US 3565351 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Continuation-impart of application Ser. No. 702,437, Feb. 1, 1968, now abandoned.
 IMPACTOR 11 Claims, 14 Drawing Figs.
 US. Cl 241/99,
100/295, 175/293,175/414, 299/94  Int. Cl. B02c 19/12  Field of Search 241/84, 94,
99,168,169, 262, 270, 283; 94/48, 49; 81/5235; 100/295, (can crush. digest); 173/114, 128; 175/293, 305, 306, 414; 299/94 2,254,098 3/1941 Wells "IOU/(Can cru'slijd'ige'stf 2,248,108 7/1941 Mihalko 3,411,722 11/1968 Webber FOREIGN PATENTS 18,630 5/1914 France. 449,543 5/1914 France. 743,298 3/1933 France.
Primary ExaminerTheron E. Condon A ssislant Examiner- Robert L. Spruill Attorneyl(enway, Jenney and Hildreth ABSTRACT: The invention is an impact tool for compacting trash such as empty cans, bottles, cardboard and paper. It also has other uses such as compacting soil, driving spikes, chopping, edge trimming for lawns, etc. The tool consists of a tubular handle of lightweight material in which is slidably held a driver comprising a relatively heavy shaft. In one embodiment, there is attached to the end of the handle a head made of a strong metal, and when the shaft is slid outwardly and then inwardly, the end thereof strikes the head, thus transferring the kinetic energy of the handle to the head. In use, the head is rested against the bottle or can to be crushed, and the force of the blow either breaks the bottle or flattens the can. In other embodiments, the head is dispensed with so that the driver strikes the trash directly.
PATENTED FEB23I97I SHEET 1 OF 3 FIG. 3
INVENTOR. THORVALD S. ROSS, JR.
ATTORNEYS PATENTEUFEBZBISYI SHEET '2 BF 3 FIG. 7
7//////%///%ZW/ZZZ 4 INVENTOR.
THORVALD s. ROSS, JR.
ATTO R N EY S PATENTED 'FEB23 |97l SHEET 3 BF 3 M m F 8 46 w w s M//// M/ 4 V v B ATTORNEYS The invention accordingly comprises the elements and com- This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. Pat. applibinations of elements, features of construction, and arrangecation Ser. No. 702,437, filed Feb. -l, 1968.
BACKGROUND OF INVENTION It is well known that the problem of trash disposal in the United States is becoming of serious concern to municipalities. Part of this problem is caused by the fact that a high percentage of trash is in the form of hollow containers such as empty cans and bottles. Such empty containers occupy an undue amount of space, and if means could befound for these containers to be crushed or compacted before they reach the dump area, the volume problem of waste dumpage would be greatly lessened.
In the art there are shown several machines for compacting trash of all kinds, these machines, however, being large, and power operated. Such machines can be hazardous to a householder. Also, such machines are expensive, and in most cases beyond the financial means of the householder. As a result, where such machines have been used, if has been by municipalities with trained operators.
If a simple tool can be designed which is efficient and safe in its operation, whereby the householder can separate and com pact trash such as cardboard, paper, and empty containers such as bottles and cans, and if the tool is relatively inexpensive and easy to use, the householder will be encouraged to use such an implement since it means less trips by him to the dump or disposal area. Accordingly, it is the general purpose of this invention to provide such a tool. In addition, the compaction makes separation of various classes of trash easier, and their storage more convenient, pending trips to the dump or disposal area. Separation may enhance the economic value of the trash; for example, compacted metal containers such as tin cans in one class for sale to. dealers in scrap metal; and glass shards for glass bricks, in another class.
SUMMARY OF INVENTION The invention therefore is a crushing or compacting tool adapted for use by householders and for hand use, which is inexpensive, and easy and safe to use. It comprises two parts, one reciprocating with respect to the other, and (in one embodiment) means for transferring the kinetic energy of one of the reciprocating parts to a crushing or compacting head attached to the other part, the latter being handheld with the head resting against the material to be compacted. The kinetic energy of the driven part is thus imparted to the head which in turn crushes or compacts the trash. In other embodiments, the head is not used, so that the kinetic energy of the one part is transferred directly to the article being crushed. In several embodiments, means are incorporated to provide points of high stress in the article being crushed.
Therefore, among the several objects and provisions of the invention may be noted the provision of a compacting tool of the above general classification which is of unique design and is easy and simple to use, as well as being foolproof in its construction and operation.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a compacting tool of the above kind, which permits the quick interchange of heads so that heads suitable for other uses such as aerating soil, trimming the edges of lawns, chiseling of ice, and other purposes may be used.
A further object of the invention is the provision of a trash eompactor of the above classes, which occupies a minimum of storage space when not in use.
Yet another object of the invention is the provision of the Compactor of the above classes on which a shield is provided to prevent the scattering of crushed glass with resultant injury to the operator.
A still further object of the invention is to provide a device of any of the above classes which is easy to clean, and is so finished as to minimize contamination thereof.
Other objects, features and advantages will be in part apparent and in part pointed out hereinafter.
ments of parts which will be exemplified in the structure hereinafter described, and the scope of the application of which will be indicated'in the appended claims.
In the accompanying drawings, in which several of various possible embodiments of the invention are illustrated:
FIG. 1 is an elevation of a first embodiment, shown as it would be used in a trash can for compaction, the front face of the trash can being broken away;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged end portion of the FIG. 1 device, in section, in order to illustrate certain details of construction;
FIG. 3 is a bottom plan view of the embodiment, partly in section, taken in the direction of sight lines 3-3 on FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is an ,elevation of a portion of the handle and driver of the embodiment, partly in section, to show in enlarged detail certain details of construction;
FIG. 5 is an elevation of a second embodiment of the inven tion;
FIG. 6 is a sectional elevation of the FIG. 5 embodiment, center and end portions being omitted;
FIG. 7 is a sectional end view, taken in the direction of sight lines 7-7 on FIG. 6;
FIG. 8 is a sectional end view, taken in the direction of sight lines as on FIG. 6;
FIG. 9 is an elevation in section of a portion of the anvil or head end of the FIG. 5 embodiment;
FIG. 10 is anend view of the FIG. 5 embodiment;
FIG. 11 is an elevation, partly in section, of a portion of a third embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 12 is a bottom end view of the FIG. ll embodiment;
FIG. 13 is an illustration in elevation of a fourth embodiment of the invention; and
FIG. 14 is an elevation, partly in section, of an enlarged portion of the FIG. 13 embodiment.
Similar reference characters indicate corresponding parts throughout the several views of the drawings. Relative dimensions of certain of the parts as shown in the drawings have been modified and/or exaggerated for the purposes of clarity of illustration and understanding.
Referring now to FIG. I, a first embodiment of the invention is indicated generally by numeral 2 and comprises the three parts which are a handle 4, a head 6 attached to the handle, and a driver 8. A shroud or shield 10 is preferably used with the implement. The implement or tool is shown as used in trash can 12 with a can 14 shown in the act of being compacted by the tool. The details of construction of the several elements of the embodiment will now be described. Referring first to the handle 4, it is, in this embodiment, a hollow tubular shaft having an outwardly flared, thicker portion I8 at one end. At the other end of the handle, the diameter of the inner bore is reduced, as illustrated at numeral 20 (see FIG. 4) and in the inner wall of the portion 20 is inserted an O-ring 22. The handle 4 is made of a strong lightweight material such as aluminum, or preferably is made of a strong high-impact-resisting synthetic plastic such as, for example, a phenolformaldehyde resin containing a glass-fiber filler, or a melamine formaldehyde resin with a glass or flock filler, or a polyester resin with a glass fiber or woven-cloth filler, or nylon with a 30 percent glass-fiber filler. Other suitable lightweight, strong and tough resins which can be readily molded and machined will suggest themselves to the person skilled in the art.
The O-ring 22 is made of Teflon or nylon, for example, in order to prevent dirt and other contamination from getting into the inside of the handle 4, as well as to act as a bearing for the driver 8. The length of the handle 4 can be, for example, 23 inches, with an outside diameter of approximately I /e inches. The diameter of the flaired end 18 is approximately 3%inches.
The end of the handle extends downwardly as a cylindrical boss 24 forming a molded part of the handle, and integrally molded or machined on the outer surface of the boss 24 are the lugs 26 (of which there are several circumferentially spaced around the boss 24) which act as the catches for a bayonet-type locking mechanism for locking the head 6 to the end 18. Of course, a bayonet-type catch need not be used, and it is within the skill of the art to provide a typical threaded attachment, as an example of other attaching means, instead of the bayonet catch illustrated. Such a screw-type attachment will not be illustrated or detailed herein because it is within the skill of the art. Other suitable means of fastening the head 6 to the end of the handle 4 will occur to the practitioner. The face 28 of the end portion 18 is serrated or knurled for a purpose to be described below, and it is to be noted that the serrations are made to point in a given direction.
The head 6 is preferably made of a steel having a high-impact strength such as a cast steel. Suitable alloys for this purpose are well known and need not be detailed here. In view of the fact that the head 6 is what will be contacting the bottles and cans, etc. which are to be compacted, the reason for the head being of a tough, high-impact-resistant material is clear. The head 6 is preferably precision cast in order to avoid machining in order to eliminate expensive construction, and the lugs 30 for mating with the lugs 26 are cast integrally with the head. In such casting, a peripherally extending recess 32 is cast in the head to reduce the weight thereof, and a well 33 is provided to permit the entry of the boss 24 and its mating lugs 26 into the head. it will be noted that the peripheral recess 32 is tapered inwardly to provide the tapered external wall 34 of the head 6. The purpose of having the tapered wall is both to reduce the weight of the head, and to prevent or minimize any locking of compacted trash (such as a can) to the head, the tapered construction providing a draft.
The top surfaces 36 and 38 of the upstanding walls 34 and 40 of the head are provided with serrated or knurled surfaces like surface 28, but with the serrations pointing oppositely thereto. A gasket of Neoprene or similar material is provided between the mating serrated surfaces 28 on the end 18 and 36 and 38 on the walls 34 and 40. By the use of the gasket, dirt and other contamination is prevented from getting into the head itself, and the gasket 44 acts as a compression member to prevent the head from unlocking from the end of the handle.
It is important that the bottom face of the head be provided with a plurality of coned points 46, the purpose of which is to provide points of high unit pressure against the trash being compacted, as well as to prevent the tool from slipping off the article being compacted, such as a glass bottle. The points of high unit pressure produce areas of high unit stress in the material being compacted, thus facilitating crushing and compaction. The cones 46 may be cast integrally with the head, or, if desired, may be attached by conventional screw threads, or press-fitted into suitable sockets, or even brazed in place.
The driver 8 is preferably a steel shaft approximately 39 inches long. At the upper end thereof a sleeve 48 is placed upon the shaft in order to provide a comfortable handgrip. The sleeve 48 may be made of any suitable plastic and in it there may be molded a knurled surface in order to prevent the hand from slipping. (At the top of the handle 4 there may be also provided the knurled surface, as shown, for the same purpose.) The sleeve 48 may be molded with such tolerances as to be a tight sliding fit on the shaft 8, or may be cemented to the shaft with suitable adhesives.
The inner end of the driver 8 is provided with a plurality of peripheral teeth 50 as shown. A cap 52 of a tough high-impact-resistant material is press-fitted onto the teeth 50, the latter maintaining the cap on the end of the shaft 8. The function of the cap 52 is to deaden the noise of the end of the shaft striking the bottom of the well 33 in the head 6, as well as protecting the end of the head and the end of the shaft from being upset by such action. A plurality of flutes 56 is provided in the periphery of the cap 52 to permit the free passage of air thereby when the driver is moved inwardly. Similarly, an exhaust hole 58 (filled with a porous plug of felt 60) is provided in the handle for the same reason.
it is to be noted at this point that while it is preferred to have the cap 52 attached to the end of the shaft 8, nevertheless, a
plug of suitable high-impact-strength material such as nylon or teflon, or the material of which the handle 4 is made, could be inserted in the bore of the handle to be surrounded by the boss 24. The driver 8 would then strike this plug (not shown) and the kinetic energy of the driver will be transferred to the head through the plug. If desired, but not shown because not preferable, the inner end of the driver 8 can strike against a closed end provided at the inner end of handle 4. The head 6, in such construction, could be attached to handle 4 as shown, but the end of driver 8 would not strike the head directly.
The sleeve 52 has another purpose, viz., since its diameter is such as to be a sliding fit within the bore of the major portion of the handle, and since the diameter of the portion 20 is less than this, the shoulder fonned by portion 20 prevents the driver from being inadvertently pulled out of the handle. Therefore, once the apparatus is assembled by inserting the driver 8 in the handle, the cap 52 is thereafter press-titted onto the teeth or serrations 50, this being done prior to the attachment of the head 6 to the end portion 18. lf it is thereafter desired to remove the driver from the handle 6, it is necessary either to remove the sleeve 48 from the outer end of the driver, or remove the cap 52 from the inner end of the driver, or remove the cap 52 from the inner end of the driver. Thus, the preferred form of the invention is that of the unit which, except for the head 6, cannot be readily disassembled. On the other hand, if it is desired to have a tool which can be readily disassembled, then provision can be made to have the serrations 50 in the form of a screw thread with the cap 52 being provided with mating threads on the inside surface thereof, the cap then being threaded onto the end of the driver 8. Or, if desired, the sleeve 48 at the upper end of the driver can be made removable by any conventional means, and then if it is desired to remove the driver 8 from the handle, the head 6 would first be detached, and the driver will be pulled through the handle from the top to the bottom.
If the device is to be used to crush bottles and other glass structures which is one of its intended purposes, then means must be provided to prevent flying glass from injuring the user of the device. For this purpose, a shroud 10 is provided which is, for example, a relatively large circular sheet of a tough but soft plastic material (or cloth) through the center of which is provided a hole. The hole is then provided with the grommet 54 which is larger than the diameter of the handle 4 so that the shroud may slide up and down the handle. As illustrated, when the shroud is used with the trash can 12, it is important that the impacting implement itself could be moved from one side of the trash can to a diametrically opposite point. For this reason, the diameter of the shroud 10 should be such that when the handle 10 is at an extreme diametrical point within the trash container, the shroud still overlaps the entire area of the open face of the the trash can.
in use, the articles to be compacted or crushed are placed in the trash can, the tool is placed with head 6 resting against the article, and then the driver 8 is lifted upwardly for a distance which is to be found by experiment to be suitable for the particular article being compacted, and then driven down. During this operation, if desired, one of the users hands can grasp the handle by the knurled surface 50, and the other hand can grasp the driver 8 by means of the sleeve 48. Or, if desired, once the head 6 is seated on the bottle or can, both hands may be used to lift the driver 8 up in the handle and then drive it downwardly. In this use, it will be found that the points 46 will prevent the head from slipping off the can or bottle, etc. which is being compacted or crushed.
The purpose of making the handle 4 of a lightweight but tough material is that when the driver is driven downward and contacts the head 6, it is desired to move the head with a high velocity. Since it is the kinetic energy of the driver which is being transferred to the head, if the masses of the head and the handle to which it is attached are small, the resultant velocity of the head (and handle) will be large. In so driving the head, if the handle 4 were made ofa heavyweight material, then the head 6 which is the crushing head of the instrument, and
which drags the handle with it, would have its effectiveness greatly reduced. The light weight of the handle is thus important.
Thus, in use, the driver 8 becomes a device in which potential energy is first stored by raising the driver vertically with respect to the handle, this potential energy then being transferred to kinetic energy and momentum. At the moment of impact of the cap 52 with the bottom of the well 27, this kinetic energy is expended to drive the head 6 downwardly, thus compacting the tin can or breaking and crushing the glass bottle.
Referring now to FIGS. 5-10 for a second embodiment of the invention, referred to generally by numeral 70, a tubular handle 72 is provided in which is slidably mounted a driver 74. A head 76 is provided at the end of handle 72, and a shroud or shield 73 is provided on the handle as shown.
In this embodiment, the handle 72 (like handle 4) is a tubular shaft or body made of a high-impact-resisting, tough and strong material. For economy of manufacture, it is preferably of molded construction, although, if desired, it may be machined or drawn from a metal such as aluminum. lf molded, a preferred material is one of the polycarbonate plastics, for example, that material known by the trademark Lexan and sold by General Electric Company. However, other tough, strong plastic materials such as styrene, nylon, Dacron, Teflon, and urethane plastics may be used. For the best operation of the complete device, the handle 72 should be as light as possible consistent with toughness, rigidity and strength.
The tubular bore of the handle 72 is of two diameters as shown in FIG. 6, the larger diameter 80 extending for the major portion of the length. of the handle, and terminating in the shoulder 82 from which continues a tubular bore 84 of smaller diameter.
The other endof the tubular bore 80 flairs outwardly as to provide the end portion 86, the latter terminating in a thickened terminal portion 87 on which is provided a shoulder 89 and threaded annulus 88.
Threaded onto the annulus 88 is the head 76 comprising a hollow cup or cap made of low-carbon steel (such as, for example, type 1008). Cup 76 may be deep drawn to provide the wall 90 and the end face 92. The cup is, for example, approximately three-sixteenths of an inch thick. Preferably, cup 76 is case hardened. Outwardly formed in the end face 92 are a plurality of projecting points 94 and 95, the purpose of which is the same as the points 46 in the first embodiment. It will be noted that the points are established in patterns of large and small points, the points 94 and 95 being respectively posi tioned at the apices of equilateral triangles. One set of the smaller points 95 has an altitude less than that of the triangle defined by points 94. The altitude of the other triangle formed by points 95 is the same as that of the triangle formed by points 94. The altitudes are preferably not coincident. Points 94 project out from the face 92 further than points 95. By such an arrangement of points, it will be found that the head 76 will remain securely on nearly all objects such as bottles and cans when they are being crushed and compacted, and in so being positioned there will always be points resting directly on the article (such as a bottle) being crushed, thereby to create points or areas of high stress concentration in the article.
Within the inner wall of the bore 80 are provided one or more grooves 96 (four being shown), the purpose of which is to provide air passageways around the driver 74. At the upper portion of the handle 72 there is provided a collar 98 to which is fastened, as by cementing or other convenient means, the laterally extending shield 78, the latter being provided with an inner annular sleeve Hill which closely fits over the collar 98.
Through the collar 98 there are provided a plurality of holes M92 which extend transversely through the entire wall of the handle 86 and communicate with one of the grooves 96, thus providing an inlet and outlet for air within the handle 72. A shoulder 99 may be integrally formed as a part of the handle to position the shield 78. Or, if desired, the shoulder may be omitted completely in order to permit the shield to slide on the handle.
The driver 74 is provided at one end with an enlarged piston end 110, this piston being made, for example, of low-carbon, cold-drawn steel. Piston 110 is preferably casehardened, and can be press-fitted to the end of the driver member 74 by providing a socket 112 into which the end of the driver 74 is forced. Alternatively, instead of a press-fitting, a riveted or threaded screw joint construction can be used to hold these two parts together.
The diameter of the piston 110 is such as to be a smooth sliding fit within the tubular bore 80. (Because it is a smooth sliding fit, the air grooves96 are provided.) lt will also be noted that because the diameter of section 1110 is the same as the inner diameter of the bore 80, the shoulder 82 acts as an upper stop to prevent the driver 74 from being inadvertently pulled out of the handle 72.
At the lower end of the section 110 there is provided a socket 114 into which is press-titted the shank of button 116, the latter being made of a resilient material such as nylon, hard rubber, fiber, or a polyurethane plastic. It is to be noted that overlying the inner face of the cap there may be a layer 118 of material which may be the same as the button 116 or Teflon. The function of these two members is to deaden the sound of the driver piston 110 striking against the face 92 of the head 76. It is obvious that other means can be provided to cushion this blow somewhat resiliently, but cushioning should not be so great as to hinder the transfer of the kinetic energy of the entire driverwhen it is thrust against the head 26.
Of course, the button 116 may be dispensed with (as will as the surface material 118) so that the end of piston section 110 strikes directly on the face 92 of the cup 76. This is not the preferred construction, the construction shown utilizing the members 116 and 118 being preferred. However, if these two members are dispensed with so that the head or end of the piston 110 strikes on the face 92 directly, then it will be found that there may be slight mushrooming of the end of piston 110. In order to prevent such mushrooming from preventing the section 110 to be drawn fully into the tubular bore 80, a short portion (for example 1 inch in length) of the bottom end of section 110 may be tapered in conventional manner.
To keep the head 76 from becoming unthreaded from the end of the flared section 86, suitable means such as a lock washer or a gasket may be provided. Alternatively, the top edge or rim of the wall 90 may be provided with teeth 122 so that when the head 76 is screwed up tightly against the shoulder 89, the teeth will press into the plastic material of which the flared end 36 is made, thus compressing it slightly in order to maintain the head tightly in place.
At the upper end of the driver 74 there is provided a handgrip 124 similar to the handgrip 48 of the first embodiment.
Typical dimensions and lengths that have been found to work well in practice are as follows: The wall of handle 72 may have a thickness of approximately one-eighth inch, depending upon the strength of the material from which it is made. The total length of the handle may be approximately 28 to 30 inches. The driver 74 including its piston section 110 can have a total length of approximately 42 inches. The length of the piston section 110 can be, for example, approximately 12 inches. The bore 80 may be approximately l inch in diameter.
As indicated above, the flared end 86 of the handle is thickened so as better to provide the shoulder 89. The amount of thickening will depend on good engineering and construction practices in the use of plastic materials. Also, as indicated above, the material of the cap 76 is approximately three-sixteenths of an inch in thickness.
The diameters of the cones and 94 are approximately three-eighths inch and one-half inch, respectively; and their heights are approximately three-sixteenths inch and onefourth inch, respectively.
As to weight of respective parts, the total weight of the compactor can be about 8 pounds, with the total driver 74 weighing about 6% pounds. The handle 72 and shield 78 together with the head 76 can weigh about l /zpounds.
In respect to the cones 95 and 94, it is obvious that, within the scope of the invention, other configurations of cones may be used, as well as a different number of cones, and a different arrangement thereof, than those shown in the embodiments.
The holes 102 can be approximately 0.050 inch in diameter. Either larger or smaller holes can be used, depending upon the closeness or fit of the section 110 in the bore 80 of the handle. Instead of a plurality of holes, a single large hole may be used. As to the shield 78, this is preferably made of a clear, tough plastic such as vinyl resin or a polycarbonate. Its diameter may be within the choice of the practitioner, but a diameter of approximately 1 foot has been found to be sufficient with a thickness of one-eighth to one-fourth inch. On the other hand, if the compactor is going to be used in an ash can such as shown in FIG. 1, then preferably the shield 78 will be similar to that shown in FIG. 1, that is, a foldable plastic material which can drape around the ash can 12. It is preferred, however, to have such a shield fitted with the hub 100 as in shield 78, and thus held in place on the handle as shown in FIGS. and 6. The shield 78 is shown in its approximate dimension as used with a small container.
As has been pointed out above, these dimensions may vary somewhat depending upon the materials from which the device is made, and within the teaching of this invention such other dimensions are contemplated.
Referring now to FIGS. 11 and 12, a portion of a third embodiment of the invention is shown. The remainder of the third embodiment is substantially the same as the FIG. 5 embodiment, with the handgrip 124 and the shield 78.
In this embodiment, the handle portion 130 is again constructed of a relatively lightweight, high-impact-resistant material, such as the aforementioned Lexan. The wall thickness of the handle 130 may be A to three-sixteenths of an inch, with the handle being, for example, approximately 1% inches in diameter. It will be noted that the lower end of the handle flairs outwardly in a portion 132 which is roughly bellshaped, this portion terminating in an end which is provided with a plurality of diametrically oppositely located large teeth 134. The function of the teeth 134 and the fact that they are diametrically opposite is to have the diametrically opposite valleys between teeth straddle a round object and hold it securely for crushing. Also, the teeth themselves where they contact the article being crushed, cause areas of high stress in the article, thus facilitating rupture thereof. As illustrated, six teeth are shown in the circumference of the end of portion 132, but another number of teeth may be used if desired.
The inside wall of portion 132, at its upper end as viewed, forms a reentrant curvature at numeral 136 to provide the forward extending lip 138. A driver member 140 fits smoothly but slidably in the bore 142 provided in the handle 130, with the result that the lip 138 surrounds the driver 140 fairly closely. Lip 138 then functions to prevent particles of glass, particles of metal, or other unwanted particles or dirt from getting between the outer periphery of the driver 140 and the bore 142.
At the lower end of the driver 140 there is provided a head 144 made of steel and provided with cone-shaped points 145 for the purpose of causing high stresses in the article being compacted. The head may be conventionally held on the end of the driver, as, for example, by being provided with a threaded portion 146 which threads into a suitably threaded hole in the end of the driver.
At a distance from the end of the driver as shown, the latter is reduced in diameter, to provide a shoulder 148. The function of this shoulder is to act as a stop for the driver in an upward direction by striking against a shoulder in the inner bore of the handle 130 similar to the shoulder 82, thus preventing the plunger from being withdrawn from the handle at the upper end of its stroke. An enlarged grip at the upper end of the driver 140, similar to the grip 124 of FIG. 5, will prevent the plunger from dropping out of the handle when the handle is picked up for use.
The FIGS. 1112 embodiment is similar in its use to that of the previous embodiments, the main difference being that in the prior embodiments, the drivers transfer their kinetic energy to the handle and end caps 6 and 76, the latter caps in turn striking the articles to be crushed; whereas in this embodiment the kinetic energy of the driver is conveyed directly to the article being crushed.
Referring now to FIGS. 13l4, a fourth embodiment of the invention is shown similar in its operation to the embodiments of FIGS. 11-12 in that the kinetic energy of the driver is transferred directly to the object being crushed, and also in that the end of the handle is provided with teeth similar to those in the FIG. 11 embodiment in order to securely grasp the article being crushed. However, in this embodiment, FIGS. 13 14, a further improvement is added in that additional heavier rupturing means are established in the end of the driver in order to provide a greater amount of kinetic energy for the purpose of crushing materials.
Referring first to FIG. 13, a handle is shown having an upper portion 150 quite similar to tee upper portion 72 of FIG. 5 and the handle is enlarged at its lower end to provide a barrel portion 152 which is cylindrical in shape. A shield 78 the same as shield 78 of FIG. 5 is provided, and is attached to the handle 150 by means of either a shoulder 99 as shown in FIG. 6, or by suitable adhesives. Suitable vent holes (not shown) similar to the holes 102 in FIG. 6 are provided in this embodiment, if desired.
Attached to the upper end of the driver 154 is an outwardly or radially extending shoulder 156. This may be provided conveniently by the use of a snap ring or washer mounted in a properly provided groove or recess in the handle. The function of shoulder 156 is to act as a stop for the downward (as viewed) motion of the driver. If desired, the ring 156 may be omitted, and the end ofthe grip portion 158 may be allowed to strike the top of the handle portion 150 to serve as a stop.
The end of the barrel portion 152 is provided with teeth 160 established diametrically opposite each other just as in the FIG. 11-12 embodiment, and for the same purpose.
A driver 154 constituting a cylindrical steel shaft is a smooth sliding fit in the bore of the handle portion 150. At the lower end of the driver there is provided a relatively thick disc or plate 162 made of metal such as steel. Disc 162 may be attached to the end of the driver 154 by welding, or by a stud 164 fonning a portion thereof which is suitably threaded into a threaded hole in the end of the driver.
Peripherally mounted around the disc 162 is a ring 166 of Teflon, the ring being a smooth sliding fit within the barrel portion 152. The ring is formed (as to its downwardly facing surface) so as to curve downwardly as illustrated at numeral 168, thus providing a lip 170 which functions as does the lip 138 in FIG. 11; that is, it prevents unwanted particles of glass or dirt from getting above the disc 162. Attached to the bottom surface of disc 162 as by welding or other suitable means is a plate 172 which has formed therein a plurality of coned points 174, 176 which are similar to the points 94-95 of the FIG. 5 embodiment. These points serve the double function of preventing slippage of the driver off the article being struck, and of creating high-stress points in the article being struck thereby to facilitate crushing.
The operation of the FIG. 13-15 embodiment is the same as the FIG. 11 embodiment, but the additional weight of the head 162 will make the device capable of crushing thicker objects, such as very thick walled bottles, or heavy cans, etc.
In this embodiment, the barrel section 152 may be approximately a foot long and 3 inches in inside diameter. The disc 162 may be approximately 3 inches in diameter, and the outer diameter of the ring 166 will be slightly less than the inner diameter of barrel section 152. The disc 162 may be approximately 1 inch thick. The thickness of the barrel section 152 may be, for example, about one-fourth inch and it is to be noted that the one-piece molded structure 150-I52 should be made ofa high-strength high-impact-resisting material such of the combination of portions being 25 to30 inches long. The
driver 154 may be approximately three-founhs inches in diameter, with the bore of portion 150 being just large enough to contain the driver with a smooth sliding fit. The wall thickness of portion 150 may be one-eighth inches, and that of barrel 152 can be, for example, one-fourth inches.
In view of the above it will be seen that the several objects of the invention are achieved and other advantageous results attained. v 1
It is to be understood that the invention is not limited in its application to the details of construction and arrangement of parts illustrated in the accompanying drawings, since the invention is capable of other embodiments, and of being practiced or carried out in various ways. Also, it is to be understood that the phraseology or terminology employed herein is for the purpose of description and not of limitation.
As many changes could be made in the above constructions without departing from the scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in he accompanying drawings, shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense, and it is also intended that the appended claims shall cover all such equivalent variations as come within the true spirit and scope of the invention.
1. An impact tool comprising an elongated handle having shaft and head portions and a lengthwise bore extending therein, the head portion being greater in diameter than the shaft portion; a closure member attached to the head portion and extending across and closing the latter; and elongated driver member freely movable lengthwise in said bore toward and away from aid closure member with one end of the driver member being adapted to reach and strike said closure member at the end of each forward stroke whereby the kinetic energy of said driver member is transferred to the closure member and head portion; said closure member being provided with outwardly extending discreet pointed portions adapted to hold the end of the head portion on an article to be crushed, whereby upon a forward stroke of the driver element the kinetic energy of the latter is utilized to crush the article.
2. The tool of claim 1 in which the diameter of the head portion progressively decreases along the length of the handle from that portion of the head having said greater diameter to the end of the head portion, thereby providing an outer wall slanting inwardly toward the end of the head portion to enable the latter to be freely separated from material compacted thereby.
3. The tool of claim 1 in which the outer face of the closure member is provided with said outwardly extending pointed portions at least some of which are adapted to bear against the article to create points of high stress in the article when the driver element strikes the innerface of the closure element, thereby facilitating crushing of the article.
4. The tool of claim 3 in which said handle is made of highstrength, impact-resisting molded plastic, and said closure member is steel.
5. The tool of claim 3 in which said closure element constitutes the bottom of a cup shaped member, the latter being attached to the end of said head portion at the rim of the cupshaped member.
6. The tool of claim 5 in which said cup-shaped member is made of steel with said pointed portions being portions of the bottom of said member formed outwardly from the material thereof as hollow cone-shaped projections.
7 The tool of claim 4 including a radially extending shield of synthetic plastic material on said shaft, adapted to deflect any flying particles of the article when it is crushed.
8. The tool of claim 6 in which an end member of resilient material is attached to said one end of the driver member to act as a cushion when the driver member is moved against said closure member. I I
9. The tool of claim 6 in which sard pointed portions occur in at least two sets of three each, the three pointed portions of each set being positioned at the apices of an equilateral triangle, and the altitude of one of said triangles being shorter than that of the other, and the pointed portions at the apices of the other of said triangles projecting a greater distance from the face of said plate, the altitudes of said triangles not being colinear.
10. The tool of claim 1 in which said head portion constitutes an outwardly flared, bell-shaped portion with said closure member closing the mouth of the bell-shaped portion.
11. The tool of claim 10 in which said closure member comprises a cup-shaped member, the latter being attached to the mouth of the head portion at the rim of the cup-shaped member, and the wall of the latter tapering inwardly toward the latters bottom portion.