US 3563164 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent ['72] Inventors George A.Carkhufl  References Cited Somerville; UNITED STATES PATENTS hard 1026,987 511912 1161065 100/232x  W 808,053 2,960,927 11/1960 Aichelen 100/232 [221 14,196 3,371,599 3/1958 Tezuka 100/218 [451 f 161 1971 3,467,001 9/1969 1361111 100/232X 1 Asslgnee "W 3,481,268 12/1969 Price et a1 100/213X Bndgewater Township, Somerset County, FOREIGN PATENTS NJ.
998,428 7/1965 Great Br1ta1n 100/98 Primary Exnminer--Billy.l.Wi1hite  REFUSE COMPACTOR 8 Chin, 9 Drawing Figs. Attorney-Stowe" & Stowell  U.S.C1 100/98,
 lnt.C1 B30b 15/08, ABSTRACT: An apparatus for compacting refuse having a 1 B30b 15/32 chamber with horizontal and vertical compacting rams com- 1  Field ofSearch 141/71; municating therewith. The rams cooperate to sequentially 100/42, 98, 215, 218, 232, 246, 249, 269, 295; compress refuse for ultimate discharge from the chamber as a 53/124 uniform, discreet slug of compacted refuse.
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PATENTEU FEB 1 s 19w 1 sum 2- 0F 4 PATENTEUFEBI 6m SHEET R F REFUSE COMPACTOR SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to compactors for compressing refuse and particularly to a novel compactor for compressing the refuse prior to or subsequent to the incineration thereof.
The invention provides a versatile compactor which is particularly adapted for processing the refuse output of multiple dwelling units by furnishing a self-contained compactor unit readily adaptable for such installation.
The invention also provides a novel compactor with which existing refuse containers or multiple container systems can be used by furnishing a self-contained Compactor completely separate and independent of the container system.
This invention also produces compacted refuse in discreet slugs which are of a size and shape suitable for deposit in com mon refuse receptacles.
This invention further provides a novel compactor in which refuse is compacted to a minimum desired dimension and maximum density by furnishing a double ram apparatus, in which the refuse is initially compacted into a cylindrical slug by the first of the rams and in which the second of the rams, operating normal to the first ram,'reduces the slug to the desired thickness.
The invention also furnishes multiple ram refuse compactor providing maximum utilization of the refuse confining structure by accomplishing initial compaction of the refuse between the rams.
In a preferred embodiment, this invention provides a compactor having a horizontal compacting ram operating in a refuse receiving trough to initially compact refuse received therein into a cylindrical slug in a chamber at one end of the trough, a vertical compaction rarn which, in a first position, blocks the chamber to provide initial compaction of refuse in the trough between a sidewall thereof and the horizontal ram and which, in other positions, reduces the thickness of the slug of compacted compacted slug from the compactor.
These and other objects of this invention will become more apparent to those skilled in the art by reference to the following detailed description when viewedin light of the accompanying drawings in which like numerals throughout the FIGS. thereof indicate like components and wherein:
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a side elevational view of a compactor in accordance with the invention;
FIG. 2 is a top plan view of the compactor of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged, fragmentary sectional view of the compactor of FIG. I showing the mechanism thereof in a first operational configuration;
FIG. 4 is a view similar to FIG. 3 showing the mechanism thereof in another operational configuration;
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary sectional view of the compactor taken along the line 55 in FIG. 4; 1
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary view of the compactor taken along the line 6-6 of FIG. 3; I
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary sectional view of the compactor taken along the lines 7-7 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 8 is a fragmentary sectional view of the compactor taken along the line8-8 of FIG. 1; and
FIGS. 9a through 9g are schematic views illustrate illustrating the operation of the compactor of FIG. 1.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, a compactor in accordance with the invention is illustrated. The compactor comprises a support frame 10 having mounted thereon a horizontal compacting means indicated generally at 12 and a vertical compacting means generally shown at 14 disposed at one end thereof.
The horizontal compacting means 12 comprises a horizontal trough 16 having a reciprocable ram 18 disposed therein. A
refuse loading hopper 20 and a top plate 22 are disposed on the upper surface of the trough 16 to provide means to receive and feed refuse from an incinerator discharge or other source to the trough. A drive cylinder 24, hydraulically or pneumatically powered by a source of fluid pressure (not shown), is connected between the ram 18 and a brace 26, mounted across one end of the trough I6 to provide a means to reciprocate the ram in the trough. The ram 18 comprises a compacting face 28, arcuate about a vertical axis, a pair of rearwardly extending sidewalls 30 having lightning holes 32 therein, a rearwardly extending top wall 34 (FIG. 3), and a transverse plate 36 and braces 38 (FIG. 3) across the bottom of the ram.
An arcuate plate 40 is connected across the end of the trough I6 opposite the brace 26 to form an end wall therewith, and, when the ram 18 is extended, a cylindrical chamber 42 (FIG. 4).
The vertical compaction means 14 comprises a vertically oriented cylindrical housing 44, having a ram 46 coaxially disposed therein, mounted on the trough 16 in coaxial alignment with the chamber 42. A vertical ram drive cylinder 48, hydraulically or pneumatically powered by a source of fluid pressure (not shown), is mounted between the ram 46 and a top end plate 50 on the housing 44 to provide means to drive the ram into the chamber 42. The ram 46 comprises a transverse compacting face 52 having a rearwardly extending cylindrical skirt 54. The skirt is provided with a series of longitudinal, radially extending vanes 56 (FIGS. 3 and 4) which reinforce the skirt and center the ram 54 in spaced relationship to the interior surface of the housing 44 and the walls forming the chamber 42.
With more specific reference to FIGS. 3 and 4, a closure means 58 is disposed beneath the trough 16 to provide for selective closing of the bottom of the chamber 42. The mechanism comprises a door 60 slidable in lateral tracks 62 (best seen in FIGS. 6 and 7), formedalong the bottom of each side of the trough 16 and the end plate 40, between a retracted position (FIG. 3) and an extended chamber closing position (FIG. 4). A door stop 63 depends from the plate 40 to stop and support the door 60 in the extended position (FIG. 4). The bottom of the trough 16 is formed with a slot 64 in which a ram follower 66, depending from the braces 38. operates to follow the motion of the ram 18. A rod 68 is slidably disposed through the follower 66 and connected at the forward end to the door 60. A compression spring 70 is coaxially disposed around the rod 68 between the connection and the follower 66 to provide resilient interconnection between the door 60 and the ram 18. A stop 72 is disposed on the free end of the rod 66 for purposes to be described below.
A serrated cutting blade 74 is disposed across the upper surface of the trough 16 in advance of the chamber 42 to cooperate with the top edge of the ram face 28 and shear off excess refuse deposited in the trough as the ram 18 advances to the position of FIG. 4.
By means of programming devices actuating solenoid operated fluid control valves, as is well known in the art, the rams are sequentially actuated in stages to compress refuse, preferably, with reference to FIG. 9a through 9 according to the following sequence: 1
With the horizontal ram 18 retracted and the vertical ram 46 in a chamber occupying, blocking position as shown in FIG. 9a, refuse is received in the trough 16.
The cycle is initiated, upon filling of the trough 16, by actuation of the horizontal ram 18 to compress refuse 76 against the sidewall of the vertical ram 46 until the horizontal ram assumes the position of FIG. 9b. The spring 70, compressed by movement of the ram follower 66, moves the door 60 toward a closed position beneath the vertical ram 46.
In FIG. 9c, the vertical ram 46 is retracted, clearing the chamber 42 whereupon the horizontal ram 18 is fully extended to the position of FIG. 9d compressing the refuse 76 into a cylindrical slug in the chamber formed by the arcuate plate 40 and the arcuate face 28 of the ram 18 and fully closing the door 60.
The cylindrical slug of refuse 76 in the chamber is then reduced in thickness by actuation of the vertical ram 46 as seen in FIG. 9e. The amount of final compression of the refuse can be varied in this step, in accordance with the power requirements, the specifications of the user or the applicable codes law, or the requirements or limitations imposed by subsequent handling of the compacted refuse.
The horizontal ram 18 is next retracted, as seen in FIG. 9f,
- the ram follower 66 engaging the stop 72 to withdraw the door 60 from beneath the chamber 42.
In FIG. 9g, the vertical ram 46 is again downwardly actuated to discharge the finally-compacted slug '76 into a suitable receptacle whereupon the ram 46 is returned to the position of FIG. 9a for the next cycle. The cycles may be manually initiated or, if the requirements of the user so dictate, means known in the art may be provided to. automatically restart the cycle upon sensing of a predetermined load in the hopper 20.
Means may also be provided to sense a full container when the vertical ram 46 is in the position of FIG. 93 to terminate automatic recycling and/or, with the provision of an automatic container replacement means, actuate the container replacement means to index an empty container beneath the compactor discharge point.
Pressure limit switches to limit the maximum pressure on the compression strokes may also be incorporated in the comnactor control circuit to terminate or jog the control to the next step in the cycle in the event the device is overloaded by incompressible material. In the latter event, the compactor will be able to automatically clear itself'in most instances.
In a specific installation, a compactor has been constructed in which the compaction ratio is variable from the minimum of 3 l to a maximum of 6.4 1, (based on an uncompacted refuse density of 4.1 pounds per cubic foot). The compaction exceeding the 6.4 1 maximum can be achieved if operational experience so dictates.
In a preferred embodiment the basic compactor is manually actuated, electrically controlled and hydraulically operated.
ln the above installation, the compactor, having an overall unit height of 6'6 and a width of 18', powered by a completely self-contained system drawings drawing 208 volts and I amperes, produces a compacted-slug of refuse, approximately one-sixteenth the volume of the original refuse and approximately in diameter and 8" high with each single operating cycle. The standard size garbage can, to 28 gallons, will accommodate three compacted refuse slugs at a weight of approximately 68 pounds of refuse, so that a standard can will be filled after 3 cycles of the compactor.
In a 60-dwelling unit with an estimated population of 180 persons accumulating refuse at an estimated 1.5 to 2.5 pounds per capita per day, an uncompacted refuse volume per day of 66-110 cubic feet can be predicted. Compacting on a 6 1 basis, the volume of refuse will be reduced 1 1 to 20 cubic feet at a bulk density of 24.6 pounds per cubic foot. With the above operating cycle time and capacity, assuming the compacted refuse slug weighing about 20 pounds and having a volume of approximately 0.8 cubic feet, the total number of daily operating cycles required is anticipated to be in the range of 14 to cycles. Allowing one or-two minutes for container handling between every third compactor cycle, the total 46 daily operating time for the exemplary compactor system will be in the range of minutes to one hour. In the typical installation described, therefore, fully automatic unattended systems are not warranted, however, for larger apartment house units or for special circumstances where storage capacity for uncompacted refuse is minimal, a fully automated compactor operation may be incorporated.
What has been set forth above is intended to be as exemplary to enable those skilled in the art in the practice of the invention. It should, therefore, be understood, that within the scope of the appended claims, the invention may be practiced other than specifically described.
1. A refuse compactor comprising a chamber; first compacting means communicative with said chamber,
said first compacting means including a first ram having a face thereof movable between a retracted position spaced from said chamber, an intermediate compacting position and a final compacting position coincident with and forming one wall of said chamber;
second compacting means communicative with said chamber, said second compacting means including a second ram movable in a direction substantially normal to the stroke of said first ram at least between a'blocking position fully occupying said chamber, a retracted position coincident with and forming another wall of said chamber, and a compacting position partially disposed in said chamber;
means to dispose, said second ram in said blocking position and actuate said first ram between said retracted and said intermediate positions to initially compress refuse between said rams and to subsequently alternately actuate said rams between the remaining of said positions to finally compress the refuse in said chamber; and
door means for selectively opening the wall opposite said second ram in said chamber, andresilient linkage means connecting said door means and said first ram to close said door means upon movement of said first ram toward a final compacting position and to open said door means upon movement of said first ram to said retracted position.
2. A compactor in accordance with claim 1 wherein said second ram is further movable to an ejecting position, extending through said chamber after said door means is opened.
3. A compactor in accordance with claim 1 wherein said first compaction means further comprises a refuse receiving trough accommodating said first ram for reciprocation therein, and a refuse feeding hopper communicating with said trough.
4. A compactor in accordance with claim 3 further comprising a refuse severing edge between said trough and said hopper for cooperation with one edge of said first ram upon movement to said final compacting position to shear refuse extending from said trough.
5. A compactor in accordance with claim 4 wherein the face of said first ram and said one edge is arcuate about an axis parallel to the stroke of said second ram.
6. A compactor in accordance with claim 1 wherein said chamber is cylindrical about an axis aligned with the stroke of said second ram.
7. A compactor in accordance with claim 6 wherein said second ram is cylindrical and in coaxial alignment with said chamber.
8. A compactor in accordance'with claim 7 wherein the face