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Publication numberUS3566554 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 2, 1971
Filing dateSep 26, 1968
Priority dateSep 26, 1968
Publication numberUS 3566554 A, US 3566554A, US-A-3566554, US3566554 A, US3566554A
InventorsKimmell Steven D, Schaffer Martin B
Original AssigneeJoseph P Baker, Schaffer Martin B
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Prefabricated building
US 3566554 A
Images(3)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

M. B. SCHAFFER ETAL 3,566,554

PREFABRICATED BUILDING March 2, 1971 Filed Sept. 26, 1968 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 March 2; 1971 SCHAFFER ETAL 3,566,554

PREFABRICATED BUILDING 3 Sheets-Sheet I Filed Sept. 26, 1968 Q 0 Q; a 0 p a J 2 M 2 i 1 W 6 w a 0 I1 nrroe/vlr:

March 2, 1971 SCHAFFER EI'AL I 3,566,554

PREFABRICATED BUILDING Filed se t; 26, 1968 3 Sheets-Sheet s A Trek/v11;

United States Patent O 3,566,554 PREFABRICATED BUILDING Martin B. Schaffer, Homewood, and Steven D. Kimmell, Skokie, Ill., assignors to Martin B. Schaifer and Joseph P. Baker Filed Sept. 26, 1968, Ser. No. 762,915 Int. Cl. E04b 1/34; E04h N12 US. CI. 52-64 6 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A prefabricated building, either erected or knocked down for shipment in the form of a package kit, which includes a rigid central bottom wall, a rigid roof, and at least one rigid end shell. In a typical embodiment, there are two rigid end shells. In such an embodiment, each end of the roof has an attaching surface, and the inner top wall of each of the end shells has an attaching surface, with means being Supplied to tightly secure the attaching surface at each end of the roof to the attaching surface at the top inner edge of the corresponding end shell. The attaching surfaces may be provided by vertically extending flanges. Means are also provided to tightly secure each end of the central bottom wall to the bottom inner edge of the corresponding end shell. Each end shell has a rigid top and bottom wall and at least one vertical outer load-bearing wall. Support means are provided to hold the central bottom wall above ground level, and the bottom of each end shell unsupported and spaced above ground level when the building is installed in place at the building site. In one embodiment, reentrant flanges are used at the outer ends of the central bottom wall and the roof, with corresponding flanges on the end shells fitting into the channels of each reentrant flange. The simplest combination of the structural members just described involves a rigid roof having a rigid end shell at only one end of the roof, with means provided at the other end of the roof to support it in spaced relation above the central bottom Wall.

This invention relates to a prefabricated building which may be shipped in knocked down conditions, and errected at a desired building site when transported there in such condition.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Prefabricated buildings have long been known, both of the type that is permanently attached to the building site when it has been erected, and the type that can be demounted and moved as desired. Most of these prior prefabricated buildings have been of complicated construction and have not provided the economies in production in the factory, and theeconomies in erection at the site, that would be expected from utilization of the principle of prefabrication.

ADVANTAGES OF THIS INVENTION The prefabricated building of the present invention has many advantages over prefabricated buildings of the prior art. The prefabricated building of this invention is of a type that may be permanently installed or demountably installed at the building site, as desired.

This prefabricated building provides great simplicity of construction. It lends itself readily to integral construction of its few component parts, and to a thin walled construction-especially when modern building materials are usedthat results in a structure both light in weight and remarkably strong,

Since the bottom wall of the building is supported only 3,566,554 Patented Mar. 2, 1971 at locations near its center, and the outer ends of the bottom wall of the building are unsupported and spaced above ground, the truss for the central bottom wall need not be of such heavy construction as when a single long floor span is supported only at its ends, as is sometimes the case with other buildings.

The prefabricated building of this invention, as a result of the many indicated advantages, is remarkably easy and economical to fabricate, convenient and inexpensive to transport, and easy to erect after it has been transported to the desired building site.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The prefabricated building of this invention includes a rigid central bottom wall; a rigid roof having an attaching surface for at least one of its ends; means to support the other end of the roof in spaced relation above the central bottom wall; a rigid end shell with an attaching surface at its top inner edge and having rigid top and bottom walls and at least one vertical load-bearing outer wall; and means to tightly secure the attaching surface at the end of the roof to the attaching surface at the top inner edge of the end shell. The attaching surfaces may be vertically extending surfaces, and these may extend upwardly from the roof and end shell. The bottom of each end shell may also be tightly secured to the corresponding end of the central bottom wall.

In typical embodiments of the prefabricated building of this invention, the rigid roof member has an attaching surface at each of its ends, there are two rigid end shells of the type just described, and means are provided to tightly secure the attaching surface at each end of the roof to the attaching surface at the top inner edge of the corresponding end shell.

In one embodiment, reentrant flanges may be used at the outer ends of the roof and the central bottom wall, and corresponding flanges at the top and bottom inner edges of the end shells may be formed to fit into the channels of each of the reentrant flanges.

The vertical load bearing outer Wall of each end shell may be a side wall or an end wall. The structure formed by the vertically extending flanges at the top and bottom inner edges of the shells, connected by similar flanges along the exposed side edges of the end shells, may also be a vertical load-bearing structure.

Suitable fastening means are provided for tightly securing corresponding attaching surfaces at the opposite ends of the roof and on the upper inner edges of the end shells. Fastening means are also provided for tightly securing, when they are present, corresponding attaching surfaces at the ends of the central bottom wall and the lower inner edge of the end shells.

The prefabricated building of this invention may be supported solely by means that hold the central bottom wall above ground level, with the outer bottom portion of each end shell unsupported, when the building is installed in place at the building site. The building may if desired be supported by additional means to hold the outer portion of the bottom wall of each end shell above ground level, with the entire bottom wall of the prefabricated building being spaced above ground level.

The prefabricated building of this invention is adapted to be shipped in the form of a kit containing knocked down components, which components can be erected at a desired site and later can if desired be demounted, packed, and shipped to another location.

THE DRAWINGS The prefabricated building of this invention will now 3 be described in more detail, with particular reference being made to the drawings of this application, in which:

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of one embodiment of the prefabricated building of this invention;

FIG. 2 is an exploded view of the same embodiment of the prefabricated building of this invention, with a modified form of the front and rear panels, and with certain gaskets omitted for clarity;

FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of the embodiment of FIG. 1 taken along the line 3-3, with additional means of support shown;

FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional fragmentary view of another embodiment of the prefabricated building of this invention;

FIG. 5 is a perspective view of another embodiment of the prefabricated building of this invention; and

FIG. 6 is a perspective view of still another embodiment of the prefabricated building of this invention.

DESCRIPTION OF SPECIFIC EMBODIMENTS In FIG. 1, prefabricated building 10 is shown assembled at the site, resting on parallel concrete slabs 11. Rigid central bottom wall 12 is supported above ground level by downwardly depending flanges 13 at each end of the bottom wall. As is shown, each flange 13 rests in a gasket 14, which in turn rests upon a concrete slab 11.

As is best seen in FIG. 3, central bottom wall 12 is of a double wall construction, including upper member 15a and lower member 15b. The space 16. between members 15a and 1512 may, if desired, the filled with a plywood honeycomb structure to provide added strength to central bottom wall 12.

For ease of transportation, central bottom wall 12 may be constructed of two parts, each of which carries a downwardly depending flange 17. Flanges 17 are joined together by suitable fastening means 18.

Rigid roof 22 is slightly gabled at peak 24. The roof has a vertical front member 26 and a forwardly extending horizontal flange 28.

The double wall construction of roof 22, including lower member 34a and upper member 34b, is best seen in FIG. 3. The space 36 between members 34a and 34b may, if desired, be filled with a plywood honeycomb structure to provide added strength to the roof.

Each end of roof 22 is provided with a vertical, upwardly extending flange 30. The outer face 32 of each flange is an attaching surface, and at the same time the flange acts to strengthen roof 22. The attaching surface 32 on upwardly extending flange 30 at each end of rigid roof 22 is best seen in. the exploded view of FIG. 2 and in the cross-sectional view shown in FIG. 3.

For ease of transportation of roof 22, it may be constructed in two parts, with the two parts attached through flanges 37, which are bolted or joined together by suitable fastening means 38. The exposed edges of flanges 37 are enclosed in a suitable gasket 39.

Rigid end shells 40 complete the basic structure of the prefabricated building of this invention. Each end shell 40 has a rigid top wall 42, and each of these top walls (as best seen in FIG. 3) has a vertical, upwardly extending flange 44 at its inneredge. The surface of each flange 44 which faces toward roof member 22 is an attaching surface 46.

The attaching surface 32 at each end of rigid roof member 22 and the attaching surface 46 at the top inner edge of the corresponding end shell 40 are tightly secured by a plurality of bolts 48. A suitable gasket 49 is positioned to enclose the exposed edges of each set of vertical, upwardly extending flanges 30 and 44, with which attach ing surfaces 32 and 46, respectively, are associated.

Each end shell 40 includes a pair of rigid side walls 50 and a rigid end wall 52. The floor of each end shell 40 is provided by rigid bottom wall 58.

Vent 54 in one side wall 50 of end shell 40 at the right 4 hand side of FIG. 1 is an air intake. Openings 56 in side walls 50 are for ventilation.

End shells 40 may, if desired, be of double wall construction, with both the inner wall and the outer wall in tegrally formed. The space between the inner and outer walls may be filled with polyurethane foam to provide heat and sound insulation, as well as additional rigidity.

In the embodiment shown, vertical outer walls 50 and 52 of an end shell 40 all bear a part of the load from roof member 22 and top wall 42 of the end shell, and each rigid end shell 40 has an additional load-bearing structure in the form of four interconnected coplanar flanges around the inner perimeter of the end shell. These flanges include flange 44 at the top inner edge of the end shell, flanges 60 at the inner edges of side walls 50 and flange 62 at the inner edge of bottom wall 58.

Surface 64 of flange 62, which faces downwardly depending flange 13 of central bottom wall 12, provides an attaching surface. The outer surface of flange 13 provides a corresponding attaching surface 66. Attaching surfaces 64 and 66 are tightly secured to each other, as by bolts 68.

As shown in FIGS. 1 and 3, each pair of downwardly depending flanges 13 and 62 is seated in a gasket 14. Gasket 14, in turn, rests upon a concrete slab 11, which is set into the ground. Thus support means are provided to hold central bottom wall 12 above ground level, with the outer portion of bottom wall 58 of each end shell 40 being unsupported and spaced above ground level at the building site.

The pair of concrete slabs 11 may be employed whenever the ground is firm enough to keep the slabs laterally stable. If desired, four leveling jacks may be introduced between the concrete slabs 11 and the downwardly depending flanges 13 and 62, with two jacks resting on each slab.

If the character of the soil requires that for lateral stability a full concrete slab be employed instead of two separate strips 11, it is seen that with the embodiment of the prefabricated building of this invention shown in FIG. 1, it is possible to employ a slab having a much smaller area than the total floor area of the building. Similarly, if the character of the soil is such that the ground itself may be used for support of the building, it is necessary to grade only a relatively small area in order to provide full support for the building. For the same reason, if the character of the soil is such that deeper footings or caissons will be required, a smaller number of such caissons will be required to be dug and installed, because of the fact that the outer portion of bottom wall 58 of each end shell 40 is spaced above ground.

If in special situations it is desired to do so, concrete footings 70 may be placed as shown in FIG. 3, directly beneath the outer portions of end shells 40, and support members 72 positioned thereon. By means of support members 72, the outer portion of the bottom wall of each of the rigid end shells 40 may be supported above ground level. In some such cases, concrete slabs 11 may be omitted.

If the attaching surfaces at the outer ends of roof member 22 and at the inner edges of rigid end shells 40 are not vertically disposed, but instead are overlapping horizontal surfaces, for example, there will then be no loadbearing structure comprised of continuous, coplanar flanges at the inner edges of end shells 40. In such case, it is seen that rigid end walls 52, rigid side walls 50, or both, must be strengthened in order to carry the entire load of roof member 22 and top walls 42 of end shells 40. Whatever the form of the attaching surfaces may be, each attaching surface must extend a substantial distance from the edge of the member of which it is a part.

The embodiment of FIG. 4 shows a modified form of upwardly extending vertical flange 30' at the outer end of roof member 22. It also shows the modified form of downwardly extending flange 13' at the outer end of central bottom wall 12. Flange 30 is a downwardly opening reentrant flange with a channel 80 which fits tightly over upwardly extending flange 44 at the inner edge of top wall 42 of rigid end shell 40. Flange 13' is an upwardly opening reentrant flange. It has an upwardly opening channel 82 with which downwardly extending flange 62 at the inner edge of bottom wall 58 of rigid end shell 40 is tightly engaged.

In the embodiment of FIG. 4, fastening means may be provided, if desired, to more tightly secure roof member 22 to end shell 40 and end shell 40 to bottom wall 12. However, with the proper selection of materials from which to construct the indicated members, and proper dimensioning of the flanges to produce a sufficiently tight fit, such additional fastening means may be omitted.

Front wall 84 has side flanges 86 and top flange 88 which are secured to flange 60 on each end shell 40, and to flange 28 on roof member 22, respectively. Suitable gasket means 89 enclose the exposed edges of flanges 86 and '60, just mentioned. Front panel 84 also has flange 90 along its bottom, for attachment to central bottom wall 12.

Window 92 is secured in place in front panel 84 by suitable gasket means. In the embodiment shown, window 92 does not open and close, since a built-in air conditioning system is contemplated.

Hinged door 94 is also fitted into front panel 8-4. Portion 90a of bottom flange 90 of front panel 84 serves as a door step for door 94.

In FIG. 2, front panel 84 is shown in modified form, in which it is comprised of two separate members 84a and 84b. Each front panel has side flanges 86. The panels have top flanges 88a and 88!), respectively.

Enclosure of the living space provided by the embodiments of FIGS. 1 and 2 is completed by the rear panel, which in FIG. 2 is shown as being comprised of two members, panels 96a and 961).

If desired, the prefabricated building of this invention may be constructed without any front panels or rear panels, whether of the type just described or of any other type. These panels are not required for load-bearing purposes, and need be included only to provide complete enclosure of the building.

The sectional view of FIG. 3 shows typical furniture and fixtures which may be provided with the prefabricated building of this invention. Lower bunk 100a and upper bunk 1001) occupy the front portion of rigid end shell 40 on the left hand side of FIG. 3. A second set of similar bunk beds is provided on the other side of partition 102. Fixtures 104 provide wall lamps for the sleeping area. Storage space 106 is provided below the bottom bunk beds.

Rear panel 96:: may if desired be opaque, and rear panel 96b may be transparent. Additional lighting is provided by ceiling lamp 108 in the central portion of the building, and by wall lamp 110 in end shell 40 at the right hand side of the building in FIG. 3.

Kitchen sink 112 and kitchen cabinets 114 are shown in end shell 40 on the right hand side of FIG. 3. These fixtures may also be seen in the exploded view of FIG. 2.

End shell 40 on the right hand side of FIG. 2 contains bathroom facilities 116. The bathroom facilities are separated from the kitchen space by partition 118.

The building may be furnished with typical movable furniture such as table 120 and chair 122. Many of the fixtures and equipment in the building may, however, be molded as part of end shells 40. End shell 40- on the left hand side of FIG. 3, for example, may have the bunk beds there shown molded as integral parts of the shell. In the end shell 40 on the right hand side of the same figure, the kitchen counter and cabinets, kitchen sink, and supports for other kitchen fixtures such as the stove may be integrally molded with the end shell. Similarly, the bathroom walls may be molded with the end shell, as may fixtures such as the wash basin and shower stall.

6 VARIOUS COMBINATIONS DESCRIBED The components which make up the prefabricated building of this invention may be assembled in various combinations, to produce other general shapes of building than that shown in FIGS. 1 to 4. One such possible shape is shown in FIG. 5, and another in FIG. 6.

In FIG. 5, an additional central bottom wall 12 is provided to extend the living space provided by the building in a forward direction. Roof member 124, end panels 126 and front panel 128 complete the enclosure of the added space. As is seen, downwardly extending flanges 13 rest upon the forward extensions of concrete slabs 11, to support the added structure.

In FIG. 6, the living space is extended laterally by joining two prefabricated buildings such as shown in FIG. 1, with the end shells 40 at adjacent ends of the two buildings omitted. This space is thus enclosed by an end shell 40, two roof members 22, another end shell 40, two central bottom walls 12, two front panels 84 and two rear panels.

As will be seen from FIG. 6, flange 30 on roof member 22, flange 86 on front panel 84, flange 13 on central bottom wall 12 and a fourth flange on the rear panel of one portion of the building are all secured to corresponding flanges on the other portion of the building. Thus, each half of the building provides means to support one end of roof member 22 of the other portion of the building in spaced relation above the central bottom wall it overlies. The opposite end of roof member 22 is tightly secured to rigid end shell 40 as in the case of the embodiments of FIGS. 1 through 4.

If desired, two or three units can even be stacked vertically for additional flexibility of design.

With any of the various combinations disclosed herein that are possible with the prefabricated building of this invention, the building is raised a distance above the ground. Thus, in every such case, the building has good aerodynamic characteristics, because high winds can pass under the bottom wall of the building instead of tending to push the building over.

The above detailed description has been given for clearness of understanding only. No unnecessary limitations are to be understood therefrom, as modifications will be obvious to those skilled in the art.

What is claimed is:

1. A prefabricated building which comprises:

a rigid central bottom wall having two ends, with a flange extending vertically from at least one of said ends;

a rigid roof having two ends, with a flange extending vertically from at least one of said ends;

means to support the other end of said roof in spaced relation above said central bottom wall;

a rigid end shell, said end shell having a rigid top wall and a rigid bottom wall, said top wall having an inner edge portion from which a flange extends vertically and said bottom wall having an inner edge portion from which a flange extends vertically, said end shell also including at least one vertical load-bearing outer wall upon which said rigid top wall is supported in fixed angular relationship thereto and which in turn is supported on the rigid bottom wall of said end shell in fixed angular relationship thereto;

means tightly securing said flange extending vertically from the roof to the flange extending vertically from the top inner edge portion of the end shell to support said roof upon said rigid top wall of said end shell in load-bearing relationship and in fixed angular relationship thereto;

means tightly securing said securing said flange extending vertically from the inner edge of the bottom portion of said end shell with said flange extending vertically from the inner edge portion of said central bottom wall; and

means supporting said central bottom wall upon the ground, With the outer portion of the bottom wall of said rigid end shell being unsupported and spaced above the ground.

2. A prefabricated building which comprises:

a rigid central bottom wall having two ends and two sides extending therebetween;

a rigid roof having two ends;

a pair of rigid end shells, one for each end of said central bottom wall and said roof, each of said end shells having a rigid top wall and a rigid bottom wall, each of said top walls having an inner edge portion, each of said end shells also including at least one vertical load-bearing outer wall upon which said rigid top Wall is supported in fixed angular relationship thereto and which in turn is supported on the rigid bottom wall of said end shell in fixed angular relationship thereto;

means tightly securing each end of the roof to the top inner edge portion of the corresponding end shell to support said roof upon said rigid top wall of said end shell in load-bearing relationship and in fixed angular relationship thereto;

enclosure panels positioned along the aforesaid sides of the central bottom wall, the portion, if any, of the load of said rigid roof borne by said enclosure panels being substantially less than the total load of said roof; and

means supporting said central bottom wall upon the ground, with the outer portion of the bottom wall of each of said rigid end shells being unsupported and spaced above the ground.

3. The prefabricated building of claim 2 in which both said roof and said central bottom wall have a vertically extending flange at each end thereof and both the top wall and bottom Wall of said rigid end shall have a vertically extending flange at the inner edge portion thereof, and which includes means tightly securing said vertically extending flange at each end of the roof and the rigid central bottom wall to the respectively vertically extending flange at the top and bottom inner edge portion of the corresponding end shell.

4. The prefabricated building of claim 3 in which the edges of all of said flanges are disposed in a generally horizontal position and some of the flanges are vertically opening reentrant flanges which tightly receive, in their vertical openings, the flanges of adjacent members, to support the upper flange upon the lower flange in load-bearing relationship thereto.

5. The prefabricated building of claim 4 in which there is a downwardly opening reentrant flange at each end of said rigid roof with its edge disposed in a generally horizontal position, the downwardly opening channel of which reentrant flange fits tightly over an upwardly extending flange at the top inner edge portion of the corresponding end shell to support the roof upon said upwardly extending flange as a load-bearing member.

6. The prefabricated building of claim 5 which includes an upwardly opening reentrant flange at each end of said central bottom wall with its edge disposed in a generally horizontal position, and a downwardly extending flange at the inner bottom edge portion of the corresponding end shell that fits tightly into the upwardly opening channel of each of said reentrant flanges to support said end shell upon said upwardly opening reentrant flange as a loadbearing member.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,229,477 6/1917 Kramer 5279 1,965,450 7/1934 Brown 5264 2,795,014 6/1957 Kelly 5279 3,188,131 6/1965 Atwood 52270 3,302,353 2/1967 Pradal 52469 2,561,92l 7/1951 Guillot 5267 2,965,412 12/1960 Henderson et al. 5267 FOREIGN PATENTS 97,476 1964 Denmark 5264 1,523,458 3/1968 France 5279 1,406,672 1965 France 5279 HENRY C. SUTHERLAND, Primary Examiner U.S. Cl. X.R.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification52/64, 52/79.7, 52/73, 52/234, 52/79.5, D25/22
International ClassificationE04B1/343, E04B1/348
Cooperative ClassificationE04B1/34321, E04B1/34815
European ClassificationE04B1/348C, E04B1/343C1