US 3567657 A
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United States Patent on e 3,567,657 ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE SKIN CONDITIONING SYSTEM Joseph Lichtenstein, Colonia, NJ. 07067 No Drawing. Filed May 29, 1968, Ser. No. 732,867 Int. Cl. A0111 9/00; H011) 1/00 US. Cl. 252500 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE The present invention relates to a new and improved electrically conductive system to be used with electrocardiographic diagnostic equipment.
The primary object of this invention is to reliably transmit an electrically interpreted current from the body of the patient to the recording equipment.
Another object of this invention is the ability of the preparation to be innocuous so no harmful or deleterious effect is evidenced on the condition of the patients skin.
Another object of this invention is that the preparation be cleansing but not drying, conductive but not irritating.
Another object of this invention is to serve as a skin conditioning agent and eliminate the inorganic salts known to be astringent compounds. Said compounds cause the leaching of natural skin oils and dry skin tissue.
A major aspect of this invention is the ability to replace the inorganic salts usually sodium chloride presently in use in electrically conductive emulsions and gels. Said salts when found in present preparations require necessary additives such as corrosion inhibitors; buffering agents; bacterial and mold inhibitors and special skin conditioners. It is advisable in these halide salt preparations to remove the residue from the patients skin imrnediately upon completion of conductive tests since the high inorganic salt content plus the other chemicals necessarily incorporated in these emulsions or gels could have an irritating effect on sensitive skin.
The purpose of this present invention is to eliminate the corrosive inorganic electrically conductive salts; inhibitors; buffers and other additives by replacing them with a single organic compound, singularly suitable for just such preparations. These preparations otter more safey on normal or sensitive skin as they are non-irritating and non-sensitizing. In fact these compounds are used to repair damaged tissue caused by other irritants.
The organic compound may be selected from a group of organic acids such as benzoic; salicyclic; tartaric; citric; lactic or malic.
These compounds in the form of their sodium or potassium salts, or their sodium or potassium acid salts are well known for their skin soothing, conditioning and healing properties in pharmacological and medicinal chemistry.
The aforementioned organic compounds and their sodium or potassium salts or acid salts are also widely used as corrosion, bacterial and mold inhibitors. These compounds are also excellent buffering and chelating agents since they are the products of the reaction between a strong base and a weak acid.
As stable buffering agents they eliminate the need for additional buffers. Any of the emulsifying or gelling agents may be incorporated in lotion like vehicles without the necessity of adjusting pH factors. Aqueous emulsions or gels can therefore utilize more inexpensive less demanding emulsifying agents oifering neutral, bland safe lotion pH ranges of 7.2-7.6. If desired, acid mantle pH range 4-6 can be formulated by simple increase of the compound actively being used for electrical conductive results.
As effective chelating agents they prevent the precipitation of harmful metallic deposits in the emulsion or gel and aid in maintaining electrodes free of contamination. The inherent chelating abilities of citric and tartaric salts complex the oxides of iron and other metal oxides or hydroxides on electrodes and continuously keep the electrodes clean and functionally ready for use.
A fact not so well known is that these organic salts and acid salts exhibit outstanding electrically conductive characteristics in emulsified or gelled mediums.
The quantity of organic salts necessary to produce excellent electrical contact between skin and electrodes is equal to, or less than the quantity used in the inorganic salt preparations today.
Desired conductivity can be produced by using the listed organic salts and acid salts in emulsions and gels in a range of from 1%10% by weight or adjusted volume. This range compares favorably with emulsions or gels or comparative percentages using inorganic halides.
The following formulations generally classify the wide range of stable application this invention permits.
(A) Emollient lotions (emulsion types): Percentage Sodium tartrate or sodium bitar-trate 3.5 Fatty acid groups 6.5 Natural or synthetic oils 4.0 Triethanolamine 3.0 (See Note (1).)
Glycerine 4.0 Water 79.0
(B) Gels (clear or translucent):
Sodium citrate 5.0 Glycerine 4.0 Natural or synthetic oil 6.0 Tergitol 3.0 (See Note (2).)
Hydro-ethyl cellulose 2.0
(See Note (3).) Water 80.0 (C) Aqueous solutions:
Sodium citrate 4.0 Glycer-ine 4.5 Sodium lauryl sulfate 0.5 Alcohol 2.0
NOTES (1) Any ammonic; cationic or nonionic emulsifyers may be used with sufficient fatty acids and replacement oils to make a functional emolient lotion.
(2) Any of the neutral detergent compounds may be incorporated for cleansing action.
(3) Any of natural or synthetic gumming agents such as carbopal; V-Gum; methyl cellulose may be used.
These compounds may be adjusted to be used effectively in aerosol sprays and foams either as gel aqueous or in emulsified vehicles.
What is claimed is:
(1. In a process of transmitting electrical signals from the body of a patient to signal receiving means utilizing an electrically conductive material applied to the body of the patient, the improvement which comprises said electrically conductive material consisting essentially of a carrier and an electrically conductive ingredient selected from the group consisting of benzoic, salicylic, tartaric, citric, lactic and malic acids, the sodium and potassium salts thereof, the sodium and potassium acid salts thereof and mixtures of the same, said conductive ingredient being present in an amount of from 1 to 10 percent of said electrically conductive material.
2. The improvement of claim 1 wherein said carrier comprises an aqueous solution.
3. The improvement of claim 1 wherein said carrier comprises a gel.
4. The improvement of claim 1 wherein said carrier comprises an emollient lotion.
5. The improvement of claim 1, wherein said carrier comprises an aerosol.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 11/1935 Mede'r et al 424-3l7 10/1953 Sattler 4243l7 6/1957 Shumard 424-3 l7 8/1962 Adams 252500 1/1967 Magerlein 252500 10 DOUGLAS J. DRUMMOND, Primary Examiner U.S. Cl. X.R.