US 3568387 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 9 1971 Original Filed June 8, 1967 G. GRABOW STRUCTURAL ELEMENT 5 Sheets-Sheet l March 9, 1971 G. GRABOW 3,568,387
STRUCTURAL ELEMENT Original Filed June 8, 1967 5 SheetS-Sheot 2 March 9, 1971 G. GRABOW 3,568,387
STRUCTURAL ELEMENT Original Filed June 8, 1967 5 Sheets-Shoat Li Fig.11 1.8"
March 9, 1971 GRABOW I 3,568,387
STRUCTURAL ELEMENT Original Filed June 8, 1967 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 I 1.0 ML" q, r, 1.. MS
March 9, 1971- G. GRABOW STRUCTURAL ELEMENT 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Original Filed June 8, 1967 United States Patent Olhce 3,568,387 Patented Mar. 9, 1971 3,568,387 STRUCTURAL ELEMENT Giinter Grabow, 42 Rosenstrasse, 7024 Bernhausen, Germany Continuation of application Ser. No. 644,557, June 8, 1967. This application May 7, 1969, Ser. No. 824,739 Claims priority, application Germany, June 13, 1966, G 47,147; Oct. 11, 1966, G 35,588 Int. Cl. E04b 2/14; E04c 1/42 US. Cl. 52-306 2 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A structural element which is particularly suitable for use in the erection of wall structures. The element comprises at least one block of vitreous material. This block has a first and a second major surface and at least one of these major surfaces is at least in part inclined to a central plane of the block whereby the thus-inclined portion has a predetermined relationship with the central plane of the block as well as with a general plane of the structural element.
This application is a continuation of application Ser. No. 644,557, filed June 8, 1967, which is now abandoned.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to structural elements in general, and more particularly to structural elements for use in wall structures. Still more particularly, the present invention relates to structural elements including blocks of vitreous material.
It is known to construct walls and the like from blocks of vitreous material, and more particularly from blocks constituted from glass. Usually, these blocks are of quadratic or rectangular outline and are hollow, and both sides of the blocks are exposed when the wall structure is completed. The transverse surfaces which connect the major surfaces of these blocks are invariably of rectangular outline. Because it is not usually desired that walls constructed from such blocks be transparent, it is customary to provide glass blocks of this type with ridges, depressions, or various geometric projections or concavities. Such treatment of the exposed major surfaces of the blocks not only makes it impossible to clearly see through them but also enhances the aesthetic appearance of the wall constructed from such blocks. However, they suffer from various considerable disadvantages one of which is the fact that much of the light which impinges on one face of a wall constructed from such blocks is lost at the joint between adjacent blocks, where the influence on the propagation of light waves is different from the affect on these light waves over the major surface of the respective block. Consequently, much light is lost at the joint of two adjacent blocks and the light transmissivity of such walls is therefore relatively poor. Furthermore, the fact that the propagation of light waves impinging on such blocks is affected differently at the points of abutment of adjacent blocks than at the actual major surfaces of the blocks tends to emphasize the lines defining the points of abutment more clearly, that is to make these lines stand out in an undesirable manner. Beyond this there is also the fact that known glass blocks of the type and for the purposes outlined above, have undesirable acoustical properties.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention overcomes the disadvantages above with respect to the prior art.
More particularly, the present invention provides a structural element comprising one or more blocks, which affects the propagation of light waves and of sound waves in a highly desirable manner which was not heretofore known in elements of this type.
Hereafter the term light factor will be utilized, and it is to be understood that this term refers to the propagation of light waves in general, namely to the transmission of light waves through a glass block, the reflection of light waves, the dispersion of light waves, and the refraction of light waves; in short, any effect on the propagation of light waves which impinge against an exposed surface of a glass block or of a wall made from such glass blocks or of an element incorporating such blocks or constituted of such blocks and useable for the erection of walls.
Briefly stated, one feature of my invention relates to the provision of a structural element which is particularly suitable for use in wall structures. This structural element, in accordance with my invention, comprises at least one block which consists of vitreous material. The block has a first and a second major surface, and at least the first major surface has at least a portion which is inclined to a central plane of the block so as to have with this plane a predetermined relationship, and at the same time to have a predetermined relationship with a general plane of the structural element. The selection of such predetermined relationship is made, of course, in order to effect a specific desired influence on light waves and/or sound waves impinging upon the novel structural element. This being so, it is clear that the novel structural element according to my present invention departs radically from what is known in this field because the prior art did not take into account the specific light factor requirements of such elements, and the specific influence which the surface construction of such elements should desirably exert on the propagation of sound waves.
The improved light factor, as understood with reference to the explanation rendered herebefore, is of particular advantage under circumstances where light impinges upon the exposed surface of the novel structural element at an angle of less than 30 degrees. This latter angle, namely 30 degrees, is the ordinary angle of incidence of light but it is considerably decreased under certain circumstances, for instance if the wall forms a part of a building facing onto a relatively narrow street, or under similar restrictively narrow street, or under similar restrictive circumstances. In such cases the amount of light which can pass through the structural elements known from the prior art is relatively small and it is clear that the amount of light which is then available on the other side of the structural element, namely on the side opposite that onto which the light impinges, is undesirably decreased.
It is to be understood, of course, that while the structural element has at least one and preferably two exposed major surfaces which may be smooth or which may be provided with a suitable pattern of projections or depressions, if the structural element consists of several building blocks then its exposed major surfaces are in turn constituted by the individual major surfaces of the respective building blocks, and these individual major surfaces of the building blocks or portions of such surfaces will in conjunction with one another provide a pattern on the major surface or surfaces of the structural element. The major surfaces of the individual building blocks, in turn, may be provided with suitable patterns so that in effect a larger pattern resulting from the cooperation of portions of the individual major surfaces of the various building blocks is superimposed on a smaller pattern which is provided on each of the major surfaces of the individual blocks.
Various surface configurations have been found particularly advantageous for the novel structural element, whether it be constituted of a single building block or a plurality of building blocks. Thus, it has been found that particularly desirable characteristics are obtained with respect to influencing the propagation of sound waves impinging upon the major surfaces of the element, if at least one major surface, and preferably both of the major surfaces, are convexly curved with the curvature encompassing substantially the entire area of the respective surface. It is to be noted that this configuration also advantageously influences the light factor.
In another embodiment of the invention, both major surfaces of the novel structural element are provided with identical geometric configurations, and I prefer to have these configurations be arranged in mirror-reversed relationship with reference to a common plane of symmetry. It is also advantageous if these configurations are angularly offset with respect to one another.
For circumstances where it is particularly important that incident light impinging on one major surface of the novel element be conveyed to the other major surface of the element, and thereby enter the interior of the room of whose wall or walls the novel element constitutes a portion, I found it to be particularly advantageous if the geometric configuration of one major surface is identical with that of the other major surface, but constitues a negative replica. thereof. In a modification of this embodiment the positive and the negative configuration can be angularly offset with respect to one another although -I prefer not to do so because it is advantageous that the structural element, and in this context particularly the individual building block have identical thickness throughout.
An improvement in the light factor, and indeed in many instances in the defusion of sound waves can also be achieved by so constructing the individual building block that at least one minor surface, namely one of the surfaces which extend between and connect the major surfaces of the block is of an outline other than rectangular. A particularly advantageous configuration for this is a parallogram or a parallelepiped outline. With such an arrangement the transmissivity of the block is increased for passage of light which impinges onto one of the major surfaces at an angle thereto.
As pointed out above, an outward projection is the preferred geometric configuration of one or both of the major surfaces of the novel element. Such outward projection should advantageously extend over the entire area of the respective surfaces and it has been found that it is particularly effective to have this projection be convex. However, other configurations are also advantageous. Generally speaking, it is particularly advantageous that the projections have at least one plane of symmetry which extends normal to the central plane of the element. In another embodiment the projection may have two planes of symmetry which preferably extend normal to one another as well as to the central plane of the element. It is also advantageous to have the geometric configuration of the respective major surface be constituted of a plurality of mutually inclined smooth facets, although the facets can of course themselves be provided with patterns or the like. In this context it is to be understood that if the projection is convexly curved, then it will of course incorporate an infinite number of such facets.
Lest the term structural element applied to both a single block and a plurality of blocks combined with one another be confusing, it should be restated here that the term comprises both a single block and a plurality of such blocks, preferably two, four or another even number. If more than one block is involved, the element will have at least one major exposed face which is composed of the major faces of the various constituent blocks. Inasmuch as the geometric configuration of the major surfaces of the respective blocks together constitute the superimposed larger-dimensioned or larger-pattern geometric configuration of the exposed face of the composite element, it is advantageous that where the major surfaces of the respective blocks are identical with one another,
they be angularly offset with respect to one another so as to obtain the desired superimposed configuration for the exposed surface of the composite element. This makes it possible to use only a single type of block, with no deviations in the size or configuration for all desired purposes, and thus results in economics of manufacture and construction.
An advantage of a wall structure erected with the elements of the present invention is the increased structural stability which is obtained, as well as the fact that the geometric configuration of the individual major surfaces of the blocks as well as the superimposed geometric configuration of the exposed face of the element together so influence the transmissivity of light through the element that it is impossible to see through the element and to make out details in the interior of a room or the like.
In accordance with the invention I further contemplate that at least One edge of one of the major surfaces of the block which constitutes a part of the exposed face of the multi-block element, and which abuts a similar one of an adjacent block, comprise two mutually inclined portions. With this I achieve an influence on the light factor, particularly on the light transmissivity of the element, which is considerably superior to anything known from the prior art and which at the same time serves to optically supress the aesthetically not very pleasing abutment line between two adjacent blocks.
Where a composite element consisting of a plurality of blocks is involved, it is also advantageous that the geometric structural configuration of at least one of the major surfaces of the respective blocks is such that at least two opposite lateral edges of at least one of the major surfaces of at least one of the blocks of the element extend beyond the general plane of the element by at least part of their extension, and that they are offset longitudinally with respect to one another. This also acts to further enhance the desired light factor because ofl'setting the abutting edges makes it possible, particularly if the light impinges at an angle, for more light to penetrate than would other- 'wise be the case, because not as much of the light will encounter the abutting edges. A similar result, or an improvement of the aforementioned result can be obtained by having at least one lateral edge of at least one of the major surfaces of the respective block consist of two portions which are mutually inclined with respect to one another and to a plane which is normal to the general plane of the element. This configuration is particularly advan- .tageous if the element consist only of a single block.
Another advantageous embodiment according to the present invention provides that at least two lateral edges of at least one of the major surfaces of a block be inclined with respect to the central plane of the block which results in particularly advantageous improvements in the light factor and in the influence on the propagation of sound waves.
It is well known, of course, that walls which are constructed with structural elements of vitreous material are reinforced by framing which consists of vertical and horizontal bars or the like. Similar reinforcement is utilized in the present instance also and it must be understood that any offsetting, inclining and/ or mutual angling of the aforementioned lateral edges must be such that the bars of the reinforcing frame will not project beyond the general plane of the element; in other words, these bars must not become visible. The particular configuration of the bars can be chosen at will. Normally, the bars will be straight, but it is of course possible to provide them with inclined portions if it is necessary to provide such inclinations of the lateral edges of the major surfaces, or angling of these edges, that exposure of the bars would become unavoidable unless they were themselves provided with inclined portions. It need not be particularly pointed out that, quite in keeping with the conventional art, the minor surfaces of each block, that is the surfaces extending from one to the other of the major surfaces, are provided with recesses or grooves in which the rods or bars are received, and which recesses or grooves can then be filled with cement or mortar to thereby firmly embed the rods or bars therein.
I prefer that the outline of my novel elements, and specifically in this case of my individual blocks, be quadratic or rectangular. This, it will be understood, refers to the outline of the major surfaces and is by no means exclusive because other outlines can be chosen without detracting from the favorable light factor values and in fluences on propagation of sound waves which are achieved with the present invention. The minor surfaces are in all instances substantially normal to the general plane of the structural element but it must again be emphasized that an inclination of these minor surfaces relative to this general plane is by no means to be excluded.
Other advantageous configurations of the various surfaces of the individual building blocks and the structural element consisting of one or more blocks will become apparent from the further description following hereafter.
The novel features which are considered as characteristic for the invention are set forth in particular in the appended claims. The invention itself, however, both as to its construction and its method of operation, together with additional objects and advantages thereof, will be best understood from the following description of specific embodiments when read in connection with the accompanying drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a building block in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a side view of the block shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a wall portion comprising four structural elements each of which includes four of the building blocks shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a side view of FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 is a view similar to FIG. 1, but showing another embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 6 is a side view of the FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 is a view similar to FIG. 3, but showing the building blocks illustrated in FIG. 5;
FIG. 8 is a side View of FIG. 7;
FIG. 9 is a perspective view of another embodiment of the invention in form of another building block;
FIG. 10 is a side view of the building block shown in FIG. 9;
FIG. 11 is yet a further embodiment of my novel build ing block shown in a perspective view;
FIG. 12 is a side view of the embodiment shown in FIG. 11;
FIG. 13 is a view similar to FIG. 7 'but illustrating the use of the building blocks of FIG. 11;
FIG. 14 is a perspective illustration somewhat similar to FIG. 13, but illustrating a modified wall portion erected with the building blocks shown in FIG. 11;
FIG. 15 is a perspective view of yet an additional embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 16 is a top-plan view of the embodiment shown in FIG. 15;
FIG. 17 is a view similar to FIG. 13 but employing the novel block shown in FIG. 15
FIG. 18 is a view similar to FIG. 14 but also employing the novel block shown in FIG. 15;
FIG. 19 illustrates an additional embodiment of the invention in a perspective view;
FIG. 20 is a side view of the embodiment shown in FIG. 19;
FIG. 21 is a view somewhat similar to FIG. 3, but using the embodiment shown in FIG. 19;
FIG. 22 is a side view of the embodiment shown in FIG. 21;
FIG. 23 is yet a further embodiment of the present invention shown in a perspective view;
FIG. 24 is a side view of the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 23;
FIG. 25 shows a modification of the embodiment of FIG. 23 in a side view;
FIG. 26 shows another modification of the embodiment of FIG. 23, also in a side view;
FIG. 27 shows yet a further embodiment of the novel invention in a perspective view;
FIG. 28 is a side view of the embodiment shown in FIG. 27;
FIG. 29 is a modification of the embodiment shown in FIG. 27, illustrated in side view; and
FIG. 30 is a further modification, also shown in side view, of the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 27.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS It is to be noted that in the drawing identical parts are identified with identical reference numerals and it will be understood that some of the elements illustrated in the drawing are illustrated in somewhat schematic form to facilitate understanding by leaving out non-essential details. Each individual building block shown in the drawing has two opposite major surfaces which are joined by four mutually inclined minor surfaces, the inclination of these minor surfaces relative to one another being degrees. In the illustrated embodiments each of the minor surfaces is located in a plane which is normal to central plane of the respective building block or, where an element comprises two or more blocks, normal to the general plane of the element.
, Throughout the drawing it will be found that the rods or bars constituting the frame for the building blocks are identified with reference numeral 27 and are here illustrated as straight rods. No attempt is made to illustrate or describe how these rods are joined into a frame because this is well known from the prior art.
It must also be kept in mind in considering the drawing that in most of the figures, the central plane of the block or the general plane of the element or the wall erected with the help of the element or the block is indicated by vertical and horizontal chain lines, that is dotand-dash lines, and in some instances where this is believed desirable to facilitate understanding, the direction normal to this general plane is also indicated by similar chain-lines.
Discussing the drawing now in detail with this preface in mind, and firstly FIGS. 1 and 2 thereof, it will be seen that the novel building block illustrated therein will constitute, in conjunction with additional identical building blocks, a structural element of the type illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 4. The building block shown in FIG. 1 is identified generally with reference numeral 17 and is of identical thickness throughout. The block comprises two opposite major surfaces 10 and 11, and it will be seen that each of these major surfaces is subdivided by a diagonally extending line 22 into a first portion 21 which extends parallel to the central plane of the block and a second portion 20 which is inclined to this central plane and to the diagonal line 22, as is clearly evident from both FIGS. 1 and 2. An inspection of FIG. 3 clearly shows that four blocks of the type shown in FIG. 1, angularly offset with respect to one another, together constitute a structural element whose exposed face 18 is provided with a projection in form of an equilateral pyramid 23 whose base lines are constituted by the respective diagonal lines 22 of each of the blocks 17 here involved. It will also be seen that the pyramid-shaped projection 23 extends over the entire height and width of the structural element consisting of four blocks 17, as is clearly evident from FIG. 3 where four of these structural elements together constitute a wall portion. It should be noted that the thickness of the structural elements is identical throughout all four of these elements because the other opposed face 19 (see FIG. 4) of the wall portion constituted by the four structural elements 12 is also provided with pyramid shaped geometric configurations 25 which, however, constitute negatives of the projections 23 provided on the exposed face 19.
It is clear that the superimposed pyramid-shaped configuration of a wall constructed with the structural elements 12 shown in FIG. 3 is obtained simply by angularly offsetting the individual blocks which together constitute each of the elements 12, despite the fact that each of the blocks is identically the same as all of the other blocks. This is possible because all of the abutment edges, such as the abutment edges 26 visible in FIG. 3 along which the individual blocks contact one another and define the pyramid-shaped projection, constitute lines of abutment between adjacent viewable portions 10 of abutting blocks which makes it possible to utilize the abutment lines 26 decoratively as a part of the pattern, rather than to have them provided a jarring appearance which is detrimental to the aesthetics of the completed structure. It goes without saying that this arrangement also improves the static characteristics of a structure erected in this manner. It will be evident from FIGv 1 in particular that the minor surfaces 13 and 14 are in this embodiment of rectangular configuration, whereas the minor surfaces 15 and 16 are of parallelogram-shaped outline.
Coming now to the embodiments illustrated in FIGS. 8, it will be seen that the building block shown in FIG. 5 is identified generally with reference numeral 17a and differs from that shown in FIG. 1 in that the major surfaces of the block in FIG. 5, which are identified with reference numerals and 11' respectively, are each subdivided into two identical portions 20' and 21' along a diagonal 22 in the case of the surface 10 and a diagonal 22 in the case of the surface 11. The inclination of the respective portions 20', and 21 with respect to a central plane of the block 17a is identical with the result that a plane coincident with the diagonal 22 or 22" and being normal to the central plane of the block constitutes a plane of symmetry for the portions 20 and 21' of the respective major surfaces 10' and 11. However, it is to be noted that the diagonal 22" which in FIG. 5 is shown on the rearwardly directed major surface 11' and is therefore indicated in dashed lines, is angularly offset by 90 degrees with respect to the diagonal 22", that is it extends normal to the latter. The various minor surfaces of the block shown in FIG. 5, namely the minor surfaces identified with referencenumerals 13' and 14' respectively, of which there are each two opposed ones, all are of parallelogram outline.
The side view shown in FIG. 6 of the block illustrated in FIG. 5 is self-explanatory and need not be further discussed. The illustration in FIGS. 7 and 8 shows a portion of a wall structure erected from blocks identical with that shown in FIG. 5. As clearly evident from FIG. 7 and also from FIG. 8, the wall structure has two exposed faces 18 and 19 which as a result of angular offsetting of the blocks 17a with respect to one another are provided with a plurality of identically configurated pyramid-shaped projections 31 which each has a quadratic base, and it is to be noted that each base line constituted by one of the diagonals 22 in the case of the face 18' and one of the diagonals 22 in the case of the face 19 is common to two adjacent pyramid-shaped projections. Inasmuch as all of the adjoining minor surfaces '16 are flat, the reinforcing bars 27 can abut directly against these minor surfaces. The general outline of each of the blocks, as is evident from FIG. 7, and particularly from FIG. 5, is quadratic in this embodiment but it is clear from FIGS. 7 and 8 that those of the minor surfaces which are located in a common horizontal or vertical plane (compare FIG. 8, for example) and belonging to abutting ones of the blocks together form a zig-zag shaped configuration. It will be evident from FIG. 8 in particular, that this zig-zag shaped inclination of the minor surfaces results in a total base width of for each of the blocks shown in FIG. 5 which is almost twice that known from the prior art blocks, that is the usual rectangular or quadratic type of block. This is, of course, the result of the fact that the offsetting of the lines of abutment 28, which takes place in the direction normal tothe general plane of the total wall structure, corresponds nearly to the entire thickness of each of the minor surfaces of the block. The term nearly is being used here advisedly, because it is necessary that the reinforcing bars 11 be accommodated in the existing differential so as not to be visible at either of the faces 18, 19' of the wall structure.
Corning now to the embodiment shown in FIGS. 9 and 10, it will be seen that the block illustrated there is generally indicated with reference numeral 17b. This block is of quadratic outline and its major surfaces 10b, 11b are each subdivided into four identical quadrants by two major dividing lines 41, 42 which cross one another at right angles. Thus, each section of the respective major surface corresponding to one of the quadrants is inclined to two planes, coincident with the lines 41 and 42 and normal to the central plane of the block. In turn, eachv of the resulting quadrants is further subdivided into two mutually inclined portions by additional secondary lines 44, 44, 44", and 44" which extend through the juncture of the lines 41 and 42 and to the corners 45 of the block 17b. All portions of the respective major surfaces are in this embodiment smooth and planar and the minor surfaces 13b, 14b, 15b and 16b are similarly planar and of other-than-rectangular outline.
A further embodiment of the invention is illustrated in FIGS. 11 and 12 where the block shown there is generally indicated with reference numeral 170. This block is provided with two major surfaces 10" and 11", each of which is composed of two mutually inclined surface portions 48 and 49 which are symmetrically inclined to a plane normal to the central plane of the block and which include with one another an acute angle. FIGS. 12 and 14 both show that this block has lateral minor surfaces 14" of rectangular outline and horizontal minor surfaces 13 of other-than-rectangular outline, can be used to erect a structure such as that which is illustrated in FIG. 13 in which each of the blocks 17c constitutes a wall element per se. FIG. 13 is self-explanatory and need not be further described. FIG. 14 shows that two of the blocks 170, with their positions suitably reversed so that the major surface 10" of one is located at the same side as the major surface 11" of the other, can together constitute a structural wall element 12".
The embodiment illustrated in FIGS. 15 and 16, where the block is generally identified with reference numeral 174, differs from the preceding embodiments in that its ma or surfaces 10d and 11d are parallel in planes parallel to each other and do not comprise surface portions which are lnclined with reference to one another. Rather each of the major surfaces 10d and 11d is planar, but is inclined at an angle in its totality to the central plane of the block. and thus also to the general plane 79 of a structural element composed of several of the blocks 17d, as indicated 1n FIG. 16. As a result of the inclination of the surfaces 10d and 11d as described above, and because these surfaces are further offset with respect to one another in parallel-relationship, the minor surfaces 13d and 15d are of parallelepiped outline such that they are inclined 1n the direction normal to the general plane 79, while the outline of the minor surfaces 14d and 16d is in the lllustrated embodiment rectangular. FIGS. 17 and 18 show that the block shown in FIGS. 15 and 16 can be used for composing structural wall elements of different configurations, for instance the wall elements 12d in FIG. 17, where two of the blocks 17d together constitute a wall element, or the wall elements 12e shown in FIG. 18, where again two of the blocks 17d together constitute one wall element but in an arrangement different from that employed in FIG. 17. The differences between FIGS. 17 and 18 are so obvious that a specific detailed description of these figures is not believed to be necessary since there can be no doubt as to the arrangements from a perusal of these figures.
Whereas the structural elements shown in FIGS. 17 and 18 are so arranged that their surfaces are inclined in the horizontal to the general plane of the wall structure,
it is evident that the arrangement can also be so selected that the inclination is to a vertical instead. This goes not only for the illustrations in FIGS. 17 and 18 but also for the arrangements shown in FIGS. 13 and 14, and it is to be pointed out relative to all of these arrangements that they provide highly advantageous acoustical properties, and similarly advantageous light factor characteristics. These latter characteristics assure, particularly if light impinges in the direction of the arrows A or B (FIG. 18) that the light transmissivity of the structure is much less impaired than is known from the prior art, this being particularly the result of the fact that the abutment lines 28' extend transversely of the direction from which the light impinges onto the structure.
Coming now to the embodiment shown in FIGS. 19 and 20 it will be seen that this is reminiscent of that illustrated in FIGS. 15 and 16. The block shown in FIGS. 19 and 20 is generally identified with reference numeral 17 and comprises two planar major surfaces and 11] both of which are disposed in planes parallel to one another and inclined to the general central plane of the block. Unlike the embodiment of FIGS. and 16, however, the block shown in FIGS. 19 and is inclined to the central plane not only in one direction but in two directions; in other words, the particular inclination here is obtained by rotating the major surfaces through two axes which are parallel to the original general plane of the block and which are normal to one another. As a result, each of the minor surfaces 13 and 14 defines in its embodiment a parallelogram-shaped outline.
An example of a combination of the blocks shown in FIGS. 19 and 20 into composite structurel elements is illustrated in FIGS. 21 and 2.2. The wall portion shown in FIG. 21 is composed of four structural elements 121, 12g, 12h, and 121' of which each in turn consists of four of the blocks 14] which are angularly rotated with reference to one another, as is clearly evident from FIG. 21, to thereby obtain a pyramid-shaped projection and an adjoining pyramid-shaped depression. This is so because, if one draws an imaginary diagonal 58 on each of the visible major surfaces 10f-10i of the four blocks constituting one of the structural elements, then these imaginary diagonals 58 can be considered the base lines of the pyramid which, as is clearly evident from FIG. 21, has a quadratic base. The remaining portions, such as those identified with reference numeral 59 in FIG. 21, of each visible major surface of each block, that is those surface portions which do not contribute to the pyramid-shaped projection, are of course located in the same plane as those surface portions which do contribute to the pyramid-shaped projection, because the diagonals 58 do not constitute lines of inclination. At the same time, these remaining surface portions 59 of adjacent ones of the blocks cooperate to provide pyramid-shaped impressions which, with reference to the base lines of the pyramid-shaped projection, are mirror-symmetrical replicas of this projection.
Coming now to the embodiment shown in FIGS. 23 and 24, it will be seen that the block illustrated there is identified generally with reference numeral 17k and that it differs from the embodiments heretofore illustrated in that all of its minor surfaces 13k and 14k are of rectangular outline. Each of the major surfaces 10k and 11k is provided with a pyramid-shaped configuration 61, 62' of which, as is evident from FIG. 24, the configuration 6 1 is a concavity whereas the configuration 62 is convex. The base lines of both configurations are coincident with or very close the edges of the respective major surfaces.
It is clear that a composite structural element will be obtained by disposing at least two of the blocks 17k shown in FIGS. 23 and 24 in such a manner that the major surface 10k of one block, with the concave depression 61 therein, is located on the same side as the major surface 11k of the other block with the convex projection 62 thereon. It is also clear that FIGS. 25 and 26 illustrate modifications of the embodiment shown in FIG. 23, in that FIG. 25 illustrates a block 17m in side view whose two major surfaces 10m and 11m are both provided with mirror-symmetrical concavities of pyramidal configuration, whereas the block 17p shown in FIG. 26 is provided on both major surfaces 10p and 11p thereof with pyramidshaped convex projections. The minor surfaces of the blocks shown in FIGS. 23-26, such as the surfaces 13k, 14k, 13m and 14p, are of rectangular outline in these illustrated embodiments. It goes without saying that the various embodiments illustrated in FIGS. 23, 25 and 26, can also be combined with one another in a single structural element to obtain desired light factor characteristics or desired influences on the propagation of sound waves, as well as to obtain specific patterns and appearances.
Coming now to the embodiment shown in FIGS. 27 and 28 where the novel block is generally indicated with reference numerals 17r, it will be seen that this is somewhat similar to the embodiment in FIGS. 23 and 24. The block is again provided with substantially quadratic major surfaces 10r and 111', and the minor surfaces Br and 15r are of rectangular outline. Unlike the embodiment in FIGS. 23 and 24, however, the block shown in FIGS. 27
and 28 is provided in one of its major surfaces, namely in the one identified with reference numeral 101' with an arcuate recess and on its major surface 11r with an arcuate projection. In both cases the curvature of the respective recess or projection is constant so that the recess or concavity as well as the projection each constitute a sector of a sphere.
Finally, FIGS. 29 and 30 are actually self-explanatory modifications of the embodiment shown in FIGS. 27 and 28. FIG. 29 shows a block 17s which differs from the block 17r in FIG. 27 in that both of its major surfaces 10s and 11s are provided with mirror-symmetrical arcuate recesses of constant curvature. The minor surfaces 14s are again of rectangular outline. The embodiment shown in FIG. 30 illustrates a block 17t whose minor surfaces 14t are also of rectangular outline whereas both of its major surfaces 10! and 11t are provided with arcuate pro ections 10! and III corresponding to the projection 11r illustrated in FIG. 28 and, in accordance with what has been said in that figure, of constant curvature to thereby constitute sectors of a sphere. Needless to say the same conditions obtain in FIGS. 27-30 which have been mentioned with respect to FIGS. 23-26, namely the blocks 17r, 17s and 171 in FIGS. 27, 39 and 30 can be combined with one another in any desired manner to obtain a composite structural element or to obtain certain light factors or to permit influencing of the propogation of sound waves impinging on such a structural element.
To avoid confusion the composite structural elements illustrated in the various figures have always been shown to be constituted of identical blocks. It will be clear, however, that non-identical blocks can be combined to compose a composite structural element, just as it is possible to erect a wall structure by using non-identical composite structural elements wherein each structural element may in turn be composed of identical or non-identical blocks.
It will be understood that each of the elements described above, or two or more together, may also find a useful application in other types of elements, differing from the types described above.
While the invention has been illustrated and described as embodied in a structural element, it is not intended to be limited to the details shown since various modifications and structural changes may be made without departing in any way from the spirit of the present invention.
Without further analysis, the foregoing will so fully reveal the gist of the present invention that others can, by applying current knowledge readily adapt it for various applications without omitting features that, from the standpoint of prior art, fairly constitute essential characteristics of the generic or specific aspects of this invention and, therefore, such adaptations should and are intended to be comprehended within the meaning and range of equivalence of the following claims.
What is claimed as new and desired to be protected by Letters Patent is set forth in the appended claims:
1. A wall construction comprising a plurality of structural elements each of which has four contact surfaces forming a rectangular polygon having four corners, four edge surfaces, and integral front and rear visible surfaces spaced from each other by said edge surfaces, said front surface including first pairs of right isosceles triangles the apices of which extend in diametrically opposite directions to two diagonally opposite corners and with the bases of said triangles extending along a common line between the other diagonally opposite corners, the triangles of said first pair being disposed in obtuse angular relation, the rear surface of said element having a second pair of right isosceles triangles the apices of which are rotated 90 relative to the apices of the first pair of triangles, said second pair of triangles extending in diametrically opposite directions to two diagonally opposite corners and with the bases of said triangles extending along a common line between the other diagonally opposite corners, the triangles of said second pair being disposed in obtuse angular relation, whereby the wall formed from a plurality of said elements includes at least four right isosceles triangles which lie contiguous to a common corner which triangles are inclined inwardly relative to 7 12 struction having alternating depressed areas and outwardly projecting areas.
2. A structural element for use in a Wall comprising four contact surfaces forming a rectangular polygon having four corners, four edge surfaces, and integral front and rear visible surfaces, said front surface including first pairs of right isosceles triangles the apices of which are arranged to extend in diametrically opposite directions to two diagonally opposite corners and with the bases of said triangles extending along a common line between the other diagonally opposite corners, the triangles of said first pair being disposed in obtuse angular relation, the rear surface of said element having second pairs of right isosceles triangle the apices of which are rotated relative to the apices of the first pair of triangles, said second pair of triangles extending in diametrically opposite directions to two diagonally opposite corners of the element and with the bases of said last-named triangles extending along a common line, between the other diagonally opposite corners, the triangles of said second pair being disposed in obtuse angular relation.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,918,992 12/1959 Gelsavage 5281 3,435,576 4/1969 Giannelia 52-594 3,462,062 8/1969 Miller 229-8 D. 193,392 8/1962 Kingsbury D182 3,068,754 12/1962 Benjamin 350-259 3,263,322 8/ 1966 Brown 29446 HENRY C. SUTHERLAND, Primary Examiner US. Cl. X.R.