|Publication number||US3580666 A|
|Publication date||May 25, 1971|
|Filing date||Jul 31, 1969|
|Priority date||Jul 31, 1969|
|Publication number||US 3580666 A, US 3580666A, US-A-3580666, US3580666 A, US3580666A|
|Inventors||Vance Robert G|
|Original Assignee||Vance Robert G|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (4), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent  Inventor Robert G. Vance 8312 Frye Road, Alexandria, Va. 22309 [21 App]. No. 846,422 [22} Filed July 31, I969  Patented May 25, I971  OPTICAL PRINTER FOR MOTION PICTURE FILM 22 Claims, 12 Drawing Figs.  US. Cl 352/90, 352/91, 355/39, 355/40, 355/43  Int. Cl ...G03b 21/32, G03b 27/32  Field of Search 352/90, 91; 355/39, 44, 45, 4O
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,510,155 9/1924 Nelson 355/39 2,153,212 4 1939 Spray 355/39 2,517,250 8/1950 Sheaetal. 355/45 3,040,619 6 1962 Oxbury 355/40 1,894,265 1 1933 Chretien 355/43 Primary ExaminerS. Clement Swisher Attorney-W. Britton Moore ABSTRACT: An optical printer for superimposing titles or the like on motion picture film in which images from picture, title and title shadow matte rolls are projected onto raw film stock in a continuous operation. A cue roll provides for automatic advancement of this title and title-shadow matte and title rolls and also enables variations in light intensity and fade-in and fadeout to be effected. A second printing unit operated by the cue roll provides for lap dissolve and checkerboarding in coordinated time relationship with the first printer.
PMENTEU W25 61;
sum 1 or 4 INVENTOR aw z M flmQvJE PATENTIEUIHAYZB I911 3580.666
SHEEI 3 F 4 v FADE CHART 53% lN ouT I2 24 32 48 s 24 FRAMES m FIG 6 750 I2 FRANES IN H 32FRAMESIN 8|OJT I350 48 FRAMES OUT FIG. 7
FIG. 8 k I01 I08 94 96 T INVENTOR FIG. 9
VIML MQ Q 4mm): v
PATENT-El] HAYZSIBYI 3580.668
SHEU 8 (IF 4 I LIGHT INTENSITY A fiv FADE A o a L: Q TITLE AND MATTE O i FADE B 78 FIG IO LIGHT INTENSITY B IN V EN TOR 64) g. M m
OPTICAL-PRINTER- FORMOFIION PICTURE-FILM This invention relates to optical printers for motion picture film and moreparticularly to apparatus for imprinting titles or the like on such film in a continuous .operation.
In the motion pictureindustry it is well known-to superimpose' captions; titles and composite pictures on motion picture films. Conventional apparatusfor this purpose, however, has involved either contact printing or multiple winding, rewinding, and-changing of the picture, shadow matte, and/or the title films, therebyresultingin a discontinuous,.lengthy and somewhat complicated. operation. In accordance. with the present invention, the title.printing -and other: operations are combined into a continuous process or operation.
An object of the present invention, therefore, is to provide-a new and improved opticalprinter for superimposing. titles on motion picture film.
Another object is to provide a printing apparatus for projecting a title on motion picturefilm-in-a continuous operation or process.
Still another object is the provision of a continuously operating printer in which a cue roll insures the automatic projection of shadow matte and title images onto a motion picture film.
A further object is to provide acontinuously operating printer in which light, intensity and, fading operations are also controlled by'a cue roll.
A still further object is the provision of a dual projection system wherein checkerboarding, lap dissolve, and like effects may be readily accomplished.
A further object; is to provide a dual projection system in which a common title projector enables the dual projection of titles on a reel of motion picture film.
Still a further object is the provision of a common cue roll for efl'ecting coordinated operation of a dual projection system.
Another object is the provision of a common viewing device for observing a composite of .the images being projected into one'or more cameras by shadow matte, picture, and title rolls.
Still another object is to provide a unique optical scanning device for projecting titles onto motion picture film in a continuously operating printer.
In one aspect of the invention, a first printing unit includes a title shadow matte projector, a picture projector, and a camera arranged in optical alignment, and a title film projector arranged perpendicularly to such alignment. An optical device, such as a scanning ,mirror, reflects the title into the camera and also provides for the projection 'of images from the shadow matte, picture, and title film onto a common .viewer. A cue roll effects'automatic advancement .of the title shadow matte and title films and also controls variations in light intensity, fade-in and fadeout effects.
In another aspect, a second printerv unit is arrangedin parallel with the first printing unit, and includes shadow matte and picture projectors, and a title scanning device arranged in alignment with a second camera for the raw stock. The aforesaid title projector and cuing means are common to both units and the cuing means effects coordinated operation of the units with respect to the raw stock film.
These and other objects,-features and advantages of the invention will be apparent when they following description is considered with the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIG. I is a diagrammatic view. of a printerincorporating the features of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a chart of the. light intensityfilters;
FIG. 3 is a chart illustrating picture frames and light intensiy;
FIG.;4 is a schematic diagram of the circuit foroperating the filters of FIG. '2;
' FIG. 5 is .a viewillustrating the coordinated operation of the shadow matte and title rolls of theprinter;
F IG. 6 is a schedule of the shutterframe operation;
I -FIG. 7 is a chart depicting the fade-in andfadleout operation of the shutter of FIG. 6;
FIG. 8 is a schematic view of the mechanism and circuits for operating the shutter of FIGS. 6 and 7;
FIG. 9 is a further schematic of the shutter mechanism;
FIG. 10 is a view of a fragmentary section of a cue roll;
FIG. 11 is a perspective view of the title projector scanning mirror; and
FIG. 12 is a diagrammatic view illustrating an optical monitoring system for the printer of FIG. I.
Referringmore particularly to the drawings, wherein like reference characters designate similar parts throughout the several views, and specifically to the upper half of FIG. 1, a high intensitylight source 10, operating through a filter system 12, projectslight through. a. condensing lens system 14. In an actual embodiment. of the invention, the light source 10 and filter. system l2would be positioned behind a panel supporting the other elements of FIG. I and would be projected into the lens system 14. by a suitable mirror or the like. The light from lens system 14. is projected through a projector head 16, having the usual gateand film advancing means, and is transferred by. a transfer'lens system 18. to a second projector head 20 including like gate and film advancing means. Light from the latter projector head is directed to a camera focusing lens system 22 which projects images from the first and second heads onto raw film stock through a gate and film advancing head 24 as is well known in the motion picture art, it being understood that an aerial image from the first projector 16 is focused by the transfer lens 18 onto the gate aperture of the second projector head 20.
Now referring to the lower half of FIG. 1, there is shown an optical printing system identical to that above described, wherein like elements are identified with prime reference numerals, and are preferably mounted on the same panel as their counterparts. A raw stock reel 26 and a windup reel 28, as well as the camera heads 24 and 24', may be positioned in a light-proof housing, not shown. A raw stock film 30 is fed to the heads 24 and 24 with a predetermined number of frames 41, for example, therebetween.
A motion picture film 32 is fed past the projector head 20 from an A picture reel 36 to a windup reel 34. Simultaneously and in synchronism therewith, a B picture film 32 is fed .past the head 20' from reel 34 to reel 36'. During predetermined portions of the A" and 3" pictures, matte films 38 and 38' are fed through the projector heads 16 and 16 from matte reels 40 and 40 to matte windup reels 42 and 42'. At the same time, and in coordination therewith, a title film 44 is fed through a title projector head 46, as best illustrated in FIG. 5. A lamp 48 and lens 50, cooperating with a focusing device 52, projects the title on the raw stock 30, as will now be described.
Referring to FIGS. I and 11, a drive mechanism 54 effects rotation of a mirror 56. This drive mechanism 54 is positioned outside the path of the rays from projectors 20 and 52, but rotates the mirror 56 into the path of such rays at a rate of one revolution per frame of picture and raw stock. The mirror 56 has a segmental wedge shape of approximately 10, as shown in FIG. 11, so as to interrupt the beam from the gate 58 of head 20 during approximately 0.1 percent of a frame exposure time. A reflecting surface is formed on both the upper and lower faces of mirror 56, with the upper surface serving to scan and reflect the title into the camera and the lower surface to reflect images from film "A" and the shadow matte roll 38 onto an optical viewing system 60 (FIG. 12), hereinafter to be described. A similar mirror 56' is rotated in the path of rays from the projector head 20.
Also suitably arranged on the panel supporting the various projector ,and camera-heads, is a cue roll reel 80, cue roll windup reel 82, and two sets of cueswitches 76 and 76'. Each set of cue switches includes a bank of five microswitches operated by markings or cutouts 77 on a cue roll 78, FIGS. 1 and 10, and arranged in five rows or tracks extending longitudinally of the cue roll. As indicated in FIG. 10, the markings on four of the rowsor tracksrcontrol light intensity and fade for the "A" and "B" picture rolls, while those on the fifth control the operation of the matte and title rolls. The cue roll 78 is of the same length as the picture rolls A" and B and is fed through the cue switches 76 and 76' at the same rate as the picture film. Themicroswitches 76 and 76' control the A" sources and 10', it being understood that there is one such filtering system for each of the upper and lower optical units of FIG. 1 and each light source 10 and 10'. As indicated in FIG. 2, four filterelements 12 may be employed, one functioning to cut off 10 percent of the light and the others percent, 40percent and 80 percent, respectively. Depending upon the combination of filters interposed in the path of light from the sources 10 or 10, any desired intensity may be obtained, ranging from 100 percent to 10 percent in multiples of 10. Thus as illustrated in FIG. 3, a light intensity of 100 percent, for example, may be provided for the first 565 frames of picture roll and raw stock. During frames 565-1 110, the intensity may be 50 percent, and from frames 11 10 to 1250, the intensity may be 70 percent, and 90 percent from frames 1250 to 1425, etc. The means for controlling the light intensity is illustrated in FIG. 4. Thus, electric power is supplied through the terminals 62 and 64, and one or more of the preselector switches 66 is manually operated to close circuits 68 leading to switches 70 and solenoid coils 72 to preselect the filter elements 12 to be used during a desired frame sequence. At the desired frame time, the switches 70 are closed by a common solenoid 74 operated by the cue roll 78 and microswitches 76 and 76'. Depending upon which of the circuits 68 have been closed by the preselector switches 66, the solenoids 72 move the filter elements 12 into the path of the light beam from sources 10 and 10.
The operation of the shadow matte roll 38 and the title roll 44 is best illustrated in FIG. 5. The matte roll includes clear frames 80 for normal picture projection and shadow frames 82 for blanking out a portion of the picture roll frames in the outline of a title or the like to be superimposed thereon. Title roll 44 includes opaque or light out frames 86, corresponding to the clear frames 80 of roll 78, and title frames 88 with the latter being projected into the camera by mirrors 56 and 56 during the shadow portions 82 of the matte roll. The matte roll shadow frames may be made, for example, by projecting the title onto raw film stock in an off-focus arrangement, thereby giving a shadow (black upon the projection of a finished film) entirely around the letters or characters of a title. Both the matte roll 38 and title roll 44 are freeze framed and sequentially advanced in unison by the cue roll 76 at predetermined frames of the picture rolls.
Referring now to FIGS. 6, 7, 8 and 9, there is illustrated the fade-in fadeout operation of the two optical systems or units of FIG. 1, it being again noted that both picture film A" and picture film 8" are being simultaneously advanced through cameras 24 and 24' at a coordinated speed, 41 frames apart, for example. This operatiim also provides for lap dissolve and for checkerboarding wherein the projection of splices is eliminated from the finished film. As shown in FIG. 1, shutters 90 and 90 are interposed in the path of light from the sources 10 and 10'. Each of these shutters includes a fixed disc 92 formed with an arcuate aperture 93 and a rotating disc 94 to provide an arcuate aperture 95 (FIG. 9). A heart-shaped cam 96 serves to move the apertures 93 and 95 into and out of alignment to thereby vary the light intensity passing therethrough. As illustrated in FIG. 6, the fading operation may comprise any selected number of picture frames, 12, 24, 32m 48, for example.
The mechanism for operating the shutters 90 and 90' is schematically illustrated in FIG. 8. A drive shaft 100, coordinated to the speed of the picture frames, continuously drives a rotating gear member 101, and driving gears 104, having a ratio of 12, 24, 32 and 48 frames, drive the cam 96 at such ratios through a gear 102 and magnetic clutch 103. A plurality of magnetic clutch means, not shown, function to selectively engage gear 101 with gears 10.4 and thereby effect selective advancement or retraction of shutter 94 upon engagement of the magnetic clutch 103. Also included in the cam 96 drive mechanism is a cam 106 which operates a holding switch 110, and a plurality of preselector switches 105 and the clutches which selectively connect the gears 104 with the gear 102.
Operation of the foregoing fading mechanism is as follows. Power supplied by the terminals 107 and 108 is fed to the various magnetic clutches for the gears 104 through the manually operated preset switches 105. These switches are operated in accordance with a predetermined schedule to effect proper fade-in or fadeout at specified frames of the picture film, as illustrated in FIG. 7. Operation of the shutter cam 96, however, is not effected until microswitch 76 is operated by cue roll 78 to energize magnetic clutch 103. A holding circuit for clutch 103 is then established through holding cam 106 and switch 110 to thereby continue rotation of the heart-shaped cam 96 throughout the 180 rotation of the cams 106 and 96. A manually operated switch 114 controls presetting cam 96 to a fade-in or fadeout position, if desired, by short-circuiting microswitch 76.
In order to simultaneously view the images being projected into either or both of the aforementioned camera units, an optical system 60 may be provided. As illustrated in FIG. 12, this system includes rotating mirrors 56 and 56', title projector 52, and a beam splitting prism 120. Mirrors 56 and 56' reflect the picture and matte images into the prism 120, while the title image is directly projected during portions of the scanning cycle. The result is a composite viewing of the projected images due to the well known image retention time of the human eye.
While not illustrated in the drawings, it will be evident that all of the mechanical elements of both printer units are driven in a coordinated timed relationship by a common drive mechanism located behind the supporting panel for the elements shown in FIG. 1. It will also be evident that, among other things, any suitable optical device could be substituted for the scanning mirrors 56 and 56'.
1. In an optical printer for superimposing titles or the like on a motion picture film in a continuous operation, the combination comprising a first projecting means, a second projecting means and a camera means positioned in optical alignment; means for projecting a light beam through said first and second projecting means; a third projecting means arranged perpendicularly to the optical axis of said first and second projecting means; and optical means for superimposing an image from said third projecting means upon images from said first and second projecting means.
2. The combination as defined in claim 1 in which said first projecting means comprises a shadow matte projector, said second projecting means comprises a picture projector, and said third projecting means comprises a title projector.
3. The combination as defined in claim 2 wherein a cue means provides for predetermined operation of said first and third projectors in coordination with frames of a picture roll being projected from said second projector.
4. The combination as defined in claim 3 in which a plurality of filter means provide for controlling the light intensity of said light beam, and means including said cue means to effect predetermined selective operation of said filter means.
5. The combination as defined in claim 4 in which means including a plurality of preset switch means provides for selecting the filter means to be operated by said cue means.
6. The combination as defined in claim 3 in which means operated by said cue means provides for predetermined fadein and/or fadeout of images being projected from said picture roll.
7. The combination as defined in claim 6 wherein said fadein and/or fadeout means includes means for selectively varying the number of picture frames involved in said fading operations.
8. The combination as defined in claim 6 in which said fading means includes a shutter operating means, a holding circuit means, and means initiated by said cue means for effecting predetermined operation of said shutter and holding circuit means.
9. The combination as defined in claim 8 wherein means independent of said cue means provides for presetting said shutter operating means for either a fade-in or fadeout operation.
10. The combination as defined in claim 7 wherein said means for selectively varying the number of picture frames involved in a fading operation includes a shutter operating cam means, including a variable speed gear train and a plurality of magnetic clutches for rotating said cam means at different speeds, and means including a plurality of switch means for selectively energizing said magnetic clutches.
11. The combination as defined in claim 3 in which said cue means comprises a cue roll having cue markings thereon, switch means operated by said markings, and means for feeding said cue roll past said switch means at a rate coordinated with the feeding of a picture roll.
12. The combination as defined in claim 11 wherein said markings are arranged in a plurality of rows extending longitudinally of said cue roll, and said switch means comprises a plurality of switching devices each responsive to a different row of markings.
13. The combination as defined in claim 2 in which said op tical means for superimposing images from said third projecting means comprises a segmental mirror and means for rotating said mirror in synchronism with motion picture frames being projected from said second projecting means.
14. The combination as defined in claim I in which said optical means for superimposing images from said third projecting means includes means for projecting images from said first and second projecting means onto a common viewing means in optical alignment with the third projecting means.
15. The combination as defined in claim 13 wherein said mirror is double faced to project images from said first and second projecting means onto a common viewing means.
16. In an optical printing apparatus for superimposing titles or the like on a motion picture film, the combination comprising a pair of optical printing units positioned side by side, each of said units comprising a first projecting means, a second projecting means, and a camera means arranged in optical alignment, a third projecting means arranged perpendicularly to the optical alignment of the aforesaid projecting means, means for optically projecting an image from said third projecting means into the camera means of both of said printing units to superimpose said image on images projected from said first and second projecting means, and means for coordinating transmission of images to said respective camera means in a continuous operation.
17. The combination as defined in claim 16 wherein said means for coordinating the transmission of images includes a cue means common to both of said printing units and said third projecting means.
18. The combination as defined in claim 17 wherein said first projecting means comprises a shadow matte projector, said second projecting means comprises a picture projector, and said third projecting means comprises a title projector.
19. The combination as defined in claim 18 in which said cue means comprises a cue film advanced at the same rate as a picture film.
20. The combination as defined in claim 17 in which each of said printing units is provided with a plurality of filter means for controlling the intensity of light projected through said first and second projecting means, and means including said cue means provides predetermined selective operation of said filter means.
21. The combination as defined in claim 20in which each of said printing units is provided with means including said cue means for effecting selective fade-in and/or fadeout of images bein rojected by the respective rinting units.
22 lhe combination as define in claim 16 in which optical means including said first-mentioned optical means provides simultaneous viewing of images projected from each of said first and second projecting means and said third projecting means.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US1510155 *||Apr 11, 1921||Sep 30, 1924||William Nelson Erik||Apparatus for printing moving-picture films|
|US1894265 *||Jan 6, 1932||Jan 17, 1933||Henri Chretien||Apparatus for printing synthetic anamorphosed films|
|US2153212 *||Feb 18, 1936||Apr 4, 1939||Composite printing apparatus for|
|US2517250 *||Apr 17, 1946||Aug 1, 1950||Edward Furer||Optical printer with automatic electrical control of operating mechanism|
|US3040619 *||Jan 4, 1960||Jun 26, 1962||Animation Equipment Corp||Optical printer having a plurality of projector heads|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3898002 *||Aug 1, 1973||Aug 5, 1975||Kinderfoto International Inc||Method and apparatus for editing a film strip|
|US4009959 *||Jun 26, 1975||Mar 1, 1977||Bell & Howell Company||Exposure control unit|
|US4017177 *||Jun 2, 1975||Apr 12, 1977||H. Berthold A.G.||Photosetter|
|US6523956||May 9, 2001||Feb 25, 2003||Jon Oshima||Multiplexed motion picture camera|
|U.S. Classification||352/90, 352/91.00R, 355/40, 355/39, 355/43|