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Publication numberUS3580513 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 25, 1971
Filing dateJan 31, 1969
Priority dateJan 31, 1969
Publication numberUS 3580513 A, US 3580513A, US-A-3580513, US3580513 A, US3580513A
InventorsMartin George
Original AssigneeAmerican Standard Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Shower head
US 3580513 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent Inventor George Martin [56] References Cited llvuisvllle, y- UNITED STATES PATENTS 2553' 1331 2,552,444 5/1951 Nielsen 239/458 Patented 2,795,462 6/1957 Bletcher et a1 239/460 Assignee i g Standard Inc 3,130,91 1- 4/1964 Billeter 239/455X New York 3,387,791 6/1968 Allenbaugh, Jr. 239/458 Primary Examiner-Lloyd L. King Attorneys-Sheldon 11. Parker, Robert G. Crooks and Tennes l. Erstad ABSTRACT: An adjustable shower head for the distribution 2% of liquids having a control for regulating the flow of the spray. 8 rawmg The shower head is constructed so that the forward pressure US. Cl 239/460 of the liquid on the shower head nozzle does not cause relative B05b 1/32 movement of the shower head parts. A piston-type of arrange- Field of Search 239/460, ment is employed wherein no fluid pressure is developed 456, 455460 which acts on the adjusting mechanism.

in e l J 38 TI 5k L I .q.-- I I I I I I. 4 I 1 Patented May 25, 1971 3,580,513

5 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG.3

Patented May 25, 1971 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Patented May 25, 1971 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 FIG.5

E l mu m Patented May 25, 1971 3,580,513

5 Sheets-Sheet 5 suowER HEAD BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION I. Field of the Invention This invention relates to a shower head having a control for varying the spray from its nozzle for an improved distribution over a broad range of line pressures.

2. Description of the Prior Art In the construction of shower heads, and particularly those applicable for use in installations where it is desirable to maintain a restricted and controlled flow of water for distribution over tubs and the like, considerable effort has been expended to provide a unit which will produce a confined spray, the center area of which is distributed substantially evenly. Moreover, it is desirable to provide a shower head having a control arm for regulating the velocity and flow of the water exiting from the nozzle while maintaining the spray over an evenly distributed area for a variety of line pressure adjustments.

In conventional shower heads, control adjustments are provided for regulating the flow and velocity of the spray by constricting one or more openings of the nozzles at the outlet of the spray head. Depending on the construction of these types of shower heads, the water pressure has a tendency to operate the control valve to either move the nozzles and their respective openings outward to increase the flow of water, or to move the coupling surrounding the nozzles outwardly to shut off the nozzle valves. This difficulty is overcome by applying a high frictional drag to the control arm in the form of a gland packing type seal so as to frictionally bias the rotational movement produced by the water pressure against the internal movable parts of the shower head. In practice it has been found that the frictional drag applied to the control arm can at first excessively restrict movement and can eventually decrease through repeated usage, to the point where it becomes difficult to maintain a set adjustment of the control arm of the shower head. In addition, this wear can result in leakage around the trunnion of the control arm.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In the present invention a shower head is provided having an external control member and which employs a pressure isolation of the movable members within the shower head, so that there is virtually no tendency to actuate the control arm in response to water flow through the shower head regardless of the selected setting of the control arm. The force produced by the water pressure in a rearward direction is isolated from the adjustment cylinder by a fixed piston and there is no forward acting force on the open end of the adjustment cylinder so the control member remains over the entire range of line pressures.

It is therefore object according to the present invention to provide an adjustable shower head mechanism having an adjustment means which is not affected by the forces produced by the water pressure within the shower head when in use.

It is another object according to the present invention to provide a shower head which may be easily and simply adjusted to regulate the flow of water therethrough.

It is another object according to the invention to provide a shower head which is simple and decorative in design, easy to assemble, inexpensive in cost, and reliable in operation.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING Other objects and features of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description considered in connection with the accompanying drawings, wherein similar reference characters denote similar elements throughout the several views, and wherein:

FIG. I is a cross-sectional view in elevation, of a shower head in the closed position according to the invention;

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view in elevation of the shower head of FIG. 1 in a maximum open position;

FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view in elevation of another modification of a shower head in the fine spray position;

FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view, in elevation of the shower head of FIG. 3, in the medium spray position;

FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view of the shower head of FIG. 4, in the flushing position; and

FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view in elevation, of a further modification of a shower head.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring to FIG. 1 there is shown the shower head according to the invention having a substantially cylindrical outer shell 10 with a rotating control member 12 mounted thereagainst. Affixed to member 12 is pin 30 which slides in cam groove 38 in such a manner as to cause axial movement of inner cylindrical shell member 26. The front of the shower head includes a conically shaped skirt 14, which surrounds the outlet of the shower head. Concentrically disposed within the skirt is a shower director 16.

The shower head according to the invention is shown pivotably supported from ball joint 18, which is coupled to the threaded end of member 20. Ball joint 18 customarily includes a coupling nut 22 which contains an internal helical thread having a diameter and pitch corresponding to the externally threaded member 20.

When coupling 22 is engaged to member 20, it is customary to seat ball joint 18 on a sealing member 24, such as a washer, O-ring, or the like in order to impede the free pivoting of the shower head on the ball joint 18.

The inner cylindrical support member 20 includes a main passageway 19 which provides communication between the inlet pipe 17, the ball joint 18, and the chamber 47. Mounted within the outer shell member 10 is an inner cylindrical shell member 26 which functions as a control member. The member 20, positioned within shell 26 functions as an isolation piston. An O-ring 28 is retained within an annular slot or groove 21 formed along the wall of piston 20. O-ring 28 provides a sliding fluid seal between the piston and the internal walls of shell 26.

At the bottom of piston 20 and forming an integral part therewith are plurality of projecting flanges 32.

Along the undersurface of flanges 32 are internal helical threads 34 which corresponds in diameter and pitch to an external helical thread disposed at the end of a vertical cylindrical projection of a shower director 16. The lower conically shaped flange portion of shower director 16 contains a plurality of flutes 36 formed longitudinally along its external surface completely around its periphery. Moreover, the vertical guide angle to which flutes 36 approach the opening of shower director 16 is relieved by a flush angle adjacent to its midportion. By design, the flutes 36 around the periphery of shower director 16 partially closes the aperture within member 26 causing fluid to be emitted from chamber 48 in separate streams. Axial movement of inner shell member 26 with respect to shower director 16 causes variation in the diameter and velocity of aforesaid stream.

A center distributor 40, mounted coaxially within shower director 16 contains a plurality of flutes 42 on the periphery of its downwardly projecting shank. 0n the periphery of a portion of center distributor 40 is a member 44 which in cooperation with director 16, forms a step which serves as a retaining surface for receiving one end of spring 46.

During a part of the assembly of the shower head spring 46 is fitted over center distributor 40 until it engages step 50 at the upper end of distributor 40. Spring 46 has a diameter slightly smaller than bore 48 of shower director 16 so that when distributor 40 is coaxially mounted therein, the opposite end of spring 26 will fit around distributor 40 and within director 38. Member 44 is then threadably engaged to director 16 so that the compressional force of spring 46 will urge distributor 40 against step 50 until overcome by pressure of fluid entering through passage 49. By design, flutes 42 on the periphery of distributor 40 engage the inner walls and partially close off the aperture within member 44.

FIG. 3 shows another modification of a shower head, which is supported by a ball joint 18. The ball joint is coupled to the threaded end of the inner body member 60, by means of a coupling nut 22, which contains an internal helical thread having a diameter in pitch corresponding to the externally threaded member 60. The inner body member 60 has an interior passageway 62 through which water flows, when the shower is in use. An outer body member 64 is fixed at one end to one end of the inner body member 60, as for example by cooperating screw threads, solvent welding or the like. Obviously, the choice between solvent welding, heat fusing, cementing, etc., or manufacturing in a single piece the various elements of the shower assembly as a matter of manufacturing convenience does not constitute a part of the invention.

A cam handle 66 is mounted for rotation in the outer body member 64. A locking pin 68 can be used to fix the handle in place. A pin 30 is carried by the cam handle 66. The pin 30 is eccentrically positioned with respect to the center of rotation of handle 66 and is in engagement with the balance piston 70 by means of the cup-shaped, pin receiving member 72 positioned at one end of the balance piston. A water passage containing section 74 of the piston 70, is connected to the shower director 76 by means of cooperating screw threads, or the like.

Rotation of the cam handle 66 causes the balance piston 70 and consequently the waterway member 74 and the shower director 76 to rotate about the inner body member 60 and to move axially with respect to the inner body member. Rotation of the cam handle 66, from the position shown in FIG. 3 to the position shown in FIG. 4, causes the space between the shower director 76 and the director ring 78, (located in a groove on the inside of one end of the outer body member 64) to increase, thus moving the shower head from the closed or fine spray position to the medium spray position.

Further rotation of the cam handle 66, to the position shown in FIG. 5, provides the maximum clearance between the shower director 76 and the director ring 78.

The path of the water in the shower head is as follows. The water enters through the ball joint member 18 and travels through the passageway 62 in the inner body member 60 then openings 63 which are preferably elongated slots which extend along the length of the elongated tubular portion 61 of the body member 60.

The water then passes in part through the openings 80 and in part between the ring 78 and the shower director 76. The grooves in the surface of the shower director control the direction of the individual streams of water.

Rotation of the cam handle 66 causes the clearance between the shower director 76 and the ring 78 to increase or decrease.

The O-ring 82 provides a seal between the balance piston 70 and the outer body member 64 as well as providing a sliding surface between the two members. As shown in FIG. when the shower director 76 is in its outermost position, a sufficient clearance is provided to enable the shower head to be flushed of solid particles which are trapped between the shower director 76 and the outer body member 64.

The sliding of the balance piston 70 on the tubular member 61 is facilitated by the use of at least one O-ring 84 which is positioned in a groove of the outer surface of the member 61. However, additional O-rings or other types of sealing means can be used.

The shower head structure of FIGS. 3, 4, and 5 are dimensioned such that the fluid pressures on the inner member 74 are balanced and the spray position obtained by rotating of the cam handle 66 will not change during use.

The outwardly extending section 71 of the member 74 is approximately equal to the corresponding region 73 of the shower director 76.

Similarly, the surface area of the region 75, of the member 74 approximates the exposed surface 77 of the shower director 76.

The net result of the foregoing is that the position of the shower director 76 is stable.

A further modification of the shower head structure is shown in FIG. 6. This modification of the inner body member is fixed to the shower director 92. Rotation of the handle 94 causes the outer shell 96 to move axially with respect to the shower director 92 and inner body member 90. The water travels axially through the inner member 90 and then outwardly through a plurality of ports 98 located circumferentially around the inner body member 90 adjacent to the shower director 92. The water then flows between the movable outer member 96 and the shower director 92. As in previous modifications, a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the shower director 92 cooperate with a ring 100 to provide a plurality of discrete, well-defined streams of water.

The O-ring 102 prevents the water from flowing the wrong direction, that is out of the rear end of the shower head.

The outer, movable portion 96 of the shower head does not tend to move because it is in effect isolated, that is, because the water pressure is isolated from the movable member.

Although the invention has been described in its preferred forms with a certain degree of particularity, it is understood that the present disclosure of the preferred forms has been made only by way of example, and that numerous changes in the details of construction and the combination and arrangement of parts may be resorted to without departing from the spirit and the scope of the invention.

I claim:

1. A shower head comprising:

a. an inner cylindrical support member having an inlet end;

b. an inner cylindrical shell member, said inner cylindrical shell member having an inwardly extending flange region, in sliding engagement with said inner cylindrical support member;

c. a substantially cylindrical outer shell member, said inner cylindrical support member being fixed to said substantially cylindrical outer shell member and providing an annular space having an open end and a substantially closed end, said inner cylindrical shell member being positioned within said annular space and being movable with respect to said inner cylindrical support member and said substantially cylindrical out shell member said inner cylindrical support member having at least one radially extending passage providing communication between said inlet an said annular space; and

d. means to move said second cylinder with respect to said first cylinder.

2. The shower head of claim 1, further comprising and outwardly extending flange region on said inner cylindrical support member and sealing means providing a fluid seal and a sliding engagement between said inner cylindrical support member and said inner cylindrical shell member;

3. The structure of claim 2, wherein said inner cylindrical support member includes a shower director section extending outwardly from said inner cylindrical support member, and having a plurality of radially spaced grooves;

4. The shower head of claim 1, further comprising a shower director cooperatively associated with said inner cylindrical support member and positioned at the substantially closed end thereof, said shower director having a plurality of radially spaced, axially extending grooves in its outer surface, said substantially cylindrical shell member being positioned so as to have its downstream end movable from a position in close proximity to said grooves to a position relatively substantially spaced from said grooves.

5-. A shower head comprising:

a. an inner cylindrical support member, having an inlet end and a substantially closed end, a radial groove in the outer surface thereof, proximate said inlet end, and at least one port in said first cylinder e ijacent said closed end;

b. an O-ring in said groove;

c. an inner cylindrical shell member in sliding engagement with and carried on said inner cylindrical support member, said O-ring providing sealing means and sliding means between said inner cylindrical support member and said inner cylindrical shell member;

d. means for axially moving said inner cylindrical shell member, relative to said inner cylindrical support member;

e. said inner cylindrical shell member having a first region having a first inner diameter substantially equivalent to the outer diameter of said inner cylindrical support member in the region of said radial groove, a second region having a second inner diameter substantially greater than said first inner diameter, and transition region between said first region and said second region.

6. A shower head, as in claim 5, further comprising a shower director member carried by said inner cylindrical support member at its substantially closed end, said shower director having a plurality of axially extending, radially spaced grooves in its outer surface.

7. A showerhead comprising:

a. an inner'cylindrical support member having an inlet end and a closed end;

b. substantially cylindrical shell member, having an outlet end, and a closed end in fluidtight, fixed engagement with said inner cylindrical support member and forming an annular space having an open end and a substantially closed end, said closed end being proximate said inner cylindrical support members inlet and said open end being proximate said inner cylindrical support member's closed end,

c. a substantially cylindrical outer shell member in sliding engagement with said inner cylindrical support member and said inner cylindrical shell member and being movable within said annular space, said substantially cylindrical outer shell member having a first flange end in sliding engagement with said inner cylindrical shell member, and a second flange end, said inner cylindrical support member and said substantially cylindrical outer shell member having cooperating passage means for providing fluid flow through said inner cylindrical support member, between said first and second flange of said substantially cylindrical outer shell member and between said second flange end and said outlet.

8. The structure of claim 7 further comprising at least one groove in said inner cylindrical support member, proximate said first flange end of said substantially cylindrical outer shell member, and seal means in each of said at least one groove, whereby a fluidtight, sliding engagement is provided between said inner cylindrical support member and said substantially cylindrical outer shell member.

9. The structure of claim 7 further comprising a radial groove in the outer surface of said substantially cylindrical outer shell member and an O-ring in said groove, whereby a fluidtight, sliding engagement is provided between said inner cylindrical shell member and said substantially cylindrical outer shell member.

10. The shower head of claim 7, further comprising shower director means on said substantially cylindrical outer shell member proximate said outlet end of said inner cylindrical shell member.

11. The shower head of claim 10, wherein said substantially cylindrical outer shell member has a centrally positioned opening at its second flange end, said opening having a plurality of radially spaced, axial grooves, the diameter of said opening being slightly greater than the outer diameter of said substantially closed end of said inner cylindrical support member.

12. The structure of claim 11, further comprising a groove in said inner cylindrical support member proximate said substantially closed end, and seal means in said groove, said seal means being positioned relative to said grooves in said opening in said substantially cylindrical outer shell member, such that when said substantially cylindrical outer shell member is moved to the maximum extent in a first direction relative to said inner cylindrical support member, said grooves provide the only clearance for fluid flow between said inner cylindrical support member and said substantially cylindrical outer shell member, and when said substantially cylindrical outer shell member is moved to the maximum extent in a second direction relative to said inner cylindrical support member, a substantial clearance exists between said inner cylindrical support member and substantially cylindrical outer shell member.

13. The shower head of claim 4, wherein said substantially cylindrical outer shell member comprises a first upstream region, said first region being in sliding engagement with said inner cylindrical support member said first flange end extending outwardly from said first region and having sealing means in sliding engagement" with said inner cylindrical shell member, and a second downstream region having an inner diameter substantially greater than the outer diameter of said inner cylindrical support member, and substantially smaller than the inner diameter of at least a downstream region of said inner cylindrical shell member.

14. The structure of claim 13, wherein the upstream and downstream radially extending surfaces of said substantially cylindrical outer shell member are substantially equal in surface area, whereby the upstream and downstream fluid pressures acting on said substantially cylindrical outer shell member are substantially equal.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2552444 *Jan 26, 1946May 8, 1951Clarissa E CairdHose nozzle
US2795462 *Feb 15, 1954Jun 11, 1957Bletcher Ralph EShower head
US3130911 *Nov 8, 1962Apr 28, 1964Sloan Valve CoAutomatically self-cleaning shower heads
US3387791 *Oct 14, 1965Jun 11, 1968Akron Brass CompanyNozzle
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4840313 *Oct 14, 1987Jun 20, 1989Hansen Development LimitedWater spray fitting
US5961046 *Apr 14, 1998Oct 5, 1999Joubran; RaymondShower fixture with inner/outer spray ring
US20110114754 *Nov 18, 2009May 19, 2011Huasong ZHOUHydropower rotating overhead shower
Classifications
U.S. Classification239/460
International ClassificationB05B1/30
Cooperative ClassificationB05B1/3086
European ClassificationB05B1/30D4
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Nov 14, 1997ASAssignment
Owner name: AMERICAN STANDARD, INC., NEW JERSEY
Free format text: RELEASE OF SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:CHASE MANHATTAN BANK, THE (FORMERLY KNOWN AS CHEMICAL BANK);REEL/FRAME:008869/0001
Effective date: 19970801
Nov 13, 1997ASAssignment
Owner name: AMERICAN STANDARD, INC., NEW JERSEY
Free format text: RELEASE OF SECURITY INTEREST (RE-RECORD TO CORRECT DUPLICATES SUBMITTED BY CUSTOMER. THE NEW SCHEDULE CHANGES THE TOTAL NUMBER OF PROPERTY NUMBERS INVOLVED FROM 1133 TO 794. THIS RELEASE OF SECURITY INTEREST WAS PREVIOUSLY RECORDED AT REEL 8869, FRAME 0001.);ASSIGNOR:CHASE MANHATTAN BANK, THE (FORMERLY KNOWN AS CHEMICAL BANK);REEL/FRAME:009123/0300
Effective date: 19970801
Jun 2, 1993ASAssignment
Owner name: CHEMICAL BANK, AS COLLATERAL AGENT, NEW YORK
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:BANKERS TRUST COMPANY, AS COLLATERAL TRUSTEE;REEL/FRAME:006565/0753
Effective date: 19930601
Jun 28, 1988ASAssignment
Owner name: BANKERS TRUST COMPANY
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:AMERICAN STANDARD INC., A DE. CORP.,;REEL/FRAME:004905/0035
Effective date: 19880624
Owner name: BANKERS TRUST COMPANY, 4 ALBANY STREET 9TH FLOOR,
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:U.S. PLUMBING, INC., A CORPORATION OF DELAWARE;REEL/FRAME:004905/0159
Owner name: BANKERS TRUST COMPANY, NEW YORK