Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.


  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3567657 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 2, 1971
Filing dateMay 29, 1968
Priority dateMay 29, 1968
Publication numberUS 3567657 A, US 3567657A, US-A-3567657, US3567657 A, US3567657A
InventorsLichtenstein Joseph
Original AssigneeLichtenstein Joseph
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electrically conductive skin conditioning system
US 3567657 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent on e 3,567,657 ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE SKIN CONDITIONING SYSTEM Joseph Lichtenstein, Colonia, NJ. 07067 No Drawing. Filed May 29, 1968, Ser. No. 732,867 Int. Cl. A0111 9/00; H011) 1/00 US. Cl. 252500 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE The present invention relates to a new and improved electrically conductive system to be used with electrocardiographic diagnostic equipment.

The primary object of this invention is to reliably transmit an electrically interpreted current from the body of the patient to the recording equipment.

Another object of this invention is the ability of the preparation to be innocuous so no harmful or deleterious effect is evidenced on the condition of the patients skin.

Another object of this invention is that the preparation be cleansing but not drying, conductive but not irritating.

Another object of this invention is to serve as a skin conditioning agent and eliminate the inorganic salts known to be astringent compounds. Said compounds cause the leaching of natural skin oils and dry skin tissue.

A major aspect of this invention is the ability to replace the inorganic salts usually sodium chloride presently in use in electrically conductive emulsions and gels. Said salts when found in present preparations require necessary additives such as corrosion inhibitors; buffering agents; bacterial and mold inhibitors and special skin conditioners. It is advisable in these halide salt preparations to remove the residue from the patients skin imrnediately upon completion of conductive tests since the high inorganic salt content plus the other chemicals necessarily incorporated in these emulsions or gels could have an irritating effect on sensitive skin.

The purpose of this present invention is to eliminate the corrosive inorganic electrically conductive salts; inhibitors; buffers and other additives by replacing them with a single organic compound, singularly suitable for just such preparations. These preparations otter more safey on normal or sensitive skin as they are non-irritating and non-sensitizing. In fact these compounds are used to repair damaged tissue caused by other irritants.

The organic compound may be selected from a group of organic acids such as benzoic; salicyclic; tartaric; citric; lactic or malic.

These compounds in the form of their sodium or potassium salts, or their sodium or potassium acid salts are well known for their skin soothing, conditioning and healing properties in pharmacological and medicinal chemistry.

The aforementioned organic compounds and their sodium or potassium salts or acid salts are also widely used as corrosion, bacterial and mold inhibitors. These compounds are also excellent buffering and chelating agents since they are the products of the reaction between a strong base and a weak acid.

As stable buffering agents they eliminate the need for additional buffers. Any of the emulsifying or gelling agents may be incorporated in lotion like vehicles without the necessity of adjusting pH factors. Aqueous emulsions or gels can therefore utilize more inexpensive less demanding emulsifying agents oifering neutral, bland safe lotion pH ranges of 7.2-7.6. If desired, acid mantle pH range 4-6 can be formulated by simple increase of the compound actively being used for electrical conductive results.

As effective chelating agents they prevent the precipitation of harmful metallic deposits in the emulsion or gel and aid in maintaining electrodes free of contamination. The inherent chelating abilities of citric and tartaric salts complex the oxides of iron and other metal oxides or hydroxides on electrodes and continuously keep the electrodes clean and functionally ready for use.

A fact not so well known is that these organic salts and acid salts exhibit outstanding electrically conductive characteristics in emulsified or gelled mediums.

The quantity of organic salts necessary to produce excellent electrical contact between skin and electrodes is equal to, or less than the quantity used in the inorganic salt preparations today.

Desired conductivity can be produced by using the listed organic salts and acid salts in emulsions and gels in a range of from 1%10% by weight or adjusted volume. This range compares favorably with emulsions or gels or comparative percentages using inorganic halides.

The following formulations generally classify the wide range of stable application this invention permits.

(A) Emollient lotions (emulsion types): Percentage Sodium tartrate or sodium bitar-trate 3.5 Fatty acid groups 6.5 Natural or synthetic oils 4.0 Triethanolamine 3.0 (See Note (1).)

Glycerine 4.0 Water 79.0

(B) Gels (clear or translucent):

Sodium citrate 5.0 Glycerine 4.0 Natural or synthetic oil 6.0 Tergitol 3.0 (See Note (2).)

Hydro-ethyl cellulose 2.0

(See Note (3).) Water 80.0 (C) Aqueous solutions:

Sodium citrate 4.0 Glycer-ine 4.5 Sodium lauryl sulfate 0.5 Alcohol 2.0

Water 89.0

NOTES (1) Any ammonic; cationic or nonionic emulsifyers may be used with sufficient fatty acids and replacement oils to make a functional emolient lotion.

(2) Any of the neutral detergent compounds may be incorporated for cleansing action.

(3) Any of natural or synthetic gumming agents such as carbopal; V-Gum; methyl cellulose may be used.

These compounds may be adjusted to be used effectively in aerosol sprays and foams either as gel aqueous or in emulsified vehicles.

What is claimed is:

(1. In a process of transmitting electrical signals from the body of a patient to signal receiving means utilizing an electrically conductive material applied to the body of the patient, the improvement which comprises said electrically conductive material consisting essentially of a carrier and an electrically conductive ingredient selected from the group consisting of benzoic, salicylic, tartaric, citric, lactic and malic acids, the sodium and potassium salts thereof, the sodium and potassium acid salts thereof and mixtures of the same, said conductive ingredient being present in an amount of from 1 to 10 percent of said electrically conductive material.

2. The improvement of claim 1 wherein said carrier comprises an aqueous solution.

3. The improvement of claim 1 wherein said carrier comprises a gel.

4. The improvement of claim 1 wherein said carrier comprises an emollient lotion.

5. The improvement of claim 1, wherein said carrier comprises an aerosol.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 11/1935 Mede'r et al 424-3l7 10/1953 Sattler 4243l7 6/1957 Shumard 424-3 l7 8/1962 Adams 252500 1/1967 Magerlein 252500 10 DOUGLAS J. DRUMMOND, Primary Examiner U.S. Cl. X.R.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3710782 *Oct 1, 1969Jan 16, 1973Hauser Res And Eng CoMethod of treating human skin with a composition for electromedical applications
US4002221 *Nov 15, 1974Jan 11, 1977Gilbert BuchalterMethod of transmitting ultrasonic impulses to surface using transducer coupling agent
US4016869 *Oct 30, 1975Apr 12, 1977Siemens AktiengesellschaftSignal collector system
US4066078 *Feb 5, 1976Jan 3, 1978Johnson & JohnsonDisposable electrode
US4299231 *Nov 13, 1979Nov 10, 1981Beiersdorf AktiengesellschaftElectrically conductive, visco-elastic gel and its use in electrode
US4318746 *Jan 8, 1980Mar 9, 1982Ipco CorporationHighly stable gel, its use and manufacture
US4362165 *Jan 8, 1980Dec 7, 1982Ipco CorporationStable gel electrode
US4377170 *Dec 1, 1980Mar 22, 1983Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyNon-polarizable bioelectrode
US4416274 *Feb 23, 1981Nov 22, 1983Motion Control, Inc.Ion mobility limiting iontophoretic bioelectrode
US4444748 *Nov 16, 1982Apr 24, 1984Noble Rudolf EUse of tartrates in treatment of herpes
US4498474 *Mar 25, 1982Feb 12, 1985Edward ChalmersEpilation method
US4592370 *Nov 26, 1982Jun 3, 1986Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyEar canal electrode for auditory testing
US4622975 *Sep 27, 1982Nov 18, 1986Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyEar canal electrode
US4658826 *Jul 22, 1980Apr 21, 1987D. O. Weaver and CompanySkin preparatory composition for use with electrocardiograph and electroencephalograph monitoring electrodes
US4741344 *Nov 17, 1986May 3, 1988Nicolet Instrument CorporationEar canal electrode
US5088978 *Jan 26, 1990Feb 18, 1992Gensia Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Apparatus and method for iontophoretic transfer
US5660177 *Oct 17, 1994Aug 26, 1997Biofield Corp.D.C. biopotential sensing electrode assemblies for apparatus for disease, injury and bodily condition screening or sensing
US5823957 *Jul 27, 1995Oct 20, 1998Biofield CorpD.C. biopotential sensing electrode and electroconductive medium for use therein
US20130066186 *Aug 23, 2012Mar 14, 2013Tyco Healthcare Group LpNovel Electrodes
DE3241171A1 *Nov 8, 1982Oct 20, 1983Gilbert BuchalterVerfahren und leitfaehige fluessigkeit zum anbringen einer elektrode an der haut eines patienten
EP0512065A1 *Jan 14, 1991Nov 11, 1992Gensia Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Apparatus and method for iontophoretic transfer
WO2013113130A1Jun 7, 2012Aug 8, 2013Swisstom AgElectrode sensor kit, electrode assembly, and topical preparation for establishing electrical contact with skin, use thereof, and method of electro-impedance tomography (eit) imaging using these
U.S. Classification252/500, 252/519.21, 600/382, 600/395, 514/574
International ClassificationH01B1/00, A61B5/0408
Cooperative ClassificationH01B1/00, A61B5/0408
European ClassificationH01B1/00, A61B5/0408