 474,000,000 tons of paper and paperboard will be used annually for packaging and there will be 3.2 billion pounds of rigid or molded glass or plastic used in packaging materials. Such glass or plastics are far more difficult to process efficiently in traditional waste disposal methods.

Combustion processes, therefore, remain as a major technique for disposing of solid and liquid waste. However, as noted above, combustion processes utilized for such waste disposal in the past are not now generally acceptable. There does not appear to be an awareness among many utilizers of such combustion waste disposals that the combustion process involved in the incineration of heterogeneous solid waste to a product of complete combustion is far more complex than that which is incurred in, for example, a heat engine. A heat engine can only use homogeneous fuels that have common limits of flammability and a predictable temperature-enthalpy and volume, in order to achieve a predictable performance with the designed product of combustion. Heterogeneous fuels, such as solid and/or liquid wastes, are not favorably endowed with the above-mentioned predictable characteristics. Therefore, heterogeneous solid and/or liquid wastes in order to become completely burned to a harmless state or to produce a predictable combustible product suitable for utilization in other systems: such as combustible gases that may be utilized in heat engines, heat exchangers or the like to make power, must be made into a gas that has been altered to have substantially homogeneous characteristics. The altered gases must have common limits of flammability, predictable and controllable temperature-enthalpy characteristics and controllable volume characteristics. This must be accomplished by automated control system since human operational judgment will generally not be sufficient to detect the changes necessary to achieve these characteristics.

The failure to understand the distinction between burning liquid and solid homogeneous and heterogeneous fuels is occasioned by the fact that the exploitation of heterogeneous fuels (that is, liquid and solid waste products) has never been economically or competitively required. Therefore, the incentive to understand the combustion process involved in burning heterogeneous feedstock was missing. However, because of the increased recognition of the ecological and health problems involved, there have recently been proposed many new techniques for alleviating the previously utilized but ecologically dangerous and/or unhealthy waste disposal techniques.

One type of solid waste disposal arrangement utilizes techniques for grinding the solid waste into small sizes prior to incineration. Such a technique, of course, merely reduces the size of the solid object that is to be burned, possibly increasing its surface area to volume ratio, but does not in any way alter the essential products of combustion resulting from the combustion of such a unit in a fixed incinerator arrangement.

Therefore, controls for varying the environment in which the combustion occurs are necessary to assure that the incineration arrangement achieves the desired result in burning all waste materials, ultimately, to products of complete combustion. The required controls need not be costly or complicated but the incineration process of heterogeneous'solid and liquid waste must be understood to the extent that there is an awareness that controls are necessary. The probability of designing an incinerator that will insure the combustion of heterogeneous liquid and solid waste to a harmless product of complete combustion without the incorporation of such controls is practically nonexistent. It is as remote as, for example, designing a heat engine: e.g. internal combustion engine, gas

turbine, or a rocket. to have a predictable performance, without the control functions of a predictable and known fuel, lubricant, coolant and metallurgy. It simply cannot be done. Without temperature-enthalpy control and volume control incorporated in an incinerator design, the combustion process is one of anarchy and the products of combustion are in a thermodynamic, thermochemical, and fluid mechanical chaos. If either the calorific value of the combustible gases in the producer zone or the gaseous products of complete combustion in the furnace zone are to be fully exploited as a heat or power source, gas volume control must also be incorporated in the incineration process, whenever heterogeneous liquid and solid waste of varying calorific value and moisture content are incinerated. Since the above-mentioned category of solid and liquid wastes vary so extensively controls, therefore, must be provided in the incineration arrangement to achieve the desired designed combustion and economic performance.

It is inherent in combustion incineration arrangements that the limiting factor, generally, is not the feed rate of materials into the incinerator but rather it is the combustion or gasification rate of the material that is being burned. Any incinerator can, on a time basis, accept more solid waste than can be synthesized to a gaseous state, regardless of feedstock size. Therefore, the above-mentioned grinding and mixing of heterogeneous solid wastes prior to incineration is not only costly but will not substitute for efficient combustion temperature-enthalpy control in order to achieve a high production rate and a harmless product of complete combustion. Additionally, volume control may be incorporated for an efficient utilization of the gaseous product.

In general, it may be assumed that the production rate determination during incineration is confined to achieving a gaseous product of complete combustion. To achieve such complete combustion the maximum incineration rate of the liquid and solid waste is achieved when the steady state temperature is maintained so that the produced mixed gases, of the carbon and methane (hydrocarbon) equilibrium, have common limits of flammability. This means that the produced gases, then, can be completely burned with the same quantity of fresh air. Thus, starting with heterogeneous liquid and solid wastes, it is necessary to produce a commonality of the gases to have common temperature-enthalpy and volume characteristics. This means that the gases can be completely burned with the same quantity of air. Steady state set-point temperatures are to be achieved in spite of constantly varying calorific value and/or moisture content of the liquid and solid waste feedstock. If the mixed gases of the carbon and methane (hydrocarbon) equilibriums are produced at temperatures above or below that of the limited temperature range in which the gases are synthesized to be within common limits of flammability, much of the gases cannot be burned to a product of complete combustion. That part which is incompletely burned is an air pollutant.

Accordingly, it is necessary to burn, ultimately, the combustible materials to their products of complete combustion and leave the incombustible materials for further reprocessing to extract any desired material therefrom in as efficient and economic a process as possible. While the composition of both the solid waste as well as the liquid waste may be variable, the constituents thereof, though the percentages change, will be substantially the same. Therefore, by an analysis of the typical components on a weight basis from a large sample in any metropolitan area, it may be determined what the percentage ofsuch constituents would be.

When such a material is burned in an incineration arrangement, desirably the residual would only be noncombustible inorganics and the products of complete combustion, namely ash, carbon dioxide, water and accompanying inert nitrogen. As noted above, however, traditional incineration arrangements generally resulted in incomplete combustion with the resultant emission of smog producing gases that may also be odorous and/or noxious. Such incineration arrangements were often economically impractical since the investment in operational costs approached that of a manufacturing operation but in which no end product for subsequent sale is provided.

It is known, of course, that complete combustion of homogeneous gaseous fuels is readily achievable at atmospheric pressure, though complete combustion of solid and liquid fuels is not so readily attained at atmospheric pressure since they require, in general, higher pressures to achieve complete combustion. Thus, in an attempt to incinerate efficiently the heterogeneous waste and refuse, it has often been proposed to provide a chamber operated at greater than atmospheric pressure. The very inconsistency of solid wastes may either preclude its introduction into such a chamber or require the homogenization of the wastes by grinding or the like into fine enough particles so that, upon mixing, such wastes may be rendered substantially uniform in nature. Such grinding, as well as a pressure chamber for combustion is, of course, economically expensive and of limited size capabilities. Further, the control of both the temperature in turbulent mixing within the chambers can only be generally exploited for a specific and consistent homogeneous mixture.

Therefore, it is desirable to provide an incineration arrangement operating as an open pit or essentially at atmospheric pressure wherein heterogeneous liquid and solid waste and refuse may be economically fed and in which the combustible products thereof are, ultimately, burned to products of complete combustion.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Accordingly, it is an object of Applicants invention herein to provide an improved open pit incineration arrangement.

It is another object of Applicants invention herein to provide an incineration arrangement in which heterogeneous liquid and solid waste and refuse may be fed without prior classification or processing for incineration therein.

It is another object of Applicants invention herein to provide an improved incineration arrangement in which combustible products are burned to products of complete combustion.

It is yet another object of Applicants invention herein to provide an incineration arrangement that is economical to construct and operate.

It is yet another object herein to provide an economic system by the control of the volume of gaseous emissions from the improved incineration arrangement. Volume control permits the complete and efficient utilization of heat derived from constantly varying heterogeneous liquid and solid waste material.

The above and other objects are achieved, accordingly to one aspect of Applicants invention herein, by providing both the structural elements utilized for an open pit incineration arrangement as well as appropriate thermodynamic and volume control thereof.

In one embodiment of Applicant's invention a waste and refuse input feed arrangement which, in this embodiment of Applicants invention, may comprise an oscillating conveyor for receiving the heterogeneous waste and/or refuse from appropriate collection vehicles such as garbage trucks, trash collection trucks and the like, and the feed oscillating conveyor transfers the heterogeneous waste and refuse as received into a screw feed structure for transfer into an open pit incineration chamber. In the preferred embodiment of Applicants invention, the screw feed arrangement is an Archimedean screw conveyor for transfer of the material from the feed oscillating conveyor into the open pit incineration chamber. The utilization of solid surface oscillating conveyor and Archimedean screw principles of conveyance is advantageous because these conveying mechanisms are not subject to being stopped by mechanical interference from any material conveyed upon or within the confines of their conveying surface. Both motions also have material classifying characteristics, reverse and vanning classification. Classification of material entering the incinerator is conducive in this design to exploiting the high gasification rate of the bulk of material which statistically has a high surface to mass ratio. The characteristics of classification, also performs load-leveling for denser material, thereby forming a cohesive and consistent fire bed in the incinerator which is favorable to the exploitation of specific heats of material and the gasification of combustible solids. Both reverse and vanning classification assist in settling the ash out of the burning bed. The introduction of solid waste into the incinerator in the above described manner will reduce the quantity of particulate matter emitted in the flue gas because much of the finer and denser material is never airborne and furthermore is subjected to great cohesion and adhesions in the fire bed due to the more intense temperature experienced in this design than used in traditional incineration.

The cohesion and adhesion of particulate matter to the body of the fire bed is the result of almost invariable stickiness of both organic and inorganic material at temperatures in the range of 2000 F.

The open pit incineration chamber is essentially bounded by four walls and has an open top and a base. The base comprises a transfer arrangement of a solid surface oscillating conveyor hearth for moving the heterogeneous waste and refuse from the Archimedean screw feed discharge to the remote end of the open pit incineration chamber.

The conveyed burning waste material is delivered through the means of oscillating motion of the hearth up to a remote end of the solid surface oscillating conveyor hearth at the remote end of the chamber. Then the conveyed load has advanced to the remote chamber end wall and can advance no further and when it can no longer assume an angle of repose, it must then transfer into another area offering less resistance to movement or displacement. The area offering the path of least resistance is an adjacent and parallel solid surface oscillating conveyor hearth conveying in the opposite direction. The transfer is assisted by the use of a banked curve that is incorporated in the surface of the oscillating conveying hearth at the approach to the chamber end wall. The transferred conveyed burning material is then conveyed in the direction from whence it entered the incinerator. The conveyed burning bed is then transferred in the manner previously described into the path of the incoming unignited waste material and thereby, provides the initial ignition for unburned waste material at its inception into the incinerator. The remote or discharge ends of both solid surface oscillating conveyor hearths in the incinerator are identical in design and function. Any or all burning material and residue will automatically remain in recycle until removed.

It is assumed that a part of the solid waste introduced in the incineration chamber will not be completely reduced to incombustible objects by the time it has reached the remote end of the chamber. Thus, the design of Applicants improved incineration arrangement permits the recycling of the unconsumed solid combustibles on the bed until they are completely reduced. Such solid products may be removed by a sliding grate that is incorporated into each section of the solid surface oscillating conveyor hearth. The sliding grate can be mechanically actuated to open or close to any desired opening size. The sliding member in either open or closed position is housed within the frame and support of the solid surface oscillating conveyor hearth. The sliding member is closed by moving in the same direction as the conveyed material while moving to closed position. The sliding member can move much faster in closing than can the rubbish being conveyed on it during closing movement. Therefore, because of the difference in the respective speeds of closing and conveying, the sliding member can, without interference, achieve a complete closure with the fixed end of the solid surface oscillating conveyor hearth in which it is housed.

The two sliding grates can be operated either separately or simultaneously to any predetermined or controllable aperture size desired. Any object that can be introduced into the furnace can be discharged from it without any mechanical interference.

The above short summary of the structure of Applicant's invention indicates the feed, transfer and discharge arrangements preferred by Applicant for his improved incineration arrangement. However. in order to achieve the proper combustion results, that is, the burning of the combustible materials to products of complete combustion. requires the thermodynamic considerations of the combustion characteristics of the waste and refuse.

Many disciplines in thermodynamics are required in burning the heterogeneous mass of combustibles in solid waste to a product of complete combustion. One, among the many disciplines required, is the utilization of recuperative heat.

The incinerator is a combination of a gas producer and a gas furnace and therefore utilizes recuperative heat in order to achieve the highest degree of efficiency in synthesis and production rate of gas. Heat is stored in the incinerator chamber walls refractory lining and inthe fire bed on the hearth consisting of the ash and other noncombustible solid waste. The specific heats of noncombustible materials are exploited in order to sustain ignition temperatures of combustible materials and assist in maintaining temperature ranges required for the synthesis of gas from carbohydrates and hydrocarbons in the solids and liquids to the extent that common limits of inflammability can be established. This is required in order that a common fuel to air ratio can be established that will, ultimately, burn all of the component gases to a product of complete combustion.

The importance of exploiting the specific heat of materials is based upon the heat transfer relationship that when hot and cold bodies are put in contact, the hot body transfers heat to the cold one until both reach the same temperature.

Many of the source materials for recuperative heat that are in solid waste have a low specific heat. This means that these materials gain heat and lose heat slowly. Therefore, when such materials are ultimately heated, they provide a constant source of heat for a considerable period of time. Through contact, such a heat source is able to raise the temperature of most combustibles to a point where ignition occurs.

Examples of specific heats are as follows:

Water: 1; Iron: .ll3-1l8; Stone and brick: .l92-.l97;

Paper and Wood: .600 approx.; Ash: .200.250.

There are other factors effecting the production of a product of complete combustion from heterogeneous solid and liquid waste. i.e., the reactions that take place in the gas producing phase within the open incinerator gas generator chamber are producer air gas and water gas reactions.

Water, when present, is in the liquid form. The heat of condensation of steam or water at 25 C. is represented by the equation and typical gas reactions are shown in Table l:

H O (vapor) 1-1 0 (liquid) 10519.9 calories A positive sign indicates that heat is evolved and a negative sign that heat is absorbed. The values are for the reactions at a constant pressure.

TABLE I GAS REACTIONS INVOLVED Heat: of Reaction galgries Reaction It should be noted that in order to have a reaction it is necessary that there be a physical union between the elements, i.e., in making CO C must be in the intimate presence of 0 This establishes the requirement for turbulence.

From the above data, it is obvious that heat must be stored in order to achieve practical incineration.

There are, under given physical conditions, both lower" and upper" composition limits of inflammability. Within. but not outside these limits, self-propagation of flame will occur, once ignition has been effected.

The appropriate limits of inflammability of the pertinent gases, at ordinary temperatures and pressures are subject to these fuel to air ratios in producing a product of complete combustion in the furnace zone as shown on Table ll.

TABLE II FLAMMABILIT! um'rs (at BY vowm.)

' Mend a gas All of the above component gases in the make up of air and water gases have similar practical operating ignition characteristics with the exception of methane (CH.).

The presence of moisture in solid waste will generate methane (CH unless elevated temperatures are used. The fuel to air ratio for methane is not compatible with carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H and therefore the methane must be changed to C +2H through elevated temperature in order to achieve the same fuel to air ratio required for burning carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H to a product of complete combustion as shown on Tables Ill and IV.

TABLE III TABLE IV PRODUCER GAS QUILIBRIUM ME'IHANE UILIBRIU'M Temperature Percent Percent Temperature Percent Percent r e co r cn a The incinerator producer zone operating temperature range will be maintained between 2000 F. 2500 F. and the furnace zone is maintained at a temperature between 2500 F. and the lower limit of spontaneous ignition. This lower temperature is on the order of 1000 F. 1 100 F.

Within this temperature range, the air or water gases generated in the producer zone will be synthesized to have common limits of inflammability, e.g. blast furnace gas or Monds gas. The mixed or unmixed gases will be able to be burned to a product of complete combustion in the furnace zone on the basis of variable quantities of air being provided (volume per unit volume) that conform to the gas combustion requirements.

Flame temperatures vary with heat value of materials and the moisture content. When water is added into combustion processes or exists in the combustible material, flame tem perature is reduced to the extent that heat is absorbed in changing water to steam. Air in relationship to flame has similar characteristics. If flame temperature is to be increased, the air quantity is reduced. If flame temperature is to be reduced, the air and/or water quantity is increased.

The control of flame temperature within the incinerator is not only important from the rate of production and the cost of maintenance aspects, but it also determined the constituency of the gases in both the producer and furnace zone.

For all gases, the maximum flame temperature is obtained when less air is used than required for stoichiometric or complete combustion.

This is illustrated in the following Table V showing some examples:

TABLE. V

MAXIMUM FLAME TEMPERATURES OF GASES IN AIR of Gas in gas-air mixture giving maximum flame temgerature Maximum Flame Gas T5 erature P The control of temperature in the incinerator chamber is important because at elevated temperatures, there occurs a reaction that defeats the achievement of a product of complete combustion during incineration.

The reaction is dissociation. At high temperature, the combustion of fuels is rendered incomplete because dissociation of carbon dioxide and of water vapor takes places, there being an equilibrium between CO CO and O and between H O, H and 0 on the other hand.

As temperatures increase above 2550 F., the CO and H 0 gradually, at an increasing rate, reverts to CO, H OH, 0 (atomic oxygen), H (atomic hydrogen), NO and N (atomic nitrogen). The dissociation reactions are essentially:

B 0 1/2 11 on 0 N2 q 2 no Therefore, temperatures within the furnace zone of the incinerator should be held below 2500 F.; if not, carbon monoxide and hydrogen will start to comprise much of the waste gas that is emitted into the atmosphere. The degree of emissions of products of incomplete combustion is shown in Table VI.

will 0 Pressure Ittrnes here $29.2 Pressure Atmosphere TABLE VIContinued a Pressure Atmos here Q2 Pressure Atmosphere Flame temperatures, just like solutions, can be diluted. The effect of dilution can be illustrated as shown on Table Vll: Data Derived From the IT Enthalpy-Temperature Diagram." In the translation of maximum flame to flame temperatureshown, it should be recognized that maximum flame temperature has approximately 90 percent-95 percent of the air that is the theoretical amount required for complete combustion. N 1.2 excess air is an excess of 14 percent.

The completion of Table Vll is based on two factors:

1. Statistical relationships exist among the net calorific value of all industrial fuels, their air requirements and the volume of combustion gas which they produce. These relationships render stoichiometric calculations based on ultimate analyses unnecessary and permit direct derivation of the initial enthalpy of any combustion gas.

2. For all industrial fuels, equal enthalpies of the theoretical net combustion gas, per unit volume, correspond to equal temperatures. Hence, the gas temperature may be directly derived from the enthalpy of the combustion gas or vice versa without recourse to the composition or specific heat of the gas.

The accuracy of calculations based on Temperature-Enthalpy Diagrams suffice for all practical purposes since the deviations are smaller than the errors inherent in technical sampling, in the determination of calorific values, analysis of gases, and in the measurement of temperature and volumes.

In the use of Temperature-Enthalpy Diagrams for the designing of combustion and auxiliary appliances, an excess-air factormust be assumed. In test plants, the factor must be calculated from the composition of the flue gas or derived in some other manner.

If only the gross calorific value of a fuel is known, the net value may be obtained from a table that is based on the results of the correlation of the gross and net values of a large number 15 of solid and liquid fuels and is considered to be accurate to within i 1 percent.

PROPERTIES, ANALYSIS, AND FORMULAS PERTINENT TO SOLID WASTE A calorific analysis of typical combustible material in a solid waste dump reveals that on an average over a long period oftime that the gross calorific value (C is approximately 6700 B.t.u. per pound.

In determining the heat value of solid waste, due consideration is given to the fact that there is a great difference in the percent of the approximate 82 percent total combustibles, in-

dicated that, generally, the value for paper and wood approximately represents the average calorific value of the total TABLE VII DATA DERIVED FROM IT EZNTHALPY-TEMPERA'HJRE DIAGRAM PRODUCER ZONE GASIFICA'IION OF SOLID WASTE PAPER AND WOOD soup was-r1: Percent Air Vol. of BTU/ft Temp. BTU per lb. of excess keqg. Wet of com- 6700 C r air Ft /lbcombustion bustion combus- (gross? BTU (solid Fuel gas gas tion .6000 c (Net) Fue n Ft. 1 c /v Temper- BTU N V ature 1 Air Factor N 1 A 62. V 73.5 I 81.5 3210 N 1.2 mcess 14 74.5 86. 70. 2970 w W SOLID WASTE calorific Air Wet Com- Ratio: mthalpy Temp Percent Air for Total Air BTU per 11:. value of Regd. bustion Air of Com- 5 of Secondary for pro- 6700 c gas Ft /Ft: gas volume volume bustion Com- Excess comduct of (gross? BTU BTU/Ft. Gas Mix n Ft /n Ft To Gas gas BTU/ bustion Air to busgion complete 6000 o (Net) (I fuel Volume Ft. temp. Gas Ft combgstion a'ru A v A/v I c-/v of Mix 11 Ft: A 1 Air Factor N 1 81.5 A .567 V 1.460 .38 I 55.7 2570 44.5 106.5

N 1.2 Excess 70. .680 1.591 .43 50.1. 2370 7 62. 136.5

The above units apply also to liquid fuels including creosote and tar mixtures.

Units under furnace applies to gas fuels.

1 N-l Theoretical air required to burn 1 11:. solid fuel (6000 BTU/lb.)

No pre-heat of air or fuel involved. No dissociation of gases involved.

TYPICAL COWONMS OF REPRESENTATIVE SOLID WASTE E of 1 ton Components of Solid roduct of com- Calorific value (BTU Density of material solid waste bustion (ash) and per lb.) of combustible percent of non-combustible inmaterial that is Note: Specific gravity 1 ton and weight organic residue convertible into of water l(62.4

percent of original gas through a lbs. per ft. ORGANICS weight and weight combustion process Ame Paper 62% 1.240 lbs. (ash) 2% 24.8 lbs. 6600 .3 1+ Rags 0.5%

10 lbs. (ash) 1% 0.1 lbs. 6000 .3 .6 Wood 5.5%

110 lbs. (ash) 1% 1.10 lbs. 6800 .3 1.5 av. .550 Garbage, tree trimmings, 7% vegetation, etc. 140 lbs. (ash) 1.40 lbs. 5500 .2 .6 oRGAtucs 75% MAL 1500 lbs. (ash) 27.4 lbs.

INORGANICS Metal containers 4% 80 lbs. 80 lbs. Plastics 5% i 1.00 lbs. (Bah) 1% 1 lb. 5D0O/l5,000 .l l 4- Unbroken bottles 3.5%

70 lbs. 70 lbs. 2.5 Concrete 2.5%

50 lbs. 50 lbs. 2 Sand, brick fines, 7.5% broken glass, dust, 150 lbs. 150 lbs. 1.5 etc. Non-ferrous metal .534

1.0 lbs. lbs. 3 Asphalt 30 lbs. (ash) 1% 0.3 lbs. 14,000 .7 Rubber 10 lbs. (ash) 2% 0.2 lbs. l0,000/l5,000 .25 .55

INORGANICS -miu. 500 lbs. 361.5 11.5, GRAND MAL 100 96 2000 lbs. 389.45 lbs.

Note: (ash) A1... S1... Fe., 149., Ma 0a.. etc. "Plastics and rubber both organic and inorganic combustibles in solid waste. natural solid fuels have properties depending on their carbon Average Properties of Combustibles in Solid Waste based and hy r g n Contents and that 50 many f th properti s are on th ab i as shown on T bl I)( so interrelated that from a knowledge of two suitably chosen properties of any individual fuel, the others may be deduced with considerable accuracy: TABLE IX Among these properties are:

l. Volatile matter content; Average Properties of Combustibles in Solid Waste calorific value; Moisture 15.0 3. Moisture n air-dried fuel; D I Ash 2 0% 4. Combustion characteristics: namely an requirements, carbon 41.5 volume, enthalpy, water-vapor content and carbon dloxy g 5 l 1de content of the flue gases and flame temperature.

' i n Nmogen & Sulfur 0'9 It s csse tlal that temperatures prevail at the furnace zone yg 35 5 that exceed the mlnimum spontaneous ignition temperature of the ases that are to be burned to a roduct of com l Volatile Matter 80.0 bustgion P P file m Calorific value, B.t.u./1b. Gross (C 6700 The gases generated in the producer zone will have the approximate minimum spontaneous ignition temperatures, at atmospheric pressure and with the proper air mixture ratios, as shown on Table X.

Calorific value, B.t.u./lb. Net (C,,) 6000 Theoretical air requirement per lb. 11.24 Ft. 3 air at 32 F., 760 mm. Hg. (1 atm) 62.24

Waste gas ft. wet waste gas at 74.32 32 F., 760 mm. Hg. (per lb. offuel) TABLE x CO content of dry waste gas 20.3 PRODUCER ZONE GAS IGNITION m Wet Waste Composition & gg

CO2 Carbon monoxide 1060 H2O Hydrogen 1040 Oxides of N & S 0.2 Methane 11.90

N2 Ammonia 1200 With less moisture in the fuel, the composition of wet waste carbon disulphide :50 gas may be as follows by volume: Hydrogen sulphide 560 Most solids that will be reduced to a gaseous state in the 2 67% producer zone of the incinerator chamber will have relatively low ignition temperatures, i.e., 600 to 900 F. The minimum N2 738% temperature for efficient combustion is probably 1000 F. Dew p p 130 In order to achieve this predetermined temperature, in the Somewhat higher values were assigned to sulfur and Preferred emb dimem pl' j invention PP nitrogen in solid waste to have a basis for describing the CamPrV1de5|" theproducel'zonefln3PFedeIel'mIYledSPaQed chemical reactions that will take place in incinerating material array 3 P of Producer Zone temperature Sensmg that may have sulfur and nitrogen content. means Such as thermocouples, adjacent 1 192 f l f f The properties of combustibles in solid waste were deterwall in t he producer zone of the incinerator chamber along the mined by consulting Charts on Average Properties of Solid path of the first transfer oscillating conveyor. Operatively Fuels, other than coal. The charts are based on the facts that responsive to each of the producer zone thermocouples, there is provided a producer zone air nozzle for directing a predetermined amount of producer air inwardly and downwardly in to the open pit incineration chamber to establish a vortex air flow pattern therein. The vortex established by the producer zone air has a substantially horizontal axis. that is, aligned in a direction parallel to the direction of travel of the transfer oscillating conveyors. The amount of air flowing from each noule is individually controlled by its cooperative temperature measuring means in order that in each of the zones between the screw feed and the remote end of the open pit incineration chamber the flame temperature is maintained within the predetermined temperature range.

Further, in the thermodynamic considerations of Applicants invention, the transfer oscillating conveyors contain a fire bed comprising a predetermined thickness of waste and refuse in various states of combustion. That is, for example, such a bed may be two feet or so thick and comprised of incombustible, ash, and combustible materials that have only been partially burned. Emanating from the fire bed, of course, is the flame in the open pit incineration chamber and it is the flame temperature that is measured by the thermocouples or other temperature measuring means provided. The fire bed and the flame together, may be considered a gas producing zone and in this zone it is desired to provide gaseous products of incomplete combustion from the solid combustible materials contained within the waste and refuse that is fed into the open pit incineration chamber.

While conventional gas producers attempt to maintain comparatively low temperatures so that combustible gases are produced thereby, in Applicants invention, of course, materials having a high surface-to-volume such as newspaper sheets and the like, may be conveniently burned to products of complete combustion in the gas producer zone. However, within the controlled temperature range maintained in the gas producer zone, these carbon products of complete combustion take up additional carbon and evolve as CO. When water vapor (H O) is present in the reducing fire zone, the reaction is C H O CO H The CO can take up additional C to make 2 CO. This reaction depends essentially on temperature maintained. Of course, material such as tree stumps, telephone poles and the like will, in general, according to the principles of Applicants invention herein, not be combusted into products of complete combustion within the gas producer zone, but, rather, will be burned to products of incomplete combustion regardless of the number of passes through the open pit incineration chamber required. This is achieved by maintaining the temperature of the flame at such a value that a commonality of fuel-to-air ratio may be predicted based upon the statistical analysis of the contents of the waste and refuse and therefore the air flow adjusted to a predetermined amount in order that the flame temperature is maintained within this predetermined temperature range.

In the preferred embodiment of the present invention there is provided a water-cooled barrier having a predetermined shape and positioned between the above-mentioned gas producer zone and the furnace zone. In the furnace zone, the gases that are produced in the producer zone are burned to products of complete combustion. Preferably, the combustion in the furnace zone is also achieved at a preselected steadystate set-point temperature.

The above-mentioned barrier comprises baffles attached to the side walls of the incineration chamber at the top of the gas producer zone and, in effect, the bafiles define the upper limits of the gas producer zone. The baffles present an orifice in which the exit area for the gases produced in the producer zone is reduced. The reduction in orifice area increases the escape velocity that is desired for gases entering the furnace zone and the subsequent heat exchange area. The predetermined shape of the baffles provides a means for controlling the flame elongation in the producer zone. Additionally, the

physical separation provided by the baffles shapes the gases in (reducing) flames and thereby providing uniform temperature distribution throughout the producer zone. Such uniform temperature distribution in the producer zone adds greatly to the life of the refractory materials utilized to line the producer zone.

It has been found that the increased surface area provided by the baffles between the producer zone and the furnace zone provides an additional impingement surface for entrained particulate matter in the gas stream that follows the periphery or side walls of the producer zone. Particulate matter, having mass, tends to be thrust due to centrifugal force outwardly to impinge upon the side walls of the incineration chamber defining the producer zone. The shape of the baffles is selected to provide a profile that tends to maintain the integrity of the vortex flow pattern to achieve this centrifugal force upon the particulate matter. The orifice area provided by the baffles provides an additional barrier for particulate matter entrained in the producer gas to inhibit the entrance of such particulate matter to the furnace zone. Particulate matter entrained in the producer gas laminar flow pattern, having mass, must lose inertia in order to deviate and rise at a right angle into the furnace zone. To do so, the escaping particulate matter must then further penetrate the producer zone air stream. Both of these actions are difficult for such particulate matter to achieve and, therefore, most particulate matter will be retained in the producer chamber for recirculation within the producer zone. The baffles are preferably water cooled in order that refractory roof, bridge walls, arches or the like may be eliminated from the structure defining the incineration chamber. This tends to reduce considerably the initial cost of construction as well as subsequent maintenance and repair.

It has been found that structural separation provides a plurality of advantages in actual operation. Such structural separation between the furnace zone and the producer zone provides a structure for allowing utilization of special techniques for controlling and changing gas velocities. The furnace zone size can be reduced due to a more rapid and positive means of changing the combustion atmosphere from a reducing to an oxidizing state. The orifice size and location can be selective whereby the highest and localized gas escape velocities through the unrestricted cross-sectional area of the orifice can be brought down closer to the average escape velocity. The above-mentioned gain in retention of particulate matter in the producer zone is achieved since the gases are prevented from entering the furnace zone en masse through laminar flow with the bulk of the gas having an excessively high escape velocity and the remainder of the gas having an extremely low escape velocity. Even though the average escape velocity may be acceptable, uneveness of gas flow tends to prevent a good mixing with the air in the furnace zone.

There are provided a plurality of furnace zone temperature sensing elements each controlling an adjacent furnace zone air nozzle that provides air into the furnace zone for the combustion of the gases to products of complete combustion. The furnace zone temperature sensors providing the control to the furnace zoned air are independent of the temperature sensing functions and control functions achieved in the producer zone and thus the two air supplies, even though they may be from a common header, are independently controllable so that independent control of the set-point temperature for combustion in the producer zone and in the furnace zone may be achieved regardless of the varying calorific value of solid waste feedstock.

Hydrocarbon and carbohydrate gases and vapors of varying calorific content are the normal resulting products from combustion of liquid and solid waste, having varying calorific value, in the producer zone. The present invention has the capability to synthesize these gases, through temperature control, in order to have the same enthalpies and common limits of inflammability (volume per volume with air) to make a product of complete combustion. However, different volumes of gases having the same enthalpies per cubic feet require different quantities of air that are commensurate with their respective volumetric requirements to make a product of complete combustion in the furnace zone. As a means of explanation, methane equilibrium refers to gases of the so-called hydrocarbon chain. Methane (CH.) is the lowest in order of the hydrocarbon chain. Methane requires less air than any other hydrocarbon to achieve its highest temperature and it is lowest in calorific value. Methane has a minimum requirement of 9.5 parts of air to 1 part of methane to be burned to a product of complete combustion. Ethylene (C H.) has a minimum requirement of 14.28 pans of air to 1 part of ethylene to be burned to a product of complete combustion. Ethane (C H has a minimum requirement of 16.66 parts of air to 1 part of ethane to be burned to a product of complete combustion. Their respective B.t.u. content per ft. is 995, 1560 and 1730. The respective B.t.u. content per ft. of CO and H is 318 320 and their respective minimum air requirements are both 2.38 l.

Among the gases that normally evolve from heterogeneous liquid and solid waste fuels in the producer zone are methane (CH ethylene 0 m and ethane (C H These gases, when evolved in a temperature range between 2000 F. and 2550 R, will have common limits of inflammability among themselves and with CO and H For example, the synthesis that permits this will be methane (CH to C 2H., ethylene above gases can then be burned to a product of complete combustion with a common fuel to air ratio. Other hydrocarbons and carbohydrates will essentially follow the same pattern. Any part of these combustible gases that are not altered to have common limits of-inflammability will not be burned to a product of complete combustion. The above-stated, altered gases per unit volume will now have the same air requirement as CO and H namely, a minimum requirement of 2.38 parts of air to 1 part of gas in order to be burned to a product of complete combustion. This condition will exist for the altered gases in an air-gas mixture that is within the wide and parallel limits of inflammability that exist for CO and H The air-gas mixture in the furnace zone will determine the temperature and enthalpy (calorific value of the gas per unit volume) for combustion to a product of complete combustion.

However, when the gas has achieved steady state temperature and enthalpy and the attendant capability of being burned with a common fuel to air ratio to a product of complete combustion, there remains another problem in burning the gas to a product of complete combustion in the furnace zone. The volume of gas generated in the producer zone will vary directly with the calorific value of the constantly varying calorific value of the liquid and solid waste fuel for a given setpoint temperature maintained, as shown by Table Xlll, XIV,

(C H to 2C 2H and ethane (C H to 2C 3H All of the XV, XVI and XVII.

TABLE XIII EFFECT 0 AIR FACTOR 2000 B'll'llzfi [C WASTE PRODUCT Percent A V I 3 v Tern erature of Excess Air 101. of "ob BTU/Ft Air Solid Rc ired comb. cars of Combust. combustion Air Factor Fuel Ft. 4% Fuel Ft:. gas C gcrngerature Air Factor 1.0 1 pound of waste Note: is air required to burn product.

Percent: A V I 3 Temperature of Excess I'rir Vol. of Net: BTU/Fe. r

Air Solid Required Comb. Gas of Combusc. combustion Air Factor Fuel Pt. I} Fuel Ft. Gas C /V Temperature 1.0 0 A 44 V 57.6 I 69.4 2070 1.2 13 53 66.6 60 2500 1.5 27.6 66 79.6 50.2 2225 1.6 31 70.5 84 47.5 2130 liotc: Air Factor I 1.0 is air required to burn 1 pound of waste product.

Percent A V I Temperature of Excess .11: vol. of Jet BTU/Pt. "9 Air Solid Re irod Comb. gas of Combust. combustion Air Factor Fuel Ft. Fuel Ft. G as (I /V Enperature 1.0 Il 62 V 73.5 I 01.5 3210 1.2 14 74.5 36.0 70 2570 1.4 .3 38 60 2670 1.6 33 )3 110 54.5 2470 Note: Air Factor 1.0 is 'air required to burn 1 pound or waste roduct.

EFFECT OF AIR FACTOR 3000 BTU a' C WASTE PRODUCT Percent A V I 3 Temperature of Excess Air vol. of Jet BTU/Ft. F Air Solid Reqp red Comb. Gas of Combust. combustion Air Factor Fuel Ft. Fuel Ft-.. Gas C../V Temperature 1.0 o n no.0 v 29.2 1 09.7 3450 1.2 15.0 '36 105 76 3120 1.4 26.4 112 121.2 66.0 2000 1.6 35 120 137 53.5 2510 Note: Air Factor 1.0 is air required to burn 1 pound of waste product.

TABLE XVII EFFECT OF AIR FACTOR 12 000 BTU a" Percent A V I Temperature or mcess Air Vol. of wet m'u/re. F Au: Solid Reqgired comb. gas of Combust. combustion Arr Factor Fuel Ft. Fuel Ft. Gas C Q Temperature 1.0 0 A 117. V 121 I 93.0 3665 1.2 16.2 140.5 144.5 33 3360 1.4 27.9 164 167.5 71.5 2620 1.6 37 S7 191 62.5 2545 Note:

1 pound of waste product Air Factor 1.0 is air required to burn Therefore, it does not insure that the varying volumes of gas can be burned to a product of complete combustion in the furnace zone with a fixed quantity of air. The limits of inflammability of CO and H are wide, but may not be sufflciently wide to encompass the great variance in volume encountered in steady-state temperature and enthalpy gases. that can be generated from heterogeneous liquid and solid waste.

It is for the above reason that temperature should also be sensed in the furnace zone in order that the proper volume of air be provided to insure that the varying volumes of comrespective quantities of air and gases that are indicated in Table XI.

AIR IRHIEN'IS (volume per Unit Volume) COMBUSTION PRODUCTS Gas 3 BTU/fc. Air e 11 0 11 Total Pt. 5 [1 ft. I FE! wet:

ca to c 21-1 995 9.52 1.00 2.00 7.52 10.52

c 11 to 2c 211 1560 14.28 2.00 2.00 1.1.28 1.5.28

1 to 2c an 1730 16.66 2.00 3.00 13.16 18.16

The original calorific value (B.t.u. content) of a gas determined the quantity of air required to burn it to a product of complete combustion, even if synthesis has occurred where common limits of inflammability have been established with other gases. It is obvious that even if I ft. of C I-I. is changed to an elemental mixture of 2C 2H more air will still be required to make a product of complete combustion than is required in making a product of complete combustion from 1 ft. ofCO.

Therefore, as described below in greater detail, for the present statistical analysis of waste and refuse products Applicant prefers to provide a flame temperature in each region of the gas producer zone of the open pit incineration chamber as determined by the plurality of temperature measuring means within a range of 2000 F. and 2500 F. Above this temperature, it is indicated, there will be disassociation of certain of the products of combustion. Below this temperature, of course, the products of complete combustion will not be generated but rather products of incomplete combustion will be allowed to be emitted into the atmosphere.

In certain embodiments of Applicants invention, Applicant prefers to provide a conventional steam powered electric generator arrangement for providing energy to power the compressor needed for the air supplies, the control arrangements, and the energy needed for operating the various mechanical structures. Heat exchangers, deriving heat-from the incinerator flue gas, provide the steam source. The steam power generator may drive other power sources such as electric motors.

In the preferred embodiments of the present invention, the above-mentioned incineration arrangement may be effectively combined with expansion chambers, heat exchangers and gas scrubbers and absorbers to ensure that the gases emitted into the atmosphere are nonpollutant gases.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a block diagram of Applicants approved incineration arrangement;

FIG. 2 is a perspective view thereof;

FIG. 3, 4,5, and 6 are sectional views of portions thereof;

FIG. 7 is an end sectional view thereof;

FIG. 8 is an isometric view thereof; and

FIGS. 9, 10 and 11 are sectional views of portions thereof.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Applicants invention. There is provided a refuse and waste input feed arrangement 12 that transfers a heterogeneous mass of waste and refuse into an open pit incineration chamber 14. The waste and refuse within the open pit incineration chamber 14 is subjected to predetermined thermodynamically controlled combustion as controlled by the temperature measurement, feed rate, air and water control means 16. The open pit incineration chamber I4-is also provided with a solid incombustible material output 18 for removal of solid incombustibles from the open pit incineration chamber. Further, gaseous products of complete combustion generally indicated by the arrow 20 leave the open pit incineration chamber.

An air supply 22 which, of example, may be an air compressor, is utilized to supply both air in response to the control 16 as well as secondary air to the waste and refuse input feed arrangement. In this embodiment of Applicant's invention an electric motor 24 is utilized to drive the air supply 22 and power for the electric motor 24 is provided by a conventional steam generator-steam turbine arrangement indicated at 26 comprising the steam generator 28, the steam turbine 30 and the condenser 32 for driving an electrical generator 34 that provides the electrical energy to drive the electric motor 24 as well as for all internal control arrangements and mechanical drives as required by the input feed or in the open pit incineration chamber 14. It will be appreciated, of course, that the arrangement shown for the embodiment of Applicant's invention illustrated in FIG. I is substantially independent of any outside source of power. That is, the completely self-contained unit may be conveniently located wherever desired without reference to appropriate power supply requirements.

In order to more fully understand and appreciate Applicants invention herein, Applicant will describe first the structural elements comprising Applicants improved open pit incineration arrangement and then will describe the thermodynamic controls imposed thereon for burning waste and refuse.

THE WASTE AND REFUSE INPUT FEED There is shown, referring now to FIG. 2, a perspective view of a schematic representation of Applicant's improved open pit incineration arrangement. As shown on FIG. 2 the waste and refuse input feed means 12 is comprised of a feed oscillating conveyor 36 that receives on the upper surface 38 thereof unclassified and heterogeneous liquid and solid waste and refuse from the appropriate collection vehicles. It is important to the economical practice of Applicant's invention herein that such waste and refuse may be fed directly into Applicants improved incineration arrangement without prior classification, homogenization, or the like.

The feed oscillating conveyor 36 transfers the waste and refuse to a screw feed 40. While it will be appreciated that many types of screw feeds may be conveniently utilized in Applicants invention herein, Applicant has found particular economic operation with an Archimedean screw for the screw feed means 40. That is, within the internal diameter of the screw means 40 there is provided a spiral wall and the screw means 40 is then rotated so that material is transferred within the internal diameter thereof. It is, of course, necessary that any solid waste introduced into the incineration arrangement 10 be positively conveyed into the incineration chamber 14 by the input feed arrangement 12. It is highly improbable that representative heterogeneous solids waste and refuse can be conveyed without stoppage through any feed system having an opening through which the heterogeneous solid waste must be forced. That is, such opening will, invariably, at one time or another clog to restrict or stop the flow of solid waste into the incineration chamber 14. For example, representative solid waste and refuse may contain anything from a telephone pole with climbing cleats attached thereto to a portion of a truck frame. While the input feed arrangement 12 may readily accept the telephone pole, it may become clogged because the climbing cleats can hook onto the feeding arrangement 12; In

the event that this occurs. any solid waste behind the telephone pole must be removed before the telephone pole can be withdrawn. Similarly. in the case of a truck chassis or portion thereof, the aperture may be just too small to accept that large a piece of waste orrefuse.

Applicant has found that an Archimedean screw conveyor is less subject to blockage and stoppage than most other types of conveyors and, accordingly, Applicant prefers to use an Archimedean screw in the conveyance of the waste and refuse from the input oscillator conveyor 36 to the open pit incineration chamber 14. The Archimedean screw conveyor conveys material through a revolving tubular cylinder in which there is provided an internal screw or ribbon mounted on the internal surfacethereof. Such a conveyor can easily transfer material at the same level, to a greater level or a lower level than the input. It will be appreciated that the Archimedean screw conveyor provides a positive displacement up to the depth of the spiral ribbon or screw thread therein and provide surface contact conveyances for material resting above the height of the ribbon. Therefore, it is apparent, in the Archimedean screw that it can carry and convey material in either direction depending upon the direction of rotation thereof. A typical Archimedean screw conveyor 40 is illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 4. As shown on FIGS. 3 and 4 the Archimedean screw 40 comprises a cylindrical wall 42 having a screw thread or rivet 44 at a predetermined pitch and predetermined height coupled to the interior surface 46 thereof.

Waste and refuse to be burned within the incineration chamber 14 is conveyed into the Archimedean screw 40 by the input feed oscillating conveyor 36. The waste and refuse may be generally indicated as at 48-and passes through an entrance ring 50 to the interior 52 of the Archimedean screw 40, which rotates about an axis 54. Rotation of the Archimedean screw 40 in the direction indicated by the arrow 56 will transfer the waste and refuse 48 from the entrance ring 50 to the discharge end 58 thereof that is positioned within the incineration chamber 14. I

The Archimedean screw conveyor provides highly economical operation when combined with Applicants improved incineration arrangement. That is, the structure of an Archimedean screw conveyor minimizes the down time or inoperative time due to clogging or jamming. For example, if a telephone pole complete with climbing cleats is pulled into the conveyor by its rivet screw action, the operator of the conveyor can, if he desires, reject the pole by reversing the direction of rotation. The climbing cleats cannot stop this reversal as it can with other types of screw feed arrangements and, consequently follow the contour of the rivets. Therefore, the resistance to reverse drive cannot be greater than the resistance to drive from the entrance ring to the discharge 58.

Since the climbing cleats follow the contours of the rivet screw 44, it is easily rejected by reverse rotation. Similarly, such reversal to drive the hypothetical telephone pole in a backward direction opposite to the direction indicated by the arrow 60 which is the normal feed direction, will also move any solid waste and refuse that is behind it, over it or under it.

On the other hand, if a truck chassis has a small portion that moves from the feed oscillating conveyor 36 into the interior 52 of the Archimedean screw 40 and then has a dimension larger than the aperture 62 in the entrance ring 50 the operator can merely reverse the direction of rotation of the Archimedean screw 40 to reject the truck chassis. For example, the Archimedean screw 40 may be driven through gear means 64 coupled to the external wall surface 66 of the wall 42 by matching gear 68 rotated by electric motor 70. The electric power motor 70 is preferably operated in either direction so that the direction of rotation of the Archimedean screw 40 may be comparatively easily changed.

The Archimedean screw also uniquely controls the feed rate of material into the incinerator chamber 14. That is, by the depth of the rivet or screw thread 44, its pitch, and the peripheral speed of the Archimedean screw 40, uniquely define the feed rate. It will be appreciated that the pitch of the rivet or screw thread 44 may be varied throughout the axial length of the Archimedean screw 40. This may provide. if desired, different speeds, heights of travel and agitation during the transfer.

Paddle 70 may, if desired, be attached to the rivet or screw thread 44, or to the interior wall surface 46, to increase the lifting travel height of material beyond their respective normal angles of repose. Further, such paddles often aid in reverse classification which, by definition, is the lifting of material of lowest specific gravity on top of the material of higher specific gravity. That is, in reverse classification the less dense material is on top and the more dense material is on the bottom. For example, if a brick is resting on a piece of paper between portions of the rivet or screw thread 44 and adjacent to the interior wall surface 46, during rotation the paper must continue to climb along the side of the surface 46 so long as the brick rests on it. The brick cannot climb higher nor further than the paper under it. Once the brick looses its angle of repose, the paper is then free to fall backward and, in general, will fall backward on top of the brick and the paper is not inclined to get under the brick again because it does not have the ability to penetrate a denser mass to get under it. As the paper falls away from the periphery of the wall surface 46, and goes toward the interior of the interior 52, it is removed from that part of the Archimedean screw conveyor 40 with the greatest peripheral speed, hence the greatest climbing rate. Thus, free paper will tend to remain in the center resting on the top of the denser material because it has been displaced from the confines of positive physical agitation provided by the spiral rivet 44 or the lifter paddle 70.

If desired, the entrance ring 50 may be provided with air ports 72 through which secondary air indicated by the arrow 74 is fed into the interior 52 of the Archimedean screw 40. It will be appreciated that while Applicant shows the secondary air being directed through the entrance ring 50, it may be also supplied at any axial station along the Archimedean screw 40. The secondary air flow 74 tends to feed the lighter material such as paper which may be readily airborne, into the incineration chamber at a rate faster than the normal feed rate of the Archimedean screw 40 and, further, aid in the rapid combustion of such materials to products of complete combustion within the incineration chamber, as described below in greater detail.

As noted above, the Archimedean screw may be driven by the electric motor 71 and supported in bearings 73.

In the preferred embodiment of Applicants invention, the entrance ring 50 is a split ring construction comprised of a first half 74 and a second half 76 each of which are hinged, respectively, by the hinges 78 and 80 to appropriate supporting structure so that they may swing outwardly when desired to allow for comparatively easy reverse flow operations when the Archimedean screw conveyor 40 is operated in reverse.

Since the lighter material such as paper, as noted above, tends to remain along the upper surface 82 of the material contained within the interior 52 of the Archimedean screw conveyor 40, or the surface 82 which would be the level with the paddle 70 attached, it is conveyed into the open pit incineration chamber 14 by surface contact and therefore the secondary air flow 74 can accelerate the rate of travel of such materials through the feed structure.

THE INCINERATION CHAMBER The incineration chamber 14 as shown on FIG. 2 has an input end 86 and a remote end 88. The Archimedean feed screw 40 transmits the waste and refuse material into the input end 86. The open pit incineration chamber 14, within the confines thereof, burns the waste and refuse, in the manner hereinafter described, to products of complete combustion.

FIGS. 5, 6 and 7 illustrate various sectional views of the incineration chamber 14 and FIG. 8 is a perspective view, partially in section, thereof. Referring, then, to FIGS. 2, 5, 6, 7 and 8, it can be seen that the incineration chamber 14 is comprised of an outer shell 90 which, according to Applicants invention herein, may be concrete. Spaced apart inwardly therefrom is a liner wall 92 of ceramic tile for thermal refractory purposes. Thus, the walls of the incineration chamber 14 may be considered to be comprised. even though ofa double wall construction, of a pair of parallel spaced-apart sidewalls 94 and 96, an input end wall 98 and a rear wall 100. The Archimedean screw 40 is positioned to transmit waste and refuse into the interior 102 of the incineration chamber 14 through the feed wall 98 adjacent to feed end 86. The waste and refuse leaves the Archimedean screw feed 40 and, except for those airborne portions thereof that are blown into the interior 102 of the incineration chamber 14, fall upon plate 104 which, in turn, transmits the solid waste and refuse to the first oscillating conveyor hearth 106 forming a portion of the base 108 of the incineration chamber 14. The oscillator conveyor hearth 106 may be of the type manufactured by Link-Belt Company under the name of Flexmount, Coilmount," or Torqmount oscillating conveyors. The oscillator conveyor hearth 106 moves the waste and refuse in a direction indicated by the arrow 110 from the front wall 98 to the rear wall 100. Reciprocating motion of the oscillating hearth 106 in the direction indicated by the double ended arrows 118 continually move the waste and refuse in the direction indicated by the arrow 110 due to the continuous feed of waste and refuse into the incineration chamber 14 from the Archimedean screw 40. A fire bed 120 is maintained on the oscillating hearth 106 and the material falling thereon and moving in the direction indicated by the arrow 110 is adapted to be burned within the confines of the incineration chamber 14. If the material is not burned to gaseous products and incombustible products after the first traversal of the incineration chamber 14 on the first oscillating hearth 106 it is recycled in a direction opposite hereto by the second oscillating hearth 122. The second oscillating hearth 122 may be similarly constructed to the first oscillating hearth 106. Similarly, the feed oscillating conveyor 36 may also be similarly constructed.

At the end of the oscillating hearth 106 adjacent to the rear wall 90 there is provided a banked turn 124 so that the normal angle of repose of the material as it is forced therearound by the continuous feed forces the as yet unburned material from the oscillating hearth 106 to the second oscillating hearth 122. The second oscillating hearth 122 moves the material in the direction indicated by the arrow 124 towards the first wall 98 where there is provided a second banked turn 130 that redirected the unburned material onto the first oscillating hearth 106 in regions adjacent the end of the plate 104. Material contained upon the oscillating hearth 106 and 122 are thus continuously recycled within the open pit incineration chamber 14 until they may be removed, as desired, through grate portions 132 in first oscillating hearth 106 or grate portion 134 in second oscillating hearth 122. The dynamics of the movable grates 132 and 134 is described below in greater detail in connection with FIGS. 9, and 11.

As shown in detail in FIGS. 9, 10, 11, each of the oscillating hearths 106 and 122 are provided with moveable grates 132 and 134, respectively, to allow removal of material from the chamber 14 as may be desired. The grate 132 is mounted for reciprocating movement with hearth 106, for example, and is also mounted for reciprocating movement in the direction indicated by the arrow 200. As depicted on FIG. 11, the grate 132 has a first end 202 adjacent on edge 204 of an aperture 206 in the hearth 106. A motor 208 is coupled to the underside 210 of the hearth 106 and rotates screw drive shaft 212 in the directions indicated by the arrow 214. The screw drive shaft 212 has a threaded portion 216 engaging a nut 218 coupled to the underside 220 of the grate 206. The screw drive shaft 212 is rotatably supported in the bearings 222. Rotation of the screw drive shaft 212 moves the grate 132 in the directions indicated by the arrow 200 to open and close the aperture 206 in the hearth 106 as desired. Operation of the motor 208 may be manually controlled.

As shown in FIGS. 9 and 10, the grate 132 is supported on flanges 224 of supports 226 by wheeled guides 228. The guides 228 are coupled to cross member 230. 232 and 234 on each side thereof to control the path of movement of the grate 132.

When the grate 132 is opened, the end 236 thereof moves away from edge 238 of aperture 206 in hearth I06 and towards the edge 204 as close as desired to open up as large a portion of the aperture 206 as desired. Thus, any solid material burned to product of complete combustion or anything else in the fire bed 120 or 134 may be removed in removal pit 166.

As indicated on FIG. 9, the grate 134 may be similar to the grate 132.

A plurality of producer zone temperature measuring means such as thermocouples 140 are positioned in spaced-apart relationship adjacent the baffle means 302a on the sidewall 94 of the incineration chamber 14. As described below in greater detail, the thermocouples 140 measure the producer 'zone flame temperature and control the producer air flow into the interior volume of the producer zone 170 of the incineration.

- chamber 14. The producer air flow is directed into the an angle approximately to generate the vortex 147 therein.

The producer zone temperature control 16 receives the signal from the producer zone thermocouple and controls the nozzle 144, for example by means of a motor operated valve 146 to control the amount of producer air injected into the producer zone 170 thereby. Air is supplied to each of the nozzles 144 from common air header 148.

Additionally, a plurality of producer zone water spray nozzles 150 are provided adjacent each of the producer air nozzles 144 for directing a stream of water into the producer zone of the incineration chamber 14. These producer water nozzles 150 are supplied by water header 154 and are utilized as an emergency condition to prevent any exceptionally high temperature from causing damage to the structure. For example, if a load of magnesium happened to be contained within the waste and refuse on the oscillating hearth 106, the sudden combustion of the magnesium could be deleterious to the structure without proper cooling efforts.

Ash gutters 160, 162 and 164 are positioned adjacent the longitudinal edges of the first oscillating hearth 106 and second oscillating hearth 122 as indicated in FIG. 7. These may be arranged to empty into removal pit 166 where the materials from the grates 132 and/or 134 are dumped so that they may be removed therefrom for further processing to recover any desired constituents thereof.

For clarity, the steamgenerator system 26 has been omitted from FIGS. 2, 5, 6 and 7. However, as indicated by the block 26 on FIG. 5, the heat exchanger for steam generator may be positioned above the open pit incinerator 14 so that the water flowing therethrough may be converted into superheated steam for operation of the steam turbine 30, as shown on FIG. 1 and as described above.

The above description of the structure associated with this embodiment of Applicants invention is combined with a predetermined thermodynamic control to achieve the economic combustion to products of complete combustion of the combustible matter within the waste and refuse.

THERMODYNAMIC ZONES OF COMBUSTION As shown most clearly on FIG. 7, according to Applicants invention herein, there are provided two separate and independently controllable zones of combustion in Applicant's invention. That is, there is first provided the gas producer zone generally designated 170 and a furnace zone generally designated 172. The gas producer zone is a zone, in which, primarily, the highest specific gravity combustibles contained within the waste and refuse fed into the incineration chamber 14 are combusted to gaseous products of incomplete combustion and solid incombustibles. That is, for example, a tree stump which is a rather massive combustible that may be contained within the waste and refuse has a fairly low surface area to mass ratio, and, consequently, will make several cycles through the incineration chamber 14 before it is combusted. in the gas producer zone 170 this tree stump, for example, is burned to products of incomplete combustion and to residual ash. The base of the gas producer zone 170 may be considered to be comprised of the fire bed portion 120 and the producer zone 170 also comprising the flame portion 174. The thermocouples 140 are positioned to measure the flame 174 temperature and to control the producer air flow through producer air nozzles 144 in response thereto to maintain the flame temperature within a predetermined temperature range as described below. it will be appreciated, however, that the lighter combustible products fed through the Archimedean screw that may be airborne due to the secondary air flow 74, normally, will comprise light papers, light rags or similar very high surface area-to-mass ratio elements which are frequently burned directly to products of complete combustion within the gas producer zone and then again join the heat of reaction with carbon to rapidly make combustible gas. Thus, Applicant can equally provide a controllable different rate of progress between the fast burning and slow burning solid combustible waste and refuse during progress through the incineration chamber 14. In any event, however, both slow and fast burning solid wastes may be simultaneously reduced to mixed gases that are amenable to complete combustion when mixed with the proper amounts of air at the right temperature.

In furnace zone 172 which may be considered to comprise the region above the baffle means 302 the products of incomplete combustion are reacted to complete combustion products while escaping therethrough. The gaseous products generated within the gas producer zone 170 must, of course, escape by passing through a gas flow passage such as the orifice 310 defined by the baffle means 302 comprised of baffles 302a and 302b, coupled to interior sidewalls 94a, and 96a, respectively.

A separate furnace air supply to the furnace zone 172 is provided by furnace air hozzles 304 which are independently controlled through furnace temperature control 16' operating, for example, motorized valves 306. Furnace temperature control 16 receives input signals from furnace temperature measuring means 308 which, for example, may comprise thermocouples and be substantially similar to the producer temperature sensing means 140. The furnace zone air furnished through furnace zone air nozzle 304 comes from the common air header 148. Thus, predetermined set-point temperatures may be maintained in the furnace zone 172 independently of the reactions taking place within the gas producer 170.

The baffle means 302 extend throughout the length of the incinerator chamber 14 along the interior walls 94a and 96a a predetermined shape that is generally, as far as the lower surfaces 302' thereof, arcuately concave downwards to define the upper boundary of producer zone 170. Baffle means 302 extend a predetermined distance over the base means 114. The upper surfaces 302" which define the lower boundary of furnace zone 172 are generally also arcuately concave downwards to aid in the producer air flow from producer air nozzles 144 to achieve the vortex 147. The baffle means 302 define the orifice 310 having a preselected area between the producer zone 170 and furnace zone 172. The producer zone inlet air from the producer zone inlet air nozzles 144 enters the producer zone 170 to generate the vortex 147 from above the baffle means 302. The flame 174 andgases escape from the producer zone 170 through the orifice 310 into the furnace zone 172. Thus, the baffle means 302 generally comprise the upper portion of the gas producer zone 170 but since they are coupled to the walls and preferably water cooled through apertures 302a therein, structural supports such as arches, refractories, or the like are not required and they may be fabricated from sheet metal. First walls 309 comprising the leading edges 355 and 356 of the baffle means 302 provide the preselected area of the orifice 310 which is generally reduced from the width of the gas producer zone 170. This reduction in width provided by the preselected orifice area increases the escape velocity of the flames I74 and gases generated within the producer zone entering the furnace zone 172.

A predetermined shape of the baflles 302 defined. particularly, by the lower surface 302', also provides a means for controlling the flame elongation and the shape of the flow patterns for the flow in the gas producer zone 170. It is generally preferred to provide laminar flow in order to achieve more controllable, long, luminous (reducing) flames and thereby provide more uniform temperature distribution. Such uniform temperature distribution in the producer zone adds greatly to the life of the refractory materials utilized to line the producer zone. It has also been found that the increased surface area provided by the lower surfaces 302 of the baffle means 302 as the upper boundary of producer zone 170 provides an additional impingement surface for entrained particulate matter in the gas stream that follows the periphery of the sidewalls of the producer zone 170 impinging thereon due centrifugal force exerted in the vortex 147. The shape of the baffle means 302 as shown also tend to maintain the integrity of the vortex flow pattern in order to achieve the centrifugal force upon the particulate matter.

Thus, the orifice 310 area provided by the baffle means 302 ensures an additional barrier for particulate matter and matter entrained in the producer gas to inhibit the entrance of such particulate matter into the furnace zone 172. Particulate matter that may be entrained in the producer gas laminar flow pattern, having mass, must therefore, lose inertia in order to deviate from the direction provided by the lower surfaces 302 of the baffles 302 in order to rise through the orifice 310 into the furnace zone 172. To do so, additionally, the escaping particulate matter must then further penetrate the producer air flow provided by the producer air nozzles 144. Both of these actions are difficult for the particulate matter to achieve and thus more particulate matter tends to be retained in the producer chamber for recirculation within the producer zone 170.

Thus, in this invention, independent temperature control is provided for both the producer zone 170 and furnace zone 172. This has been found to be advantageous in many applications of the invention and comprises an improvement over the invention described and claimed in the above-mentioned U.S. Letters Pat. No. 3,465,696. It will be noted that U.S. Pat. No. 3,465,696, Table VII Data Derived from Enthalpy-Temperature Diagram" provides an example showing the various quantities of total air required in making a product of complete combustion from solid waste having a net calorific value of 6000 B.t.u. per pound. The example demonstrates that different quantities of air provide different temperatures in both the producer zone and the furnace zone. In all cases, air metered to the producer zone was derived from total air as shown in column entitled Total air for product of complete combustion, ft. The remaining air required to make a product of complete combustion at different temperatures in furnace zone is shown in Table Vll under column Air for secondary combustion, ft?" is arbitrarily delivered to a furnace zone or may be delivered off-site for a combustible mix in such as a reverberatory furnace. While many incineration arrangements can be operated satisfactorily in accordance with the structure described and claimed in US. Letters Pat. No. 3,465,696, more precise control provided by the independently controllable furnace air and producer air achieves a greaterlevel of efficiency in the incineration of a wider range of waste products. As noted below, independent temperature sensing and air metering for the furnace zone 172 reduces the mechanical complication that is brought about through arbitrary division of air in making a product of complete combustion if water or steam is used in the furnace zone to accelerate the combustion rate of particulate matter. Independent temperature sensing and air metering control provides greater latitude and less complication than provided by arvarying throughout the length thereof in the incinerator 14 but the plurality of temperature sensing means 140 to control the producer air 144 allows commensurate variation in the quantity and/or velocity of the producer air in each portion of the producer zone to provide controlled steady state temperature throughout the length thereof. Similarly, air flow into the furnace 172 through the furnace air nozzles 304 may also be controlled throughout the length of furnace zone 172 through the furnace temperature control 16' detecting the temperature through furnace temperature detector 308. Thus, automatic set point temperature can be maintained or altered independently in both chambers in spite of the varying and inconsistent calorific value of the waste products being burned in the combustion zones 120.

The upper surfaces 302" and lower surfaces 302' defining the baffles 302 may be substantially equivalent on each side of the incinerator chamber 14, or, as shown in FIG. 7, they may be different to provide any air flow and/or flame pattern that may be desired depending upon the position of the producer air nozzles 144 and the like.

Additionally, water nozzles 312 for supplying emergency control water to the furnace zone 172, as shown in H6. 7, may also be fed directly from a common water header 154 and the furnace zone nozzles 312 supply the same function for the furnace zone 172 as the producer water nozzles 150 do for the producer zone 170. The use of water in the furnace zone is more important to exploit the fact that microscopic carbon particulate matter can be gasified at a greatly increased rate in the presence of H 0 vapor. Any practical set-point temperature can be maintained in the furnace zone when H O liquid is added if the air quantity is reduced to compensate for the heat loss incurred in changing H O liquid to H O vapor. Reduced air quantity increases flame temperature. (See Table V Maximum Flame Temperature of Gases in Air.)

Table VIII, above, shows the various constituents of solid waste and refuse from which are generated the, ultimately, products of complete combustion and solid incombustible products in Applicants improved incineration arrangement 10. It will be appreciated, of course, that this representative statistical analysis of waste and refuse products need not be constant but, according to Applicants invention herein, since the elements comprising the combustibles therein are substantially constant Applicants thermodynamic control will automatically account for variations in the percentage constituencies of calorific value and moisture content.

From Table Vlll it can be seen that if 2000 pounds of the solid waste has been burned and complete combustion thereof was obtained, that is, all combustible materials were burned to gaseous products of complete combustion and solid incombustibles, the solid incombustibles from the organic material would be 27.4 pounds of ash, the solid incombustibles would be 361.5 pounds from the inorganics or a grand total of 389.45 pounds of solid incombustibles. It will be appreciated, according to Applicants invention herein, that these solid incombustibles are inorganic, nongasifying and may be readily used for fill material or process for reclaiming of any material constituents contained therein.

The function of the furnace air is to supply to the products of incomplete combustion generated within the gas producer zone sufficient oxygen so that they may be burned to products of complete combustion. However, it will be appreciated that gas generated from the solid waste and refuse in the gas producing zone may evolve in various and continuously varying combination. However, since the elements comprising the solid combustibles waste products are in general known, a commonality of fuel and air may be readily attained according to Applicants invention herein. That is, a common fuel-to-air ratio may be maintained so that the proper amount of oxygen for the gases produced within the gas producer zone is supplied in the furnace zone Yd mime '16 'idfiits 6r complete combustion. With the typical analysis of solid waste and refuse as shown on Table VI", Application has determined that the gases generated in the gas producer zone which must be burned to products of complete combustion in the furnace zone are carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane and other gases of the hydrocarbon chain and hydrogen sulfide. Since these will be burned by air which is comprised generally of oxygen and nitrogen, Table Xll presents the characteristics and properties of all the gases concerned in the combustion process of Applicants improved invention.

TABLE XII PROPERTIES OE THE GASES CONCERNED IN THE COMBUSTION OF FUELS Calculated Holcc- Spccific ular Gravity Height (Air=l) Oxygen 0 32.00 1. 1044 Nitrogen 213. 17 9723 .6239 1257 .07446 Air 28.97 1.

Carbon Dioxide CO 44.

Carbon Monoxide CO 20. .9667 .0354

Hydrogen H 2.

Methane CH l6.

Water H 0 13.

Hydrogen sulphide H 5 34.082 1. 1763 4.621 1521 .09007 BASIS or mania:

al at 30 in. H

760 mm Hg Hg 1dr Dry .0489 142-) .08457 c. calorific Vlue and 60 ft:

3O 30 Combustion Sat'd o in Hg in Hg Regirement Combustion Products Sat 61 but 32 F & ang an Volumes per Unit Volume (includexclud- 760 mm 60 F 60 F Molecules per Molecule ing the ing the Hg dry Sat :1 Sat'd 0 Air CO 11 0 N Total [0121 water) water (gross! (gross! (Net! 2 2 (dry! (weg .08393 .0B310 molecule 359.00 ft.

Round values for calorific value at 30" Hg and F, saturated, representing most reliable data.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3785302 *Feb 11, 1972Jan 15, 1974Davis EIncinerators for pollution free burning of solid waste materials at low cost and with reduced possibility of accidental fire setting, often, transportable, portable, and/or semi permanently located
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US5513207 *Jan 9, 1995Apr 30, 1996Thermal Kinetic Systems, Inc.Melting furnace and method
US6352040 *Nov 22, 2000Mar 5, 2002Randall P. VoorheesMobile armored incinerator
US6862941Nov 13, 2002Mar 8, 2005Fm Global Technologies, LlcHeat flux measurement pipe and method for determining sprinkler water delivery requirement
US6910430 *Feb 17, 2004Jun 28, 2005Yao-Nan ChuoResources reclaiming apparatus
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US8444897Oct 30, 2007May 21, 2013University Of Utah Research FoundationBlending plastic and cellulose waste products for alternative uses
US20060027150 *Aug 4, 2004Feb 9, 2006O'connor Brian MAir curtain incinerator
US20060201406 *Jun 2, 2006Sep 14, 2006O'connor Brian MAir Curtain Incinerator
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US20130186384 *Jan 24, 2012Jul 25, 2013Thomas Russell KingTemperature Enhancing Air Plenum
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Classifications
U.S. Classification110/190, 110/215, 110/257, 110/203
International ClassificationF23G5/34
Cooperative ClassificationF23G5/34
European ClassificationF23G5/34