US 3580166 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent  Inventor Joseph F. Longo 3,070,003 12/ 1962 Stacy 100/52X New Canaan, Conn. 3,231,107 1/1966 (100/52UX)  App1.No. 823,059 3,253,537 5/1966 Porter ct 100/218X  Filed May 8,1969 3,384,007 5/1968 Boje et a1 100/49  Patented May 25, l97l 3,481,268 12/1969 Price et al 100/49  Assgnee lnemtmal Dyna Primary Examiner-Billy J. Wilhite Norwalk, Conn.
 COMPACTION APPARATUS Attorney-Murray Schaffer ABSTRACT: A waste compactor includes a horizontally extending compacting chamber with a cantilevered open-ended front section closed by an openable first gate and a chute communicating with a rear upper feed opening. A ram is hydraulically motivated along the chamber between advanced, retracted and intermediate positions. An electrical network controls the ram when the first gate is closed and material sensed in the chute r0 reciprocate the ram between intermediate and retract positions until the hydraulic pressure exceeds an adjustable value at the intermediate position and to reciprocate the ram between the retracted position and a point rearwardly of the intermediate position when hydraulic pressure exceeds a second predetermined value. Upon opening of the first gate the ram can be fully advanced.
W Z624 6'5 20 j] Z 214 (6 ('4 i PATENTED W25 1911 3580.166
SHEEI 1 OF 4 "Fig.1.
\NVENTOR Josffiwf. Awvgo PATENTEU mwzslsn I I 3,580,166
sum 2 or 4 INVENTOR lbss wfi'. den/go COMPACTION APPARATUS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates generally to improvements in compacting equipment and it relates particularly to an improved device for automatically compacting waste material in accordance with adjustable parameters to facilitate the packaging of the waste material and to expedite the disposal thereof.
A common procedure, widely practiced in the disposal of rubbish and other waste materials, is to feed it from numerous sources into a common incinerator where it is burned and the resulting unburned ash gathered and placed in containers for transportation to disposal sites. This practice possesses numerous drawbacks. It is highly unhygienic and an important source of air pollution and results in sooty deposits over a widespread area. Moreover, the installation of the incinerator is'expensive and requires considerable space and its operation and maintenance is time consuming and calls for a high degree of care and skill.
To overcome the drawbacks of the incinerator disposal of waste, the waste material has been compressed into a dense 7 mass and packaged and disposed in such state. This procedure SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is a principal object of the present invention to provide an improved compacting device.
Another object of the present invention is to provide an improved automatic waste compacting device.
Still another object of the present invention is to provide an improved device for compressingwaste material either intermittently or" continuously fed thereto into masses of adjustable predetermined dimensions and densities.
A further object of the present invention is to provide an improved device for compacting waste into predimensioned masses and discharging the formed compressed mass as a unit into a disposable receptacle such as a bag, box or the like.
Still a further object of the present invention is to provide a waste compacting device of the above nature characterized by its reliability, ruggedness, jam minimizing operation, compactness, versatility, adaptability and ease and convenience of use.
The above and other objects of the present invention will become apparent from a reading of the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings which illustrate preferred embodiments thereof.
In a sense, the present invention contemplates the provision of a compacting device comprising a longitudinally extending compression chamber having a discharge opening at its leading end and a trailing feed opening, a first gate supported for movement between a position closing said discharge opening and an open position permitting the application of a receptacle about the leading section of said chamber, a chute communicating with said feed opening, a ram longitudinally movable between an advanced position proximate said discharge opening and a retracted position trailing the leading edge of said feed opening, second gate means for opening and closing said feed opening with the retraction and advance of said ram, means for sensing material in said chute, motivating means for advancing and retracting said ram, and control means responsive to said sensing means and the position of said first gate for automatically actuating said motivating means to retract said ram and open said feed opening gate means and advance said ram to a predetermined intermediate position between said ram advance and retracted positions and closing said feed opening gate means.
According to the preferred form of the improved compaction device the compression chamber extends horizontally and includes a cantilevered front section, the first gate being hinged about an axis below the discharge opening to permit the telescoping of the leading end of the chamber into a receptible slid thereon. The feed opening is located atop the compression chamber, the chute extending vertically therefrom, and the sensing member is a photosensitive element exposed to a light beam projected across the chute. The ram is hydraulically operated and the second gate is mounted thereon and movable therewith to a feed port closing position when the ram is at or forward of the intermediate position and to an opening position when the ram is in a retracted position. An electrical network and pump and valve system is provided which functions, when the first gate is closed, to reciprocate the ram from its intermediate position to its retracted position and back to its intermediate position when the photosensitive element senses material in the chute and the hydraulic pres-- sure is below an adjustable predetermined maximum when the ram is proximate its intermediate condition. With the first gate closed the ram may. be selectively reciprocated, as above, independently of the state of the photosensitive member. The
circuit network also functions to effect the successive retraction and advance of the ram in the event that the hydraulic pressure at a point between the intermediate and retracted positions of the ram exceeds a predetermined adjustable second value. This latter reciprocation continues for a predetermined interval or until the cause of the increased pressure, a jamming article in the path of the ram, is removed. The compacted mass is ejected into a bag, by opening the first gate, slipping the bag over the chamber and actuating a manual network control switch to move the ram to its advanced position. The compaction ratio or density of the compressed mass is easily adjustable by adjusting the compression stroke cutoff pressure as sensed by the first pressure sensitive switch.
The improved compacting device is highly reliable, simple, safe and convenient to operate with a minimum of care and skill, compact rugged and simple, and highly versatile and adaptable. 1
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a vertical longitudinal sectional view, taken along line 1-1 in FIG. 2, of a wastecompacting device embodying the present in invention, the compression ram being shown in retracted position;
FIG. 2 is a sectional view taken along line 2-2 in FIG. 1;
FIG. 2A is a diagrammatic plan view of the ram position sensing switch and cam system;
FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a closed bag containing a compacted waste mass;
FIG. 4 is a view similar to FIG. 1 showing the ram in its normally dormant intermediate operative position;
FIG. 5 is a view similar to FIG. 4 showing the ram in its retraction position during a compression cycle;
FIG. 6. is a view similar to FIG. 4 showing the ram in its intermediate position at the termination of a compression cycle;
FIG. 7 is a view similar to FIG. 4 showing the discharge gate open for the reception of a bag;
FIG. 8 is a view similar to FIG. 7 with the ram shown in its advanced position having injected the compacted mass into a bag;
FIG. 9 is a schematic diagram of the compacting device control network and motivating system;
FIG. 10 is an enlarged fragmented front elevational view of the gate latch assembly shown in closed position;
FIG. II is a view similar to FIG. I0 showing the latch assembly in open position;
FIG. 12 is an enlarged fragmented front elevational view of the lower part of the gate and gate position sensing switches; and
FIG. I3 is a plan view partially in section, of a modified gate mounting arrangement.
DESCRIPTION UP THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring now to the drawings and particularly FIGS. 1 to 12 thereof which illustrate a preferred embodiment of the present invention, reference numeral generally designates the improved device which includes a longitudinally extending tubular chamber member 11 of square transverse cross section mounted above floor or ground level by a base member 12 underlying chamber member 11 and spaced from the opposite ends thereof.
Chamber member 11 is formed of steel plate and includes a horizontal rectangular baseplate 13, vertical sidewalls 14 extending the full length of baseplate '13, and a horizontal rectangular top wall 16. The trailing end of chamber member 11 is closed by an end wall 17 and the leading end of a chamber member 11 is open to define a front discharge opening 18. The leading part of chamber member lldefines a compression chamber 19, the forward section of which projects in a cantilevered fashion from base member 12, and the trailing section of chamber member 11 defines a housing 20.
A rectangular feed opening 21 is formed in top wall 16 at the trailing section of compression chamber 19 and extends for the 'full width of top wall 16. integrally formed with chamber walls 14 and 16 and projecting upwardly from the periphery of feed opening 21 is a vertical peripheral flange 22. A vertically upwardly extending chute or conduit 23 is coupled to and engages the outer face of flange 22 and leads to one or more spaced receiving openings into which the waste or rubbish initially is deposited. Formed in top wall 16 immediately trailing opening flange 22 is a rectangular opening 24 extending across the full width of top wall 16 and providing access into the interior of housing 20. Access opening 24 is closed by a separable mating lid 26'.
Medially located in housing and extending for almost the full length thereof is a double acting hydraulic cylinder 29 of conventional construction which is mounted atop and suitably secured to longitudinally spaced leading and trailing support brackets 27 and 28 secured to housing base wall 13. A horizontal piston rod 30 coaxial with cylinder 29 is affixed to the piston associated with hydraulic cylinder 29 and has affixed to its front end by means of a threaded shank and nut, a ram-defining square vertical transverse plate 32 whose peripheral edge slideably registers with the inside faces of chamber walls 13, 14 and 16. Secured to the upper edge of ram 32 and projecting rearwardly therefrom and slideably engaging the underface of wall 16 is a gate-defining rectangular plate 33 which is substantially the width of top wall 16 and is somewhat longer than the distance between the upper edge of discharge opening 18 and the trailing edge of feed opening 21. Forwardly projecting shear teeth 34 are positioned along the top edge of the front face of ram plate 32.
A horizontal gate mounting member 36 is spaced below chamber base plate 13 and is mounted on and projects forwardly from base member 12 to a point directly below the leading edge of baseplate 13. A rectangular door or gate 37 is hinged along its lower edge to the leading transverse edge of door mount member 36 by a transverse hinge pin 38 engaging knuckles 39 formed along the lower edge of gate 37 and supported by member 36. Gate 37 is swingable to an upright vertical position registering with discharge opening 18 to close same and is provided with a rear square plug section 40 which telescopes discharge opening 18 when gate 37 is in closed position. The gate 37 is swingable about pin 38 to a horizontal forwardly projecting open position below the level of base wall 13. Radially projecting from gate knuckle 39 at an angle to gate 37 is a switch-actuating arm 4|.
A manually operable gate latching assembly 42, as shown in FIGS. 10 and II, is carried by gate 37 and includes a pair of transversely spaced lugs 43 medially mounted on the upper outer border of gate 37 and supporting a pivot pin 44. A depending manual operating handle 46 is provided at its upper end with a rearwardly directed ear 47 which is sandwiched between lugs 43 and swingably engages pin 44. A rearwardly extending latch arm 48 is provided at its leading end with a depending ear 49 which is pivoted to the upper end of handle 46 by a pin 50. Depending from the trailing section of latch arm 48 is a latch hook element 51 including a forwardly directed bottom lip 52. A medial slot 53 is formed in top wall 16 proximate its leading the leading edge of top wall 16 and when gate 37 is in its closed latched position, as shown in F IO. 10, hook element 51 engages the leading edge of slot 53 and arm 46 is downwardly rearwardly inclined and pin 44 is above the level of pin 50. Thus forward pressure on gate 37 under the influence of compressed material in chamber 16 cooperates to maintain the latching assembly in locked condition. The latch is manipulated to its unlockedcondition as shown in FIG. 11 merely by manually swinging handle 46 clockwise and is returned to its locked condition by swinging handle 46 counterclockwise with hook element dropping into slot 53.
As shown in FIG. 9 of the drawings, opposite ends of cylinder 29 are connected to opposite ports of a solenoid actuated four-way valve 56 the inlet ports of which are connected respectively to a hydraulic fluid reservoir 57 and the outletof a high pressure variable displacement hydraulic pump 58. Pump 58 is driven by a suitably coupled electric motor M and its inlet communicates with reservoir 57 through an adjustable pressure relief valve 59. Valve 56 includes a pair of actuating solenoids VF and VR; the energization of solenoid VF connects, through valve 56, the rear of cylinder 29 to the outlet of pump 58 and the front of cylinder 29 to discharge to reservoir 57 whereas the energization of valve solenoid VR connects the front of cylinder 29 to the pump outlet and the rear thereof to discharge. Also connected to the outlet of pump 58 is a pair of pressure-responsive switches HS and LS which are individually adjustable to respond to predetermined pressures, the switches being normally open and each actuated to a closed position when the hydraulic fluid pressure exceeds a respective adjustable value. It is to be noted that under normal operating conditions switch HS is adjusted to respond to a higher pressure than switch LS and at a pressure not exceeding that of pressure relief valve 59.
A bank of transversely spaced ram position-sensing switches are suitably mounted inhousing 20 between cylinder 29 and gate plate 33 and in vertical alignment with access opening 24. The position sensing switches are advantageously microswitches, each being provided with an upper actuating arm carrying a cam follower roller 25. There are provided seven cam position sensing switches SlA, SIB, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6 respectively, and affixed to the underface of gate plate 33 and in longitudinal alignment with sensing switches S1A, 81B, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6 are switch actuating cams ClA, ClB, C2, C3, C4, C5 and C6 respectively, the cams actuating respective switches when in engagement therewith. Switch SlA is normally closed and cam ClA is positioned to engage and open switch SlA when ram plate 32 is in its rest intermediate position A a short distance forward of feed opening 21, as shown in FIGS. 4 and 6, and switch SIB is normally closed and simultaneously actuated to an open position with switch SIA by cam ClB similarly positioned to cam CIA. Switch S2 is normally open and associated cam C2 engages and closes switch S2 when ram plate 32 is between position A and position B, the leading edge of feed opening 21. Switch S3 is normally open and is engaged and closed by cam C3 when ram plate 32 is in its fully retracted position as shown in FIG. 5, position C. Switch S4 is normally open and cam C4 engages and closes switch S4 when cam plate 32 is in position D its fully advanced position as shown in FIG. 8. Switch S5 is normally closed and cam C5 engages and opens switch S5 when ram plate 32 is in position B, and switch S6 is normally open and cam C6 engages and closes switch S6 when ram plate 32 is between intermediate and advanced positions A and D.
A bank of gate position switches DSA, DSB and DSC are suitably mounted with their actuating buttons in the path of switch actuating arm 41 and are so positioned and actuating arm 41 is so shaped and related to gate 37 that in the normal conditions of the switches and when gate 37 is closed, switch DSA is closed and switch DSB which is a double-throw switch has one contact lDSB open and its other contact 2DSB closed. Upon opening of gate 37 switch DSA is opened and switch contact IDSB closed and contact ZDSB opened. Door switch DSC responds to the position of gate 37 to be open when gate 37 is open and to be closed when gate 37 is closed.
In order to sense the presence of material in chute 23 at or above an adjustable predetermined level, a photosensitive element 60 is vertically adjustably located on a wall of chute 23 and exposed to the interior thereof, and a source of light (not shown) is positioned on the opposite chute wall and directs a beam of light onto photosensitive element 60. A conventional amplifier switch network is associated with photosensitive element 60 and controls a switch PBS in the usual manner to maintain switch PBS in an open condition when photosensitive element 60 is exposed to light and to close switch PES after the exposure of photosensitive element 60 to light has been interrupted an adjustable predetermined period attendant the presence of material in chute 23 above the adjusted level of sensing by photosensitive element 60.
The pump drive motor M is connected through a conventional magnetic started MS to a three-phase electric power source. Magnetic starter MS includes an actuating solenoid Y4, and a normally open switch 1Y4 which is actuated to closed position upon energization of started solenoid Y4.
The compactor control circuit is energized by a pair of lines at and y, line x being connected to one of the three-phase power legs and line y being connected to another leg through a normally closed stop switch S7. The control circuit includes eight relays actuated by respective solenoids designated Yl to Y8 respectively. Solenoid Y1 actuated relay includes a pair of normally open solenoid actuated switches 1Y1 and 2Y1 respectively; solenoid Y2 situated relay includes a normally open solenoid actuated switch 1Y2; solenoid Y3 activated relay includes a normally closed and a normally open solenoid actuated switches 1Y3 and 2Y3 respectively; solenoid Y5 actuated relay is an adjustable time delay relay and includes a normally closed solenoid actuated switch 1Y5 and a normally open solenoid actuated switch 2Y5; solenoid Y6 actuated relay which includes normally closed solenoid actuated switches 1Y6 and 2Y6 and a normally opensolenoid actuated switch 3Y6; solenoid Y7 actuated relay includes normally open solenoid actuated switches 1Y7 and 4Y7 and normally closed solenoid actuated switches 2Y7 and 3Y7; and solenoid Y8 actuated relay is a time delay relay and includes a normally open solenoid actuated switch 1Y8.
Relay solenoid Y1 is connected in series with pressure switch HS between lines x and y; the relay solenoids Y2 and Y5 are connected in parallel between lines x and y through relay switch lYl and through the series connected switches S5, 1Y2 and the normally closed contacts ofa pushbutton unloaded switch S9 which includes normally open contacts; relay solenoid Y3 is connected between lines x and y through series connected gate switch LS2 and pressure switch LS and through series connected relay switch 2Y3 and the normally closed contacts of switch S9; motor starter solenoid Y4 is connected between lines .t and y through series connected switches 1Y5, 1Y4 and 51A, through series connected switches 1Y5, 1Y3, PES and DSA, and through series connected switch 1Y5 and the normal open contacts of switch S9; and relay solenoids Y6 and Y8 are connected in parallel. with one of each of their terminals being connected to line and their other terminals being connected to line y via switches 2Y7, IDSB, 1Y4 and 51A connected in series, and through switch S3 and through 2Y7, IDSB, 1Y3, PES and DSA, and through SIB, 3Y6, 3Y7, and 1Y4. 81A in parallel with 1Y3, PES and DSA; and relay solenoid Y7 has one terminal connected to line x and its other terminal connected to line y through switch S4, through switch 2Y1, through series connected switches 4Y7, 2Y6 and normally open contacts of switch S9, through either 4Y7, 2Y6 or 2DSB to 1Y4, SlA which are in parallel with 1Y3, PES and DSA through series connected switches S6 and DSC.
Valve solenoid VR is connected between lines x and y through relay switch 1Y7, and valve solenoid VF is connected between lines x and y through relay switch 2Y5, a signal lamp L2 is connected between lines x and y through series connected relay switch 2Y3 and switch S9, and a signal lamp L3 is connected between lines x and y through switch S3.
Considering now the operation of the improved compacting apparatus described above, in the active rest condition of the apparatus gate 37 is closed and latched and ram plate 32 is at intermediate position A, as illustrated in FIG. 4, the control network being in the conditionv illustrated in FIG. 9, the photosensitive element being exposed to light to open switch PBS and switches SIA, SIB, S2 being actuated and pressure switches LS and HS being open. Under such conditions all of the relay solenoids are deenergized. Upon the accumulation of sufficient waste in chute 23-the light incident on photosensitive element 60 is interrupted to close switch PBS and to close the circuits to and to energize relay solenoids Y4 and Y7 whereby to actuate starter MS and energy motor M and drive pump 58, close solenoid latching switch 1Y4 and energize the return valve solenoid VR. As a consequence hydraulic fluid is pumped into the front of cylinder 29 to retract ram 32 and gate 33 to their fully retracted positions as shown in FIG. 5, to permit material from chute 23 to fall into compression chamber 19. During the above retraction strokesolenoid Y4 is energized through hold switch 1Y4 and solenoid Y7 is energized through hold switch 4Y7.
When ram 32 is in its fully retracted position switch S3 is closedby cam C3 and the other cam operated switches are returned to their normal positions, the closing of switch S3 energizing solenoids Y6 and Y8. Energized solenoid Y6 opens switch 2Y6 to deenergize solenoid Y7 and thereby open switch 1Y7 and deenergize valve solenoid VR, and energized relay Y8 after a short delay closes switch 1Y8 to energize valvesolenoid VF and thus to advance ram 32 which compresses the material ahead of it. When the ram 32 has returned to its intermediate A position cam CIA opens switch SlA which in the absence of sufficient material in chute 23 deenergizes relay solenoid Y4 to stop motor M and deenergizes relays Y6 and Y8 to return the control network to its initial rest position. As long as gate 37 is closed and pressure switches LS and HS are open the above cycle will be repeated each time the light to photosensitive element 60 is interrupted by chute accumulated material.
When the amount of material compressed in compacting chamber 19 reaches a density such that the back pressure on the advancing ram 32 between intermediate positions A and B reaches a predetermined level the hydraulic fluid pressure actuates pressure responsive LS to energize relay solenoid Y3 through closed switches LS and S2 which, in turn, opens relay switch 1Y3 and closes relay hold switch 2Y3. The opening of switch 1Y3 prevents the compression recycling under the influence of photoelectric switch PES. However, in the event that it is desired to effect an additional compression cycle, pushbutton switch S9 is momentarily depressed to open and close the normally closed and open contacts thereof respec tively whereby to deenergize relay solenoid Y3 and effect the compression stroke recycling in the above manner, it being noted that such recycling can be accomplished only when gate 37 is closed. With the energization of relay solenoid Y3 lamp L2 is lit to indicate the desired loading of chamber 19.
To unload compaction chamber 19, latch 42 is unlocked and gate 37 is swung outwardly to its fully open horizontal position, as shown in FIG. 7, to free the outer faces of chamber 19. An empty bag 65 of any suitable construction and of approximately the transverse dimensions of the outer faces of chamber 19 and of greater length than that of the compacted mass 66 is slipped over chamber 19 which telescopes bag 65. With the opening of gate 37 switches DSA, DSC and 2DSB are opened and switch IDSB isclosed.Switch S9 is then depressed to open and close respectively the normally closed and open contacts thereof which actuates magnetic starter MS by way of switch 1Y5 and energizes relay solenoids Y6 and Y8 by way of relay switch 2Y7. Accordingly, the closed relay switch 1Y8 actuates valve solenoid VF to advance ram 32 and eject compacted mass 66 through discharge opening 18 into bag 65 advancing the filled bag along the horizontal open gate 37 until the complete mass 66 has been discharged from one chamber 19 into bag 65. The filled bag 65 is then removed and the top portion 67 folded over, as shown in FIG. 3, to close the filled bag.
Even upon release of switch S9 ram 32 continues to advance since relay solenoids Y6 and Y8 are held closed by switch 3Y6 connecting solenoids Y6 and Y8 to line y by way of relay switch 3Y7.
When ram 32 reaches its advance position D, as shown in FIG. 8, cam C4 engages and closes switch S4 to energize relay solenoid Y7 thereby to open switch 3Y7 and deenergize relay solenoids Y6 and Y8 and to close switch 1Y7. Accordingly valve solenoid VF is deenergized and valve solenoid VR is energized to retract ram 32 and when ram 32 reaches intermediate position A switches 51A and 81B are opened to deactuate starter MS and stop motor M and pump 58. Gate 37 may then be closed and the compacting cycles repeated as described above.
If, during the ram compression stroke, an impediment is encountered which jams ram 32 to increase its back pressure and raise the pressure of the hydraulic fluid above the adjusted level of pressure sensitive switch HS, switch HS is closed to energize relay solenoid Y1 and thereby close relay switches lYl and 2Y1. The closure of relay switch 1Y1 energizes relay solenoid Y2 which is held by relay switch 1Y2 and energizes adjustable time delay solenoid 1Y5 and the closure of relay switch 2Y1 energizes relay solenoid Y7. Energization of relay solenoid Y7 effects the deenergization of relay solenoids Y6 and Y8 and the energization of valve solenoid VR via relay switch 1Y7 to retract ram 32. When ram 32 reaches its retracted position C cam C3 closes switch S3 to energize relay solenoid Y6 and Y8 held by relay switch 3Y6 which results in deenergization of relay solenoid Y7 and the energization of valve solenoid VF after the short delay of relay Y8 thereby to advance ram 32. The above unjamming cycle is repeated until the unjamming impediment is sheared or otherwise disposed of as evidenced by a drop in the hydraulic fluid pressure below the response of switch HS, or until the adjustable time delay of relay Y5 expires whereupon relay switch 1Y5 opens to deactuate motor starter MS andto stop motor M and pump 58, and relay switch 2Y5 closes to light lamp L1. If the impediment is removed before the expiration of the delay time of relay Y5, ram 32 continues its advance to its intermediate position and returns the control network to its normal operating condition as shown in FIG. 9.
During the ejection advance stroke of ram 32 between intermediate position A and discharge position D, if gate 32 is raised from. its open position to close switch DSC, switch S6 being closed during this sequence by cam 6C, relay solenoid Y7 is energized, to deenergize relay solenoids Y6 and Y8 and energize valve solenoid VR to thereby retract ram 32 to its intermediate position.
The time delay of relay Y8 is advantageously adjustable to a 7 time sufficient to permit the dropping of material from chute 23 into the compression chamber, for example between 1 to 10 seconds. The time delay of relay Y5 is adjustable to permit a desired number of unjamming cycles of ram 32 before cutoff, for example, up to about 120 seconds. The pressure switches HL and HS are adjustable to the desired resulting compacting force and maximum unjamming force, and the pressure responsive ranges of these switches may be between 100 and 2000 pounds per square inch. It is to be noted that the various ram positions, A, B, C and D may be adjusted by adjustment of the longitudinal positions of corresponding cams C1 to C6 or of the related switches 51 to S6 to which access is available through opening 24.
In FIG. 13 of the drawings there is illustrated a compacting device differing from that first described only in the mounting of the discharge opening gate. Specifically, a bracket 67 is mounted on a sidewall 68 of the chamber member 69 rearwardly of discharge opening 70. A mounting arm 71 transversely spaced from sidewall 68 projects from bracket 67 to the leading end of chamber member 69. A closure gate 72, similar in structure to gate 37, is suitably hinged to the free end of arm 71 for swinging about a vertical axis. A latching assembly 73 similar to latching assembly 42 is mounted on the free edge of gate 72 and cooperates with a latch slot 74 in sidewall 76 of chamber 69. Gate position sensing switches are associated with gate 72 as with gate 37 and the modified compacting device operates in the manner described above.
While there have been described and illustrated preferred embodiments of the present invention, it is apparent that numerous alterations, omissions and additions may be made without departing from the spirit thereof.
l. A material compacting device comprising a longitudinally extending compression chamber have a discharge opening adjacent its leading end and a trailing feed opening, a first gate supported for movement between a position securing said discharge opening to prevent discharge of material therefrom and an open position permitting discharge of said material, a chute communicating with said feed opening, a ram longitudinally movable between an'advanced position proximate with said discharge opening and a retracted position trailing the leading edge of said feed opening, second gate means for opening and closing said feed opening with the retraction and advance of said ram, said ram being normally at rest in a position in advance of said feed opening whereby said feed opening is closed by said second gate means, means for sensing material in said chute, motivating means for advancing and retracting said ram, control means responsive to said sensing means and the position of said first gate for automatically actuating said motivating means to successively retract said ram and open said feed opening gate means and to advance said rain to a predetermined intermediate position between said ram advanced and retracted positions and closing said second gate means so as to compact material in said compression chamber between said ram and the leading end of said chamber and means responsive to a first predetermined pressure on said ram proximate said intermediate position for deactivating said motivating means.
2. The compacting device of claim 1 wherein said first gate, when in fully open position, is free of the longitudinal projection of said compression chamber permitting the application of a receptacle about the leading section of said chamber.
3. The compacting device of claim 1 including means for adjusting said first predetermined pressure response value.
4. The compacting device of claim 1 wherein said ram motivating means includes a hydraulic cylinder including a piston connected to said ram, a hydraulic pump having an outlet connected to an inlet of said cylinder and an electric motor driving said pump, and said control means comprises means controlling the energization of said electric motor.
5. The compacting device of claim 4 including means responsive to an adjustable pressure of the pressurized hydraulic fluid in said hydraulic cylinder when said ram is proximate said intermediate position for deenergizing said motor.
6. The compacting device of claim 1 including means responsive to the pressure on said ram during the advance thereof exceeding a second predetermined value at a position rearwardly of said predetermined intermediate position for retracting said ram from said rearward position and then advancing said rams.
7. The compacting device of claim 6 including means for limiting the repetitive successive retraction and advancing of said ram during the period of pressure exceeding said second predetermined value.
8. The compacting device of claim 6 wherein said successive retraction and advancing of said ram in response to pressures exceeding said predetermined value is independent of said sensing means.
ing device comprises a photosensitive 9. The compacting device of claim 1 wherein said compactelement exposed to the interior of said chute above said second gate and means for directing lightacross said chute toward said photosensitive element.
10. The compacting device of claim 1 including selectively operable means for actuating said motivating means independently of said first pressure responsive means to move said ram to said retracted position and to return said ram to said intermediate position.
11. The compacting device of claim 1 including selectively operable means for actuating said motivating means when said first gate is'in a closed condition and independently of said first pressure responsive means and said sensing means to move said ram to said retracted position and to return said ram to said'intennediate position.
12. The compacting device of claim 1 including selectively operable means for activating said motivating means when said first gate is in an open condition to advance said ram to said advanced position.
13. The compacting device of claim 12 including means responsive to the movement of said gate from its open position while said ram is between said advanced and intermediate positions to interrupt the advance of said ram.
14. The compacting device of claim 1 including selectively operable means for actuating said motivating means independently of said first pressure responsive means to actuate said motivating means to retract said ram to said intermediate positron.
15. The compacting device of claim 1 including means responsive to the opening of said first gate for disabling said sensing means responsive control means. v
16. The compacting device of claim 1 including selectively actuated means for actuating said motivating means when said first gate is in a closed condition to move said ram to said retracted position and return said ram to said intermediate position and when said first gate is in its open position to move said ram to said advance position.
17. The compacting device of claim I wherein said first gate comprises a door hinged for swinging about an axis offset outwardly from said discharge openingv 18. The compacting device of claim 1 wherein the leading section of said compacting chamber is cantilevered and .including a longitudinally extending support member spaced outwardly from the outer face of said chamber leading section, said first gate comprising a door hinged to said support member.
19. The compacting device of claim 1 wherein said compacting chamber feed opening is formed in a top wall thereof, said chute extends above said feed opening and said second gate comprises a longitudinally extending closure plate mounted on said ram and movable therewith across-said feed opening.
20. An automatic compacting system for solid heterogeneous materials comprising a hollow chamber having an opening for feeding waste thereto and an exit opening for removing waste therefrom, a releasable closure for closing said exit opening until the materials are compressed, a piston movable toward and away from said closure of said chamber to compact waste therein and sequentially operable means; for continually reciprocating said piston within said chamber in successive automatic strokes in response to the feeding of waste through said feed opening, said piston compacting said waste into a cohesive load; for continually sensing the density of said compacted load; and, responsive to the securing of a predetermined density, for stopping said reciprocation and thereafter for causing said piston to move toward said exit opening upon release of said closure to eject said load from said chamber.
21. The device according to claim 20 wherein said releasable closure comprises a door hinged at the end of said chamber and is provided with means for releasably locking the same during reciprocation of said iston. I I
22. The device according to c am 20 including means to limit the forward movement of said piston to a predefined position spaced from said closure, whereby said compacted waste may be given the form of the space between said piston and said closure on compaction to said predetermined density.