US 3568681 A
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United States Patent June M. Comollo 60 West 57th St., New York, N.Y. 10019 [2 l App]. No. 782,369
 Filed Dec. 9, 1968  Patented Mar. 9, 1971  Inventor  PROSTHETIC BRASSIERE AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME 15 Claims, 12 Drawing Figs.  U.S. Cl 128/478, 3/36, 128/481, 128/516  Int. Cl. A416 3/10  Field ofSearch 128/478,
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,698,941 1/1955 Melnyk 2,794,983 6/1957 OLeary Primary Examiner-Adele M. Eager AttorneysRobert S. Dunham, P. E. Henninger, Lester W.
Clark, Gerald W. Griffin, Thomas P. Moran, R. Bradlee Boal and Christopher C. Dunham ABSTRACT: Prosthetic articles, for use after breast surgery, are constituted by assembly, with a basic brassiere casing, of selectable pad elements of three types, namely a basic simulative element, an extension element for upward oblique disposition, and an arcuate element mountable at the upper rear of the basic element, whereby completed, well-fitting structures are obtainable with standardized parts, but suited to individual needs of body shape and postsurgical condition.
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PIIOSTI-IETIIC BRASSIERE AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to prosthetic brassiere structures and methods of making them, to provide prosthetic replacement for women who have undergone breast surgery. More particularly the invention is directed to novel prosthetic structures or assemblies, and parts therefor, designed to constitute a simulation in form of a removed breast, and as necessary, adjacent portions of the body, the invention being further related to methods of constructing such prosthetic simulation in a manner selectably appropriate to a given wearer, ie to suit the special needs of the individual woman who has had such surgery at one or both sides.
Although many forms of articles for this general purpose have heretofore been proposed or made available, they have in many cases been such as not to take proper account of the particular shape, size, bulk, attitude and extent of removed body portions, that may vary widely in individual cases; theresulting, supposedly universal device is a poor compromise and at best affords an awkward or poorly shaped appearance when covered by clothing. Alternatively, efforts to meet the particular requirements of an individual have usually only been satisfied by expensive manual shaping of pad structures or the like, requiring a special degree of experience and skill. Devices of liquid-filled type have been used with some advantage, but these but these are-often found uncomfortably heavy, are difficult to hold snugly against the chest, an and again fail to suit individual conditions in many cases.
It should be noted that the requirements of a device of this sort are not merely for a breast-simulating element of rounded contour and appropriately resilient consistency, but also for satisfying a large variation in size, and in attitude or possible tilt of the element, and particularly to take account of the actual condition of the chest or pectoral region after Such such condition may include some degree of concavity, both of a general nature and quite often of the region originally occupied by the pectoral muscle, including an area extending upward, somewhat at obliquely, toward or beside the armpit region. In more simple terms, the need is to restore, in effect, a natural slant of the chest wall, but todo so with means adaptable to a variation of requirements depending on the body structure of the individual and the nature of surgery performed.
An important object of the present invention is to provide a prosthetic device which may be generically called a prosthetic brassiere, that is constituted of selectable parts or units capable of mutual organization to suit a multitude of different conditions, indeed essentially most such conditions occurring, with various individual women, after breast surgery. A particular aim is thus to provide for making brassiere assemblies, with a minimum of special expense and without any need of special technical skill beyond relatively simple fitting, that will achieve a natural and in effect individualized prosthetic replacement. A special object is the provision of resulting arti' cles, relatively simple in structure, which attain such replacement and are suited to the wearing of clothing of ordinary, fashionable sort whereby a normal appearance is achieved with complete comfort and security for the user.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION To the above and other ends, the articles of the invention comprise a basic brassiere casing or fabric cup structure together with, included and attached pads or pad elements selected from a plurality of types, respectively designed for combination to achieve the desired breast simulation and filling-out relative to the surgically removed regions. More particularly, dealing with the situation of removal of one breast, or singly as to each of two, there is provided a basic breast-simulating pad of selectable size secured in the brassiere casing or cup, and selectively one or both of two other pad elements attachable to the basic assembly, one of these being of arcuate or crescent-shaped configuration having a general dimensional agreement with the upper, curved edge of the basic pad at its rear face, and the other being of an elongated or preferably more or less triangular shape (and conveniently so identified), intended to be disposed, in effect resting against the chest of the wearer, so that it extends upward and obliquely sidewise from the upper edge of the cup. Each of the three types of pads is essentially composed of resilient foam material, preferably having a simple casing of fabric, and thereby attachable to other fabric parts (including each other) by simple sewing or the like. The brassiere band or casing itself may comprise fabric cups (of essentially conventional, supporting nature) and band connection, made in selectable sizes, and with shoulder straps of conventional sort, so that when fitted with the prosthetic pad means relatively to one or both cups, it may be worn exactly as an ordinary brassiere.
It has been found that with the foregoing elements, prosthetic devices may be constructed to suit any of a great variety of personal requirements. In alimited number of cases, where surgery has left essentially no concavity of the chest wall and it is also unnecessary to simulate any downward tilt in the prosthesis, it may be sufficient to utilize only the basic breast-simulating pad, but a large number of situations require, and may be wholly accommodated by, the addition of one or the other or both of the supplemental pad elements, referred to above as the arcuate and triangular pads. With the arcuate-element, disposed around and above the upper rearward edge of the basic structure, additional bulk is provided for either or both of two purposes, viz. a desired downward tilt of the basic pad element and compensation for surgical change in what might be deemed the normal outer contour of the pectoral wall. The effect of surgery on the pectoral muscle, i.e. pectoralis major, is often to produce a concavity of the upper chest wall or pectoral area, extending upward and laterally from the normal location of the breast, including removal of fatty or other tissue from such area; such deficiency can be filled effectively by the triangular element, having its base secured adjacent the upper edge of the brassiere cup.
Thus by providing the defined elements, in selectable sizes as necessary, and by choosing appropriate combination thereof, an effective mode is afforded of constructing a prosthetic brassiere suited accurately to individual requirements, and new and economical prosthetic articles are achieved, fulfilling the defined aims of the invention.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of a brassiere exemplifying the invention, having a complete prosthetic assembly associated with one cup;
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary rear elevational view, i.e. from the inside, of the assembled article of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a vertical section on line 3-3 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a simplified perspective view showing the article as worn, with prosthetic structure for both cups;
FIG. 5 is a front view of a basic, breast-simulating pad element;
FIG. 6 is a section on line 6-6 of FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 is a front view of a supplemental, substantially triangular pad element;
FIG. 8 is a section on line 8-8 of FIG. 7;
FIG. 9 is a front view of a supplemental, arcuate pad element;
FIG. 10 is a section on line 10-10 ofFlG. 9;
FIG. ll is a vertical section similar to FIG. 3, showing one modified assembly; and
FIG. 12 is a vertical section similar to FIG. 3, showing another modified assembly DETAILED DESCRIPTION Referring to the drawings, the complete assembly of FIGS. 1 to 4 includes a basic brassiere structure or casing, comprising a body-encircling band 20 and a pair of cup elements 21, 22 of generally conventional shape and situation. The article may include shoulder straps 23, 24 for the usual supporting function, extending respectively from central, uppermost localities of the upwardly curved top edges 25, 26 of the cup regions, to appropriate points at the rear of the band, the band itself being made to open at whatever place is desired, for example as shown at the back, providing two ends 27, 28 that can be secured together by conventional hook or other fastening means. Whereas for prosthetic function (in broader aspects of the invention) the brassiere band considered as a casing or support may conceivably have only a fabric strip configuration or even open structure at the cup localities, with the inserted and secured pad elements then made or sheathed to constitute the entire, main, form-creating means, it is of special advantage to provide complete fabric cups, not only for applicability of one manufactured type of brassiere to single as well as double prosthesis (with natural brassiere function at one side) abut also to provide better adaptability to a variety of simulative needs in effectuating the methods of the invention.
The basic brassiere structure can be made of appropriate fabric, very preferably comprising an elastic, woven, mesh fabric having small mesn openings and disposed with its weave at a bias, throughout the several portions of the band 20 or at least along the major extend of such band at each side of the cups 21, 23 toward the ends 27, 28, so that the assembly is held in firm, nonslipping but comfortable position against the body. For simplicity of illustration, functional or ornamental details usually appropriate to articles of this class are omitted from the drawings, such as reinforcing or reinforced hems along the band and beneath and around the cups, lace or like sheathing over the cups or elsewhere, plural fabric construction for the cups or other parts, and like features as may be desired. It will also be understood that alternative supporting means or arrangements may in some instances be provided in lieu of shoulder straps, and that the brassiere can have further body-engaging portions (e.g. below) or can be constituted with or as part of an undergarment, whether of foundation or other type, or even as part ofa bathing suit or still other article of clothing, the term brassiere being herein understood, unless otherwise specified, to include all such modifications as well as a simple band-type article as shown in the drawings.
In FIGS. 1 and 2, prosthetic means are shown only in association with one cup 21, but of course like means, correspondingly disposed, can be embodied with the other cup 22, for a situation where both breasts have been subjected to surgery, the resulting assembly being then as depicted in FIG. 4. It will be preliminarily noted that as shown in FIG. 3, the basic brassiere cup 21 may include, as in lining relation to the entirety of its outer fabric sheath 30, a relatively thin shell or hollow cup 32, say about A-inch thick, of resilient foam material, having its inner concave face covered with fabric 33, to provide a degree of self-support or shape to the brassiere cup. While this element 32 may be deemed to contribute in some measure to the total prosthetic bulk, it serves, by reason of having a full, outer, breast-simulating contour under the sheath of the brassiere cup, to improve the natural effect of the prosthesis and also, as by its inclusion in both cups of FIG. 1, to insure a good match in appearance where such prosthesis is required for only one side and there is a normal bodyform in the other cup. Special contour or shaping means of this sort may nevertheless be omitted if desired; indeed an important advantage of the invention, in its basic aspects, is that the desired prosthetic effect is essentially obtained by selective use of no more than a small number of pad elements as further explained below.
The primary prosthetic element is a breast-simulating pad 35 of resilient foam material (FIGS. and 6) having a convex shape which chiefly comprises a spherical-type curve, anatomically appropriate, and which may be somewhat elongated in a horizontal direction, preferably with a greater extension in a direction, as at 36, toward the side of the wearers body, the element being bounded by convexly curved edges at top and bottom. The apex 37 of the forward curved surface ordinarily need not be very sharply defined or specially shaped (although it may be so if desired), but is preferably disposed close to a central locality between top and bottom edges, i.e. providing approximate symmetry of contour along a vertical section above and below a medial horizontal plane. If the shape of a downward tilt is desired, it can be achieved by supplemental means as described below, whereby a single basic shape of the element 35 serves a variety of circumstances. The rear face of the foam structure has a relatively large, curved concavity 38 of substantial depth as shown, bounded by a moderately wide face 39 which may be in a plane or be shaped slightly toward the concavity. This arrangement promotes flexibility of the article and its firmer seating, of itself or as assembled with other parts, against the body of the wearer. The pad is conveniently enclosed in a simple, preferably removable, fabric cover 40.
As shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, the main pad 35 is confonnably seated and secured in the cup 21, and in many cases there is also provided an extension pad 42, designed and attached to extend obliquely upward from the upper edge of the pad 35 and the cup 21. Although this element may have other edge configurations such as elliptical, trapezoidal or even rectangular, special advantage for properly simulative prosthetic function is attained with the triangular shape depicted in FIGS. 1, 2, 4, 7 and 8. Specifically this element 42, enclosed in a simple fabric cover 44, is a cushion-shaped triangular body of resilient foam material, e.g. approximating the solid defined by a pair of outwardly convex spherical triangles joined at their edges. As attached at its base 45 to the under surface of the fabric cup assembly 21, e.g. a short distance below the upper edge 25, thistriangular element serves to fill out such concavity of the upper chest wall, above the breast region, as may be occasioned by surgical removal of the pectoral muscle.
Although the element 42 may be otherwise mounted, for instance closer to the edge 25 or at the rear surface of the main element 35, the illustrated disposition between congruent, outwardly curving surfaces of the cup structure 21 and the pad 35 is notably effective in causing this extension pad 42 to rest snugly against the chest wall of the wearer without support or fastening at upper parts of the triangle. Moreover, instead of extending vertically upward along the shoulder strap 23 or in equivalent position, the pad 42 is obliquely disposed, specifically along a line passing close to the wearers armpit and laterally outward of a normal strap location; with the element arranged so that it requires attachment essentially only along its lower edge 45, this greatly preferable position is attained for optimum prosthetic effect.
A third and cooperatively useful member of the set of selectable parts for structures assembled in accordance with the invention is an arcuate pad element 48, having a cushionshaped body of resilient foam material and preferably enclosed in a simple fabric cover 49 (FIGS. 1, 2, 3, 9 and 10). Most conveniently, this element has a crescent configuration as shown, bounded by upper and lower curves 50, 51 which (particularly to the upper one) have general conformity with the top edges of the brassiere cup 21 and the main pad 35. In use, the crescent element 48 is secured along the upper, rearward portion of the brassiere cup assembly, for example the upper face portion 39 of the main pad 35, and may have an upper part of its curved extend located above the top edge of the latter pad. The primary function of this arcuate part 48 is to pitch the main simulative pad 35 (and the cup 21) forward relative to the chest wall, to accomplish either or both of two purposes, namely: (a) to compensate for what in a number of instances of surgery may have become a considerable concavity of the underlying chest surface, and (b) to effect a downward tilt of the breast-simulating structure where naturalness of appearance may so demand, e.g. because of bulk or maturity. The degree of tilt in a given case is to some extend preadjustable by the positioning of the crescent element 48, whether higher on the assembly or lower (for more tilt) as well as by possible selection of size of the element, thus to suit the purpose or purposes served.
The foam material of which the several pad elements are made may in a general sense be any suitable cellular or spongelike substance, of natural or synthetic rubber or other elastic polymer; notably effective structures are provided with polyurethane foam, or preferably a polyethylene-polyurethane foam, which is relatively very light in weight and has a soft but highly resilient and therefore amply firm body. The several parts of the assembled prosthetic structures, eg in an article as shown in FIGS. 1 to 3 or FlG. 4, are conveniently sewn together, by simple sewing between the fabric covers of the pads and the fabric structure of the brassiere cups to the extend necessary for the described attachment. if desired, the upper edge of each cup 211 and 25, and of the crescent pad 48 may carry a ruffled fabric band or the like, respectively at 53 and 54, for aiding in a better masked, filled-out and more natural appearance.
By providing the three types of pad units 35, 42 and 48 (H65. 5, 7 and 9), together with the basic brassiere structure, the invention affords an unusually effective method of making prosthetic articles as described, using essentially only standardized elements but achieving a finished product that suits the requirements of the individual wearer. The brassiere element can be provided in a conventional range of sizes, both as to cups and as to the body-encircling dimension of the band. Likewise, the main bi'east-simulating pad is made with a variety of dimensions, for example in nine conventionally designated sizes. The extension pad 42, preferably of the triangular cushion shape, is also provided in several sizes, e.g. differing in width and chiefly in length from lower edge to upper corner. Since the extend of function of the crescent pad 48 can be adjusted by its positioning,a single size has been found useful for many situations, but the provision of a range of differently dimensioned elements is also contemplated.
As distinguished from specially designing and shaping a single but complex prosthetic structure to suit an individual condition, the present mode of making an effective article requires no special skill or extended training. With inspection of the chest area to be accommodated, it is readily determinable whether all three of the different pad elements, or less than all, may be required, and likewise what size of each element and of the brassiere, at most with a few trials. If there is essentially no concavity of the chest wall, the basic pad 35 may along suffice, or if greater fullness and some downward tilt is needed, the crescent element 48 may be added, usually at a high location at the upper rear edge of the pad 35. in many cases, surgery will have left some hollow in the pectoral muscle area toward or beside the armpit, requiring a triangular pad 42 as shown in FIGS. 1, 2 and 3, disposed higher or lower and at a selected obliquity of angle as the given condition may require. Where there is appreciable concavity over a large area of the chest, selection will necessarily include a crescent pad 43 (with or without the extension pad 42), the position of this pad at the rear of the main pad, whether higher or lower being chosen to suit the condition and the desired attitude of the main pad 35 in general, only simple fitting and adjustments with the parts pinned in place, is necessary, and thereafter final mutual attachment by sewing, but if a subsequent readjustment is needed, the parts can easily be separated or even replaced.
By way of illustration, in contrast to the complete assembly of FIGS. 1. to 3, H6. 11 illustrates a situation where only the basic element 35 and the extension (triangular) element 42 are needed, whereas FIG. 12 shows a prosthetic combination involving simply the arcuate element 48 at the rear of the main element 35. As indicated above, FIG. 4 illustrates in simplified manner a complete prosthesis, applicable to surgery of both breasts and involving, for example, the combination of all elements with the brassiere; for clarity, reference numbers are omitted from this view, but the several parts will be readily recognized.
The articles and method of the invention provide prosthetic articles with effectiveness and unusual economy, avoiding a need for special skill and individual design. With a supply of the described elements, in selectable sizes, an appropriate prosthesis can be assembled for any one of an extreme variety of individual conditions, resulting in an article that under ordinary clothing of all sorts affords the desired, completely natural appearance. The assembly is very light in weight and is held firmly and comfortably in place, with the aid of the elastic mesh band 2%, and the seating of the rear face of the elements 35 as explained above. The bias arrangement of the elastic fabric relative to the horizontal extend or edges of the band is notably effective to prevent riding-up. Unlike some other types of devices, there is no gap between the top edge of the brassiere assembly and the chest wall, and the upward extension element 42, especially when secured as described, is inherently held back against the body for the intended effect. With suitable nylon or other fabrics of available type, the article is easily washable, and requires a minimum of attention in use.
It is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the specific structures herein set forth but may be embodied in other ways without departure from its spirit.
1. In a method of making a prosthetic brassiere, for wearers having individual prosthetic requirements, the steps of providing a premanufactured supply of each of three kinds of separate pads, being first, breast-simulating pads of selectable dimensions, second, crescent-shaped pads attachable to enlarge the upper, rearward region of a first pad, and third, substantially triangular pads of selectable dimensions to have an apex extending upwardly and obliquely laterally from a first pad to fill out a pectoral muscle area, and assembling and securing with a preformed cup of a brassiere casing a selected first, pad and at least a selected one of said second and third pads, including fastening said first pad in the cup so as to extend from front to rear of the cup in filling relation thereto, the assembling and securing of a second pad, when selected, comprising fastening such second pad' in position along the upper, rearward region of the first pad to tilt the cup and first pad forward in use, the assembling and securing of a third pad, when selected, comprising fastening such third pad in position with a base portion adjacent to the upper region of the first pad and with the aforesaid apex projecting above the first pad and obliquely toward the vicinity of the wearers armpit region, and said assembling and securing of selected pads as aforesaid being effected to provide an assembled structure which by the aforesaid pad selection in accordance with prosthetic requirements of an individual wearer, constitutes a substantially complete prosthesis suited to said last-mentioned wearer.
2. A method as defined in claim 1, which includes assembling and securing with the brassiere casing and the first pad, both a second pad and a selected third pad, respectively attached and extending as aforesaid.
3. A method as defined in claim l, in which the selected pads are a first pad and at least a selected third pad, and which includes fastening said third pad with a lower edge, being a base of the triangle, between, and at the upper parts of the said cup and the said first pad, to dispose said third pad in upwardly and rearwardly inclined direction with its apex extending as aforesaid.
4. In a prosthetic brassiere, in portion of a brassiere casing comprising a preformed cup, a first, breast-simulating pad secured in said cup, said first pad being shaped to extend from front to rear of the cup, in filling relation thereto and having a rear face adapted for rearward substantially flatwise seating toward and against the body of the wearer, and an arcuate pad mounted at the upper rearward region of said first pad, in position along and rearward of the upper rear face portion of said first pad so that said upper rear face of said first pad abuts said arcuate pad and saidarcuate pad abuts the body of the wearer, to tilt said first pad forward relative to the rear face of the arcuate pad.
5. A prosthetic brassiere as defined in claim 4, which also includes an extension pad mounted at an upper laterally outward part of the assembly constituted by the brassiere cup and the first pad, to project in upward direction therefrom.
6. A prosthetic brassiere as defined in claim 5, in which said extension pad is of substantially triangular shape, having an apex uppermost.
7. A prosthetic brassiere as defined in claim 5, in which said extension pad is secured at its lower part between and at the upper parts of said cup and said first pad, to dispose said extension pad in upwardly and rearwardly inclined direction.
8. In a prosthetic brassiere, in combination, a brassiere casing having a preformed cup, a first, breast-simulating pad secured in the cup, and an extension pad secured at its lower part between and at the upper parts of said cup and said first pad, to dispose said extension pad in upwardly and rearwardly inclined direction, said extension pad being of substantially triangular shape having a base portion thereof secured between the cup and the first pad, disposed so that the opposite apex thereof extends upwardly and obliquely toward the vicinity of an armpit region of the wearer.
9. In a prosthetic brassiere, in combination, a brassiere casing, two shoulder straps respectively extending upward from mutually spaced, top regions of the casing, a first, breast-simulating pad secured in the casing beneath one of said regions, and an extension pad having a base portion thereof mounted at an upper part of the assembly constituted by the brassiere casing and the first pad, so that said extension pad projects in upward direction therefrom, said extension pad being disposed obliquely toward the side of the wearer from the upper part of the assembly, and said extension pad having a configuration which extends to an upper end that is disposed substantially above said first pad and is spaced substantially laterally, toward the side of the wearer, from the shoulder strap that extends from the aforesaid casing region beneath which the first pad is secured.
It). In a prosthetic brassiere, in combination, a brassiere casing, a first, breast-simulating pad secured in the casing, and an extension pad mounted at an upper part of the assembly constituted by the brassiere casing the first pad, to extend in upward direction therefrom, said extension pad being disposed obliquely toward the side of the wearer from said upper part of the assembly, said brassiere casing having two preformed cups and in which the brassiere casing has two preformed cups and two shoulder straps respectively extending upward from central top regions of the cups, said first pad being seated in one of the cups, and said extension pad being of substantially triangular shape and being disposed with a base of the triangular lowermost and the opposite apex thereof spaced substantially laterally, toward the side of the wearer, from the shoulder strap associated with said one of the cups.
11. A prosthetic brassiere as defined in claim 10, which includes a crescent-shaped pad mounted at the upper rearward region of said first pad to tilt said first pad forward relative to the rear face of said crescent-shaped pad.
12. A prosthetic brassiere as defined in claim 11, in which the aforesaid base portion of the triangular pad is secured between and at the upper parts of said one cup and said first pad, to tilt said triangular pad in an upwardly and rearwardly inclined direction.
13. A prosthetic brassiere as defined in claim 12, in which each of said first, triangular and crescent-shaped pads comprises a body of elastic foam material and a fabric covering around said body, said first pad having a rear face provided with a concavity over its central region to promote seating of the pad against the wearer along edge portions around said concavity, said cups each having a thin, form-defining lining of elastic foam material, and said brassiere casing comprising band structure of elastic mesh fabric to hold the complete prosthetic brassiere firmly around the wearer.
14. A prosthetic brassiere as defined in claim 10, in which said brassiere casing comprises band structure of elastic mesh woven fabric, having its weave disposed at a bias relative to the horizontal extent of the band, to hold the complete brassiere firmly around the wearer.
15. A prosthetic brassiere as defined in claim 10, in which said first pad has a rear face provided with a concavity over its central region to promote seating of the pad against the wearer along edge portions around said concavity, said cups each having a thin, form-defining lining of elastic foam material, and said brassiere casing comprising elastic band structure to hold the complete prosthetic brassiere firmly around the wearer.
March 9 1971 Inventor() Dated June M. Comollo It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
Co1.- line Col. line line Col.
4, line Col. line Col 5, line Col. 5, line Col. 6. line Col. 6, line Co1.' line line,
"Such such" should read --surgery.
after "somewhat" after "particularly," insert line 28, delete "but these" [first occurrence] line 29 after "chest," delete --an-- Suchdelete --at-- "extend" should read --extent- "extend" read --extent-- "extend" read --extent-- "extend" read --extent-- "along" read alone-' I "extend" read -extent-- "portion of" read --combination,-
36 after "casing" insert --and-- Signed and sealed this H th day of September 1971 (SEAL) Attestr:
Attesting Officer ROBERT GOTTSCHALK Acting Commissioner of Pa