|Publication number||US3569974 A|
|Publication date||Mar 9, 1971|
|Filing date||Dec 26, 1967|
|Priority date||Dec 26, 1967|
|Publication number||US 3569974 A, US 3569974A, US-A-3569974, US3569974 A, US3569974A|
|Inventors||Mcleod Willard W Jr|
|Original Assignee||Raytheon Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (16), Non-Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (18), Classifications (17)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent  Inventor Willard W. McLeod, Jr.
[211 App]. No. 693,531
 Filed Dec. 26, 1967  Patented Mar. 9, 1971  Assignee Raytheon Company Lexington, Mass.
[5 4] DUAL POLARIZATION MICROWAVE ENERGY PHASE SHIFTER FOR PHASED ARRAY ANTENNA SYSTEMS 12 Claims, 12 Drawing Figs.
 US. Cl. 343/754,
333/21, 333/24.1, 333/24.3, 333/98, 343/756, 343/778, 343/854  Int. Cl 1101p 1/16, H03h 5/12, I-I0lg 19/06  Field of Search 343/754- 756, 854, 778, 909 (curso y); 333/24.l, 24.3, 21 (A), 21
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,100,287 8/1963 Scharfman et al. 333/24.1
3,109,152 10/1963 Dachert 343/778 3,154,784 10/1964 Allen 343/18 3,161,879 12/1964 l-Iannan et al 343/756X 3,162,828 12/1964 Schmidt et a1. 343/756X 3,166,724 l/1965 Allen 333/24.1
3,277,401 10/1966 Stern 333/24.3X
3,290,624 12/1966 Hines 333/31 3,305,867 2/1967 Miccioli et a1. 343/754X DC BIAS VOLTAGE SOURCE Frank et al., Latching Ferrite Phase Shifter for Phased Arrays, The Microwave Journal March 1967, pp. 97- 102 Nolen, .I. C., Phased Array Polarization Agility IEEE Trans. on Antennas & Propagation, Vol. AP- 13, 1965 pp. 820- 821 Primary Examiner-Eli Lieberman Assistant Examiner-Wm. l-I. Punter Attorneys-Harold A. Murphy, Joseph D. Pannone and Edgar O. Rost ABSTRACT: A phase shifter is disclosed for supporting dual orthogonal polarization modes of propagated microwave energy in tactical electrically beam scanning phased array antenna systems of the optically fed reflector type. Reentrant single port antenna array elements provide a predetermined electrical phase shift of linear as well as circular polarized energy. Incident waves received by each element oriented in one plane of polarization, for example, a vertical wave, will be electrically shifted and launched after traversal of the device as, illustratively, a horizontally oriented wave. Each element incorporates a circular polarizer as well as reflective termination member together with solid state phase shifting means.
PATENTEDHAR 91971 2 3.569374 sum 1 UF 3 \4 SHlFTER FEED F/G j PRIOR ART F/GZ PRIOR ART l5 A? 9 PROGRAMMER o QTRANSM|TTER FIG 3 PRIOR ART RECEIVER I '1 I SOLID STATE CIRCULAR REFLECTIVE 8 PHASE SHIFTER POLARIZER TERMINATION 20 meREss PATH 4 2/ OFENERGY 23 ,1 \22 $224 25 22 V A 24 2 24 $00 1w H 28 =1a0 7 J 28% EGRESS PATH 27 OF ENERGY INVENTOR E7 5 WILLARD 024M500, .15:
ATTORNEY PATENTEDMAR SIB?! 3569-874 SHEET 2 0F 3 I 5 I I I INVENTOR WILLARD n. McLEOD, JR.
A T 7' ORA/E) PRIOR ART F WAVE PATENTED'HAR EH97! SHEET 3 OF 3 CIRCULAR PHASE CIRCULAR REFLECTWE POLARIZER SHIFTER POLARIZER TERMINATION M/VE/VTUR WILLARD W. MCLEOD, JR.
.4 TTOR/VE Y DUAL POLARIZATION MICROWAVE ENERGY PHASE SliIFTEl-Ri FOR IETASED ARRAY ANTENNA SYSTEMS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to electronically beam scanning radar antennas which require substantially less mechanical moving parts than prior art structures. Planar antennas utilizing a considerable quantity of steering elements individually providing variable electrical lengths to collimate and direct high power electromagnetic wave energy in a predetermined wave front at veryrapid rates of speed. Each antenna steering element requires at least one phase shifting member together with means for accurately and rapidly controlling the predetermined electrical phase shift. In the prior art numerous devices have been suggested for the accomplishment of the required electrical phase shift including the use of discrete bodies of ferromagnetic materials, also referred to as ferrites, which are magnetized by external electrical coils to vary the RF permeability characteristics of the selected material. An excellent dissertation on the applicable antenna systems as well as prior art phase shifting devices may be found in the reference Survey of Electronically Scanned Antennas", parts 1 and 2, by Harold S-hnitkin, The Microwave Journal, Dec. 1960, pgs. 67-72, and Jan. 196l,pgs. 57-64.
The numerous antenna beam steering elements have been coupled to individual high power microwave transmission elements with the beam direction being determined by a computerized programmer. Such systems require complex corporate structures to couple the high power microwave energy source to the antenna radiating elements and is referred to in the art as a transmission type phase array antenna system. In U.S. Pat. No. 3,305,867, issued Feb. 21, 1967 to Aldo R. Miccioli et a]. entitled Antenna Array System a new concept in phased array antenna systems is disclosed which involves a large array of passive elements optically fed from a physically and conceptually separate radiant energy generation source. Each of the antenna passive elements include phase shifter means together with a single port reentrant radiating element to col- Iectively define the beam steering components. High power microwave energy is transmitted through free space to illuminate the phased array antenna system and thereby eliminate the numerous transmission lines required in prior art antenna systems for directly feeding each element. The disclosed optically fed antenna array system referred to in the aforementioned patent is also capable of being utilized for both transmission and reception with the duplexing accomplished in a conventional manner by a single high power antenna horn and a transducer mechanism to switch the horn to a receive mode after a transmission cycle. This antenna array system is commonly referred to as the reflector type and the beam steering elements provide for the traversal of the received electromag netic waves in two directions within each antenna element while receiving the appropriate variable electrical phase shifts.
In an article appearing in the IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Sept. 1965, Vol. AP-I 3, pgs. 820- 82l, authorized by John C. Nolen, attention is directed to phased array polarization agility. The referenced article mentions a simple method of obtaining dual polarization capabilities from a single phase shifter phased array element utilizing one set of reciprocal phase shifting devices together with serially connected dual antenna elements. Linearly polarized waves in either the horizontal or vertical mode will excite an appropriate antenna dipole feed and be transmitted through the phase shifting device to another antenna dipole element oriented perpendicular to the first receiving element. The problem of simultaneously processing dual orthogonal modes is one of considerable interest in phased array antenna systems. The reductions in weight as well as cost through the utilization of single phase shifting means to handle both orthogonal polarizations, particularly in view of the large number of antenna elements employed, points up the desirability of solutions to the problem of orthogonal wave propagation for reflector type optically fed phased array antenna systems.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION in accordance with the teachings of the present invention a single phase shifting antenna element is provided to handle electromagnetic wave energy in either the horizontal or vertical plane of orientation. The implementation of the invention incorporates the utilization in the phase shifter of a short circuit reflective termination at one end of the antenna element coupled with polarization inversion means or a circular polarizer. In an illustrative embodiment utilizing a semicom ductor diode phase shifter, a linearly polarized wave having the E-field vector oriented in a predetermined manner will be propagated and launched with an electrical phase shift and orientation orthogonal to the input wave. In another illustrative embodiment of the invention a single port reentrant phase shifter is disclosed utilizing ferromagnetic materials of the closed magnetic loop variety together with digital latching conductors for switching between the binary remanent magnetization states. W
A simplified phase shifting antenna element for electronically scanned phase array antennas has evolved having a dual polarization mode capability. Use is made of present day known phase shifting means to provide a reciprocal type phase shifting device for use in dual mode antennas of the type shown in the above referenced article by Nolen.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The invention, as well as the specific details of the construction of a preferred illustrative embodiment, will now. be described, reference being directed to the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. l is a diagrammatic representation exemplary of a prior art dual polarization antenna element;
FIG. 2 is a diagrammatic presentation of an antenna array system utilizing cross-polarized elements;
FIG. 3 is a diagrammatic view of a phased array antenna system of the optically fed reflector type;
FIG. 4 is a block diagram illustrative of an embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 5 is a diagrammatic presentation of the vectorial distribution of the polarized waves traversing the embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 6 is a perspective view partly in section of the embodi ment of the present invention utilizing semiconductor diode phase shifting means;
FIGS. 7 and 3 are diagrammatic illustrations of the orientation of the semiconductor diode phase shifting means and an alternative arrangement, respectively, of the embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 9 is a partial perspective view of a digital latching ferrite device utilized in the prior art;
FIG. it) is a perspective view partly in section of the embodiment of the invention utilizing a digital latching ferrite phase shifter;
FIG. ll is a block diagram of an alternative arrangement utilizing the propagation of circularly polarized electromagnetic wave energy; and
FIG. l2 is a perspective view of a radiating element utilized with a circular waveguide antenna steering device. DESCRIP- TION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring now to FIGS. 1 and 2, a system for propagating dual polarization modes utilizing a single serially connected phase shifter is illustrated and denoted by numeral 1. Antenna dipole 2 is disposed in a vertical manner and hence all waves oriented in this plane will be propagated. The orthogonal antenna dipole 3 will be utilized for the horizontally polarized waves.
A reciprocal phase shifter 4 is serially connected between both antenna dipole elements which may be supported along a planar direction'by a reflector member 5 in a columnar array.
In accordance with the teachings of this method of wave transmission, energy of one polarization enters the antenna dipole member, traverses the phase shifter and is launched again in the orthogonal polarization. If the horizontally polarized waves are propagated then the horizontal reflector elements 3 are excited. After traversing the phase shifting means the radiated energy leaves by means of the vertically polarized antenna elements 2. Any mismatch in the antenna elements or phase shifters returns the illumination to the first antenna element excited or in this instance the horizontal element. For reverse polarized waves the orthogonal antenna element will be excited and the signal path through the phase shifter will be in the reverse direction. As a result a single phase shifter will serve both polarizations utilizing a reciprocal energy propagation means. A problem in the prior art exists, however, in that reciprocal element phase shifters present additional problems and may be more costly. Accordingly, the present invention seeks to achieve the dual polarization propagation of orthogonal polarization modes impart reciprocity in phase shifting values with solid state materials which are inherently nonreciprocal.
Referring next to FIG. 3, the deployment of the invention in a phased array antenna system of the optically fed reflector type will be described. A plurality of single port reentrant antenna beam steering elements 6, each incorporating a phase shifter, collectively define the array antenna 7. A radiating element 8 is provided at the entrance of each antenna element for ingress of the uncollimated energy and egress of the appropriately shifted signals of the electronically steered beam. A high power microwave energy generator 9 is spatially disposed from the array antenna and the energy is radiated by means of a horn 10 of well known construction. In order that theoverall system may be utilized in duplexing of transmit and receive signals a two mode transducer 11 is coupled to the horn through a circular polarizer 12. In such operation a suitable receiver 13 will be coupled to the same antenna horn 10.
Each antenna steering element 6 will provide a predetermined degree of phase shift by means of leads 14 coupled to a computerized programmer 15 so as to electrically vary the effective electrical length of each element. The energy from transmitter horn 10 is directed toward the array antenna radiators 8 in a divergent beam designated A in the illustration. Each antenna element in the array is reentrant and terminated by reflective ends provided by short circuit means 16. The received energy after traversing each antenna element in a first and second reverse direction is emitted as a collimated beam having a planar wave front of uniform phase designated by the letter B. Any desired amount of angularity of the beam wave front may be achieved through adjustment of the individual element phase shifting means. The beam direction is designated by arrow C and it is evident that the energy emanating from this direction will be reflected by scanned targets back toward the array antenna 7 where it will be received, phase shifted and retransmitted through the antenna horn 10 to the receiver 13. The advantage of the reflector type optically fed phase array antenna system is that the individual antenna steering elements serve a dual function of transmitting and receiving utilizing a single unitary structure which is rapidly controlled electronically.
Referring now to FIG. 4, the teachings of the present invention comprise the provision of an antenna element 18 for receiving and transmitting coupled to a solid-state phase shifting means 19 disposed within a waveguide section adapted to support and propagate linearly polarized waves having orthogonal electric field vectorial components. Illustratively, square waveguide will support such orthogonal distribution of the electromagnetic wave energy. Immediately following the phase shifter section is a circular polarizer or polarization inverter 20 such as for example acne-quarter wavelength plate member whereby a selective delay in phase of 90 in one orthogonal direction is applied to the linearly polarized waves. The circular polarizer section 20 is followed by the reflective termination 21 in the form of a metallic short circuit member enclosing one end of the square waveguide section.
The mechanics of operation of the combined structure will now be described, reference being directed to FIG. 5. In this illustration the block diagram components of the embodiment of the invention shown in FIG. 4 have been similarly designated for the sake of clarity. Each vector diagram is depicted for the position of a person standing at a particular point and looking in the direction of the energy travel. A plane linearly polarized wave having a vertical electric field vector component indicated by the arrow 22 will be received by antenna element 18 which is adapted to receive linearly polarized energy in either orthogonal component and for launching the energy in the cross-polarized vector. Within the phase shifter 15 vertical wave 22 receives a predetermined degree of phase shift designated by symbol 1 and arrow 23 if the orientation of the vector is in a predetermined plane with respect to the phase shifting means. In a semiconductor diodetype of phase shifter with the diode element oriented parallel to the orientation of the E-field vector 22 an appropriate phase shift would be applied on entrance to the phase shifter. If the E-field vector is horizontal then the phase shift takes place only on exit of the energy. For the sake of clarity in the explanation of the operation of the structure the degree of phase shift in the illustrated vector will be purposely omitted and the E-field vector will be resolved into its orthogonal component vectors designated by the arrows 24 and 25. In the next or circular polarizer section 20 with a quarter wave plate similar to the one designated by the numeral 41 oriented 45 as shown in FIGS. 6 and 7; vector 24 which is now shown as a solid line is allowed to propagate while vector 25 shown as a dotted line is delayed. As a result, vector 24 is ahead of vector 25 and contacts the short circuited end 21 ahead of vector 25 for a second traversal. The reflected wave from the short circuit means which may be referred to as the backward wave becomes a mirror image of the original wave and vector 25 is now spatially oriented another 90 or a total of outof-phase with respect to its companion wave vector 24 after the second pass through polarizer 20. As is well known in the microwave transmission art, orthogonal component having a 180 phase differential may now be represented by the solid line vector 27 which combines with the original orthogonal component 24 to form the combined vector 28 which is now cross-polarized or horizontal to the original incident vertical wave. However, since it is inherent in the teachings of the invention that the phase shift means are oriented in a predetermined manner the incidence of the wave in the horizontal vector will result in no phase shift taking place upon traversal of the phase shift section for; the second time. Vector 28 in the horizontal orientation with the original value of phase shift provided during the first traversal will therefore be launched by antenna element 18. Any reflected energy from a distant target will traverse the embodiment of the invention in exactly the reverse manner. For horizontal linearly polarized signals incident upon the antenna element the emitted wave will assume an orthogonal cross-polarization as a vertical wave. In this example the phase shift occurs only when the electric field vector is oriented parallel to the plane of orientation of the phase shifting element upon exit of the energy.
Referring now to FIG. 6 and an operative embodiment, square waveguide section 30 having flange members 31 and 32 appended adjacent the ends thereof houses the solid state phase shifter means. In this embodiment a semiconductor diode member generically designated 33 is suitably biased by a DC voltage source 34 to render the diode means in the appropriate state dependent on the incident electromagnetic energy received by the overall antenna steering element. Suitable semiconductor phase shifting means comprise any of the well known silicon crystal or PN junction, varactor diodes, as well as members of the avalanche transit time diode device family. An example of such a device is the PIN diode wherein an intrinsic region is provided between the P and N junctions to form a high reverse current device which exhibits negative resistance when operated at a high electrical bias. Such a diode phase shifter may be supported within a conductive column 35 and biasing source 34 is coupled through the conductor by means of terminals 36. With a high RF current oriented in a direction parallel to the plane of the column such energy is properly oriented with respect to the biased conductor and will be appropriately phase shifted. Conversely, the orientation of the electromagnetic wave in the orthogonal or horizontal direction results in no RF current in the intrinsic region of the diode member and no phase shift is applied to the wave energy.
For the purposes of the understanding of the specification the term phase shdting means shall be interpreted to designate any device for introducing a predetermined value of electrical phase shift one linearly oriented plane of wave transmission and another phase shift upon incidence of wave energy in the orthogonal plane of transmission.
Following the phase shifter section is a companion square waveguide. section Elli having flanges 39 and ill appended thereto. A one-quarter wave conductive plate member 41 is disposed within the waveguide 38 to change the spatial orientation of the horizontal and vertical electric field vectors and is positioned diametrically at an angle of approximately 45 in the manner of such circular polarizers employed in wave transmission devices. A card or vane of a dielectric material may be similarly employed in lieu of the member 41. The structure is completed by the provision of a shorting plate member 42 enclosing the end of waveguide section 38 and secured to flange member 40.
it is understood that the antenna elements for the reception as well as transmission of electromagnetic wave energy are well known in the art and may be coupled to the flange member Ell. No specific details have therefore been enumerated herein.
in FIG. 7 the inline orientation viewed from the open waveguide antenna end is pictorially represented with similar numerals identifying the structure shown in FIG. 6. in FIG. 8 a modification of this combination is illustrated with the semiconductor phase shifter diode elements 33 and 44 orthogonally oriented within conductive post members Q and 4-6. This modification provides for the possibility of requiring only one'half of the phase shift value to be applied to the waves oriented in the horizontal plane and the other half to the waves oriented in the vertical plane with the total phase shift being the sum of the two values. This structure will result in a substantial reduction in the length of the overall phase shifter required together with an accompanying reduction in weight. Such a dual polarization device could have possible applications in transmission modes of propagating energy wherein the circular polarizer and short circuit means are eliminated and the device will be capable of receiving energy at one end and launching it at the opposing end into free space.
FlG. 9 is illustrative of prior art digital ferrite latching phase shifting means disposed along the longitudinal axis of a rectangular waveguide transmission section 51. The closed magnetic circuit loop toroid body member 50 of a ferromagnetic material is provided with a direct current conductor 52 extending through a passageway 53 in the toroid body member. The magnetic closed loop is indicated by the arrows 54 and 55 with the direction representing the magnetization induced by the passage of direct current pulses in the direction designated by the arrow 56. Due to the fact that the magnetic path is a closed loop, demagnetizing effects are relatively absent and the selected magnetic material is said to be in a remanent magnetization state. The toroid geometry also provides a reasonably square hysteresis magnetization loop. Reversal of the direction of the current pulse results in the latching or induction of the second remanent magnetization state with the direction of the magnetic flux lines reversed and directed in a counterclockwise manner. The resultant phase shift of electromagnetic wave energy propagated through rectangular waveguide 51 is determined by the properties and geometry of the ferromagnetic material and the orientation of the direct current magnetization with respect to the direction of the RF propagated energy which in the first instance is indicated as a vertically polarized wave designated by the arrow 57. in the employment of digital latching phase shifter ferromagnetic means the operation provides a net overall phase shift in that the reverse directed wave which has a different plane of orientation with respect to the direction of magnetization will not receive an equivalent reverse phase shift. The same net overall phase shift will be realized for both orthogonal components so that the device provides for reciprocal operation. The presence of the ferromagnetic material, however, does introduce some attenuation of the redirected wave energy. Such attenuation may be compensated for and may even be a distinct advantage in certain transmission systems.
In FIG. 10 a complete embodiment of an antenna steering element utilizing a digital latching ferrite phase shifter is disclosed in square waveguide 58 having mounting flanges 59 and 60. A substantially square toroid body 61 of the preferred ferromagnetic material is disposed along the longitudinal axis of waveguide 58. The electrical length of the toroid body member 61 is selected to provide a predetermined phase shift in one remanent magnetization state and a different value of phase shift in the second remanent magnetization state and a different value of phase shift in the second remanent magnetization state. conventionally, such toroid body members may comprise a plurality of body members having varying electrical lengths and referred to as bits" in tandem arrays to collectively provide any desired total phase shift. Hence, a first body member could provide a latch and subsequent body members provide a 45 or 22-/2latch. Any combination of the toroid bodies in each of the antenna steering elements will provide the individual varying electrical phase shifts. Abutting the opposing ends of the toroid member 61 are nonmagnetic dielectric spacers 62 and 63 which serve as matching transformer means to facilitate the transfer of the electromagnetic microwave energy in space into the antenna elements. The requisite latching conductor 64 is centrally disposed within the toroid member 61 and terminates in external connection fm means 65 for the application of suitable DC voltage pulses. Similar conductors and terminal means would be provided for individual bits provided along the longitudinal axis of the waveguide. The subsequent section mounted to the phase shifter section includes square waveguide 66, mounting flanges 67 and 68, together with the: internally and angularly disposed one-quarter wave conductive plate member 69. The The reflective termination means comprising a metallic short circuiting plate 70 abuts flange 68. ln this embodiment the operation again is similar to that described in the semiconductor diode phase shifter embodiment. incident waves linearly polarized on one orthogonal mode will be launched in a crosspolarized plane with a net phase shift due to the required two state operation of the phase shifting means. The introduction of the ferromagnetic material within the waveguide path does result in some attenuation of the returning waves reflected from the short circuiting end 70. It is therefore suggested that this phase shifting device be utilized in such systems where alternate wave transmissions are in alternate orthogonal mode distributions. Such intermittent cross-polarization operations may also be advantageous in certain electronic countermeasure radar systems.
An interesting modification and variation of the subject invention is disclosed in H6. ii. in the propagation of electromagnetic waves in circular guide both orthogonal components are simultaneously supported during the traversal. The circularly polarized energy which illuminates the antenna element 71 is indicated by the circular arrow 72. A circular polarizer member 73 disposed in front of the phase shifter 74 will be followed by a subsequent circular polarizer 75 and reflective termination 76, all disposed within circular waveguide. in this embodiment the first circular polarizer section may have the one-quarter wave plate oriented orthogonally to h the angular orientation of the circular polarizer 75 disposed before the reflective termination 76. The circularly polarized waves upon. traversal of the first circular polarizer means will be translated into a linearly polarized wave for entrance into the base shifter 74. If the orientation of the linearly disposed vector of the wave is properly oriented with regard to the phase shifting means a second traversal through the circular polarizer 75 will result in the orientation of the wave in the orthogonal or crosspolarized mode where a different shift will occur. Circular polarizer 73 converts the linearly'polarized wave again into a circular wave for retransmission into space by antenna 71. This embodiment provides a phased array antenna which may be utilized in either the single bounce or double bounce radar mode to provide another agility characteristic along with the dual orthogonal mode transmission and enhanced target resolution.
In FIG. 12 antenna radiator means 77 for use with circular waveguide 78 type phase shifters are shown. The radiating antenna element 77 is preferably of a material having the impedance characteristics required to transform the free space electromagnetic wave energy to the impedances of the circular waveguide. Conventionally dielectric materials have been selected for this element. A material which has also been widely selected for this purpose is Rexolite or other similar composition materials.
The phase shifting means may comprise any of the solid state means heretofore discussed.
There is thus disclosed a unique and useful dual polarization phased array antenna element for phase shifting of the microwave energy. While the description has been concerned primarily with the reflection type optically fed reentrant phase shifters some modifications or alterations evident to those skilled in the art will result in transmission type phase shifters which provide an input and an output end for the propagation of microwave energy. It is important to bear in mind that a single phase shifting device may provide for the propogation of energy in orthogonal polarization modes. It will be also obvious to those skilled in the art that any number of equivalents may be substituted for the circular polarizing means to accomplish the purposes of the invention. While detailed illustrative embodiments have been shown and described herein, it is intended that this description shall be considered as exemplary only and not in a limiting sense with respect to the broader aspects of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
1. A dual polarization microwave energy phase shifter comprising:
waveguide means for receiving and propagating linearly polarized electromagnetic wave energy having electric field components oriented orthogonally in predetermined polarization planes;
solid-state phase shifting means disposed along the longitudinal axis of said waveguide means for introducing a predetermined value of phase shift in one orthogonal component of wave transmission and another phase shift value upon incidence of the wave energy component in the other orthogonal plane of wave transmission;
circular wave polarization means disposed inline following said phase shifting means;
conductive means enclosing et the end of said waveguide means adjacent to said circular polarizer means to present a short circuit and reflect substantially all said energy incident thereon whereupon one orthogonal component emerges from the circular wave polarization means having a phase delay of 180 relative to its related component after traversals in a forward and reverse direction; and
said reflected energy being propagated having a plane of polarization oriented orthogonally to the original incident wave energy.
2. A phase shifter according to claim 1 wherein said phase shifter means include semiconductor diode elements.
3. A phase shifter according to claim 1 wherein said phase shifting means include digital latching ferromagnetic elements having binary remanent magnetization states.
4. A reflector type dual polarization microwave energy phase shifter comprising:
square waveguide means both for receiving and launching at one open end linearly polarized electromagnetic wave energy having electric field vectors oriented in a predetermined input plane and having orthogonal wave components:
conductive means short-circuiting the opposing end of said waveguide means to reverse the direction of travel of wave energy incident thereon;
solid-state phase shifting means disposed along the longitudinal axis of said waveguide means adjacent to the receiving and launching end for introducing a predetermined value of phase shift in one orthogonal component of wave energy traveling in one direction and another phase shift value in the orthogonal component of wave energy traveling in the reverse direction;
circular polarization means disposed between said short circuit means and said phase shifting means to reflect and reverse the direction of travel of all wave energy incident thereon; and
said reflected energy to be launched having an output plane of polarization orthogonal to the received linearly polarized wave energy.
5. A phase shifter according to claim 4 wherein said phase shifting means include semiconductor diode elements.
6. A phase shifter according to claim 4 wherein said phase shifting means include digital latching ferromagnetic elements having binary remanent magnetization states.
7. A reflector type dual polarization electrical phase shifting device comprising:
square waveguide transmission means adapted to receive and propagate through a single port linearly polarized electromagnetic wave energy having orthogonal wave components;
solid-state phase shifting means disposed along the longitudinal axis of said waveguide means for introducing a predetermined value of phase shift in one wave component and another phase shift value upon incidence of wave energy in the orthogonal wave component;
a one-quarter wavelength angularly disposed conductive vane member positioned within the waveguide means following the phase shifting means;
conductive shorting means terminating the end of said waveguide means to reflect substantially all energy incident thereon; and
said reflected energy having a predetermined value of phase shift determined by two traversals through the phase shifting means and a linearly polarized wave in a plane orthogonal to the plane of polarization of the received energy.
8. In a reflector type optically fed phased array antenna system comprising in combination:
means for generating and transmitting in free space linearly polarized electromagnetic wave energy;
means for collimating and directing said energy in a desired direction including an array of antenna beam steering elements;
each of said elements comprising a section of square waveguide for receiving and launching said energy having an electric field orientation in a predetermined plane and having orthogonal wave components;
a radiating element enclosing one end of said waveguide and a conductive reflecting plate member terminating the opposing end;
solid-state phase shifting means disposed along the longitudinal axis of said waveguide behind the radiating element to produce a phase shift value in one orthogonal wave component and a different phase shift value upon traversal of wave energy in the other orthogonal wave component;
a circular polarizer for inverting the orientation of the electric field vectors positioned between the wave-guide termination and phase shifting means; and
said incident linearly polarized received energy and said launched phase shifted energy being oriented in orthogonal planes to one another.
9. The combination according to claim 8 wherein said phase shifting means include semiconductor diode elements.
10. The combination according to claim 8 wherein saidmined value of phase shift upon incidence of the orthogonal component traversingin the reverse direction;
conductive shorting means disposed at an end of said waveguide for reversing the direction of travel of substantially all energy incident thereon; and
a circular polarizer disposed between the shorting means and diode phase shifting means whereby one orthogonal component emerges from said polarizer having a phase delay. of relative to the other component traversals in a forward and reverse direction.-
12. A 'dual polarization microwave energy phase shifter comprising:
a single port waveguide means for receiving and launching circularly polarized electromagnetic wave energy;
solid-state phase shifting means sandwiched between circular wave polarization means for converting said circularly polarized waves to linearly polarized waves disposed within said'waveguide;
said conductive reflective termination means enclosing the opposing end of said waveguide; 7
said phase shifting means introducing a predetermined value of phase shift in only one linearly oriented wave component and substantially no electrical phase shift in an orthogonally oriented wave componentjand said received and launched wave energy having planes of polarization oriented orthogonal to one another.
It in certified 1514.; ergo: anymore in the above-deanLlfied patent and that said Letters LQLLQLI: are hereby corrected or; shown melon:
Column 7, Line 57 (Claim 1) After "enclosing" delete "et" Column 7, Line 57 (Claim 1) Before "conductive" insert --and--- Column 7, Line 64 (Claim 1) After delete "and" Column 8, Line 16 (Claim 4) Before "circular" insert --and- Column 8, Line 19 (Claim 4) After delete "and" Column 8, Line 42 (Claim 7) Before "conductive" insert --and-- Column 8, Line 44 (Claim 7) After delete "and" Column 8, Line 70 (Claim 8) Before "2." insert --and--- Column 8, Line 72 (Claim 8) After delete "and" Column 9, Line 22 (Claim 11) After delete "and" Column 10, Line 1 (Claim 11) Before "a" insert --and- Column 10, Line 4 (Claim 11) After "component" insert -after-- Column 10, Line 14 (Claim 12) Before "conductive" delete "said" and insert --and-- Column 10, Line 19 (Claim 12) After delete "and" Signed and sealed this 26th day of October 1971 (SEAL) Attest:
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|US4306235 *||Nov 2, 1978||Dec 15, 1981||Cbc Corporation||Multiple frequency microwave antenna|
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|US7605767 *||Aug 4, 2006||Oct 20, 2009||Raytheon Company||Space-fed array operable in a reflective mode and in a feed-through mode|
|US8362965||Jan 8, 2009||Jan 29, 2013||Thinkom Solutions, Inc.||Low cost electronically scanned array antenna|
|US20060007069 *||Sep 13, 2005||Jan 12, 2006||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Method of controlling image display|
|US20080030420 *||Aug 4, 2006||Feb 7, 2008||Raytheon Company||Space-fed array operable in a reflective mode and in a feed-through mode|
|US20100171674 *||Jan 8, 2009||Jul 8, 2010||Thinkom Solutions, Inc.||Low cost electronically scanned array antenna|
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|U.S. Classification||343/754, 333/24.1, 343/756, 333/21.00R, 343/778, 333/24.3, 333/250, 342/376, 333/248|
|International Classification||H01Q3/00, H01Q3/46, H01P1/18, H01P1/185|
|Cooperative Classification||H01P1/185, H01Q3/46|
|European Classification||H01P1/185, H01Q3/46|