US 3581757 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent  Inventors Cyrille Francois Pavlin 3,527,240 9/1970 Metzger l37/81.'5 ii ui yn-losas; 3,175,569 3/1965 Somers l37/8l.5 E ar Maurice g n A m M 3,217,727 11/1965 Spyrp0ul0s..... 132/815 Meudon-la-Foretibolh flF 3,228,410 1/1966 Warren etal. 137/81.5 1 1 pp N41 ,221 3,275,015 9/1966 Meier l37/8l.5 1 1 Filed c- .1968 3,339,571 9/1967 Hatch,Jr... l37/81.5 1451 at d J 1.197! 3,456,665 7/1969 Pavlin l37/81.5 1 1 Assignee Brfin&Cie 3,468,220 9/1969 Lazar 137/81.5X Plaisin,Yvelines,France 3,472,225 10/1969 Burns l37/8l.5X
FOREIGN PATENTS ARRANGEMENT WHICH ALLOWS THE 1,458,767 /1966 France 137/81.5
ALTERNATE FORCING BACK AND SUCKING 1N Primary Examiner samuel Scott 0F FPUID AttorneyWatson, Cole, Grindle & Watson 9 Claims, 7 Drawing Flgs.
 U.S.-Cl 137/8l.5 Cl
FC ABSTRACT: This invention pertains to a combination of ele- Field Of Search t. 137/8 1 .5 ments arranged in a plurality of tages which provides for the 1 alternate forcing back and sucking in of a fluid in a  Reeremes cued capacitance, the frequency of which is adjustable. The ar- UNITED STATES PATENTS rangement provides cyclical pulsation of a fluid at an output 3,320,966 5/1967 Swartz 137/81 5 device at a predetermined frequency which is set by the 3,379,204 4/1968 Kelley etal. 137/81 5 capacitance.
PATENTED JUN 1 I97! SHEET 2 OF 3 (MAW ARRANGEMENT WHICH ALLOWS THE ALTERNATE FORCINGBACK AND SUCKING IN OF FLUID The invention relates to an arrangement which allows the alternate forcing back and sucking in a fluid in a capacity with a frequency the value of which can be adjusted. Such an arrangement has a very interesting application to apparatus for artificial respiration, the fluid in question being then air, oxygen or any suitable respirable mixture.
One of the principal advantages of the arrangement accord ing to the invention resides in that it does not comprise any part which is mobile during functioning. To this end, the arrangement consists of a combination of fluid amplifiers, suitably arranged and adapted.
According to the invention, the arrangement comprises at least three logic elements, namely a fluid relaxation amplifier or pulse generator which determines the frequency of func tioning of the arrangement, a second amplifier or fluid operated selector controlled by the fluid relaxation amplifier and which serves for adjusting the relative duration of the phases of forcing back and of sucking in, and a last amplifier output stage controlled by the second amplifier and which constitutes an evacuation stage connected to the capacity into which the fluid is alternately to be forced back and sucked in.
Advantageously,'the fluid relaxation amplifier is connected to an auxiliary capacity or chamber with adjustable volume which allows modification of the frequency of its functioning.
This auxiliary capacity is connected by means of adjusting elements to one of the control channels of the second amplifier, while the other control channel presents an escape with adjustable flow allowing the moment of basculating of the fluid relaxation amplifier to be determined.
Furthermore, at least a fourth amplifier can be arranged between the second amplifier and the outlet amplifier, which makes it possible to reduce the obstruction as also the flow of the first two amplifiers and the volume of the capacity.
The last amplifier can be provided with means for adjusting the intensity of the final aspiration of the arrangement, which adjustment can extend to suppressing the said aspiration.
The arrangement takes up little space. It can function with very small controlsupplies in the different stages constituting the fluid amplifiers of which it is composed.
The last amplifier constituting, as the case may be, the respirator proper arranged in such a way as to basculate only under the action of its control; because of its imposed rhythm of functioning there is no risk of racing in the case of obstruction of its outlet channels.
The following description, given by way of a nonlimiting example, gives a better understanding, with the aid of the annexed drawing, of how the invention can be carried out in practice, the particularities evident from the drawing as also from the description of course forming part of the said invention.
FIG. I isa diagrammatic sectional view of an arrangement according to the invention taken along the line H in FIG. 2.
FIG. 2 is a cross section along the line II-II in FIG. I, showing how the auxiliary capacity with adjustable volume can be arranged.
FIG. 3 is a view along the arrow III in FIG. 2 showing the relative position of the gates.
FIGS. 4 and 5 are partial vertical cross sections along the lines IV-IV and V-V in FIG. l, and showing the detail of an adjusting gate and of the mobile slide valve of the outlet stage.
FIG. 6 shows a detail, seen from above, on a larger scale, of an intermediate amplifier.
FIG. 7 is a diagrammatical view in perspective of an arrangement according to the invention, contained in an enclosure.
In the embodiment shown in the drawing, the arrangement is constituted by two plates 1 and 2 arranged, as shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, at both sides of an intervening plate 3 suitably cut out for accommodating the different channels and spaces of the fluid amplifiers.
The arrangement comprises four stages A, B, C and D connected to a source of fluid under pressure, for example compressed air, by means of tubes 4, 5, 6 and 7 mounted in the plate 2 and by means of conduits 8, 9, l0 and 11, branched on the said tubes. The diameters of the tubes and of the conduits increase from the stages A and B towards the stage D, as shown in the drawing.
The stage A is constituted by a fluid relaxation amplifier or fluid pulse generator, the nozzle or input channel 12 of which, served by the tube 4, can feed two outlet channels or output ways 13 and 14, terminating the one in the atmosphere, for example, and the other in a conduit I5 connecting it to an auxiliary capacity or chamber 16.
The channel 14, which is connected to the capacity 16, forms with the axis of the nozzle an angle smaller than the angle of the outlet channel 13 so that the said channel 14 has a preferential character and so that it is preferably followed by the jet escaping from the nozzle. Between the latter and the channels 13 and 14 are provided lateral channels 17, preferably dead end," but which can communicate with the outside, for example, by means of gates I8 (in chain-dotted lines in FIG. I).
As shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, the auxiliary capacity means 16 can be fixed along the plate I with the aid of brackets 19 and wedges 20.
The said capacity means is cylindrical. Its effective volume can be adjusted by means of a piston 21, provided with airtight fittings 22 and which can be displaced by means of a rod 23, protruding from the capacity means at the side opposite the side where is connected the conduit 15. A blocking screw 24 permits the rod to be fixed in a given position.
By modifying the value of the effective volume of the capacity 16 there will be an advance or a retardation of the moment at which there will be established, in the channel 14, the maximum pressure which will provoke the passage of the jet through the outer channel 13 and the minimum pressure which will cause the return of thejet in the channel 14.
It is of course understood that any other disposition of this capacity with variable volume is also applicable.
The stage B is constituted by a fluid amplifier or fluid operated selector, essentially symmetrical, fed by the tube 5 and one of the control channels of which, the channel 25, is connected to the auxiliary capacity 16 by means of a conduit 26. A gate or value 27 allows adjustment of the section of passage of the channel 25. The other control channel 28 communicates, for example, with the outside by means of an adjusting gate or value 29.
The nozzle 30 of the stage B serves, through the intermediary of a reflection chamber 301, two outlet channels or output ways 31 and 32. Each of these channels is provided with a venthole 33, preventing the counterpressure from disturbing the functioning of the stage.
The frequency of the functioning of the amplifier B is controlled by the frequency of the amplifier A. When making use of the gates 27 and 29, it is possible to adjust the relation of the phase durations of the functioning of the amplifier B. This relation does not depend on the value of the effective volume of the capacity 16, whichvalue only influences the frequency.
In the case where the adjustment of the relation of the phases is ensured with the aid of the gate 29, it can be of advantage to have the stage B slightly asymmetrical, for example, by inclining the converging wall 30b of the reflection chamber 30a more towards the jet escaping from the noule 30, so as to maintain an overpressure in the channel 28 in particular. This allows adjustment of the phases while conserving an escape towards the outside, which reduces the risk of contamination by, for example, dust particles.
The outlet channels 31 and 32 of the stage B are connected to the control channels 35 and 36 of the stage C. The latter control channel can be similar to the stage B but more powerful so as to serve as an amplifier. Its nozzle 37, fed by the tube 6, serves the symmetrical outlet channels 38 and 39, provided with ventholes 40 similar to the ventholes 33 of the preceding stage.
If necessary, at least one other amplifier, similar to the amplifier of the stage C, can be provided, the control channels of which are to be connected to the outlet channels 38, 39 ofthe stage C, the outlet channels of this amplifier being connected either to another amplifier or to the control channels of the outlet stage D.
The channels 38 and 39 are connected to the control channels 41 and 42 of the outlet stage D.
Fluid is fed to the latter under pressure by the tube 7. It possesses two outlet channels, one of which, 43, terminates in a tube 44 serving to connect the arrangement to the apparatus to which it is applied, for example, an apparatus for artificial respiration or a respirator.
This connection is effected by means of a conduit 45 on which is advantageously provided a gate 46 which allows adjustment of the instantaneous flow of the arrangement.
The other outlet channel of the last stage is double and comprises two branches 48 and 49.
The branch 48 is inclined towards the nozzle 50 of the outlet commutator while the branch 49 is only slightly inclined in this same direction.
The wall 48a of the branch 48 is provided at its extremity adjacent the control channel 42 with a rounding-off 51 ensuring that the jet of fluid leaving the nozzle has a tendency, when it is deviated by the control jet taking the channel 41, to stick to the wall following the rounding-off and to take the branch 48.
A mobile slide valve 52, which can be displaced perpendicularly to the plates 1, 2 and 3 allows of closing more or less the entry of the branch 48. This slide valve is located in the extension of the outer wall 53 of the branch 49.
It can be manipulated by means of a screw 54 mounted in a support 55 fixed on the plate 2 and which is engaged in a nut 56 associated with the slide valve (F165. 2 and 5). A counter nut 56a permits the screw 54 to be fixed in a given position.
According to FIG. 6, which shows one of the amplifiers constituting the arrangement according to the invention on a larger scale, the channel 28 can terminate in a tube 28a. The same applies to ventholes 33 which can lead to tubes 33a.
Similarly, the lateral channels 17, the outlet channel 13 and the ventholes 40 of the arrangement according to the invention can lead to tubes, now shown in the drawing.
These tubes can be connected to any suitable apparatus.
According to an advantageous embodiment of the invention, the whole of the arrangement, apart from the outlet channels 48 and 49, is contained in an enclosure 60 as shown diagrammatically in FIG. 7. This enclosure comprises either at least one check valve 61, ensuring communication with the outside when the pressure prevalent in the interior of the said enclosure exceeds a prescribed value, which may be the pressure at the outside, or means of protection preventing the entry into the enclosure of foreign particles or dust particles detrimental to the satisfactory functioning of the apparatus.
In accordance with this embodiment, the outlet channels 48 and 49 can also comprise valves 62a and 62b which open when they are traversed separately or jointly by the fluid under pressure coming from the tube 7. Apart from their protective role, these latter valves prevent the mixing of outside air with the gas supplied by the apparatus.
It is of course understood that these valves, known per se, can comprise any suitable element such as, for example, filters, and can, if need be, be connected to other enclosures, the latter provided with valves or not.
The functioning of the apparatus described above is very simple. The amplifier A imposes the frequency of functioning of the arrangement, which can be adjusted with the aid of the auxiliary capacity 16.
The amplifier B allows the adjustment of the moment of inversion of the jet and, consequently, the inversion of the control which it exerts, if necessary through the intermediary of the amplifier C, on the final amplifier D.
When the slide valve 52 is pulled out, the jet of the final amplifier passes alternately through the outlet channel 43, which constitutes the phase of inspiration in the application to a respirator, and through the branch 48 of the other outlet channel. The passage of the jet through the branch 48 does not exert any noticeable effect on the channel 43.
When the slide valve 52 closes the branch 48, the jet must pass through the branch 49 when it is deviated to the corresponding side by the control jet coming from the channel 41. It exerts then on the channel 43 an aspiration by a siphoning effect, which in the case of application to a respirator, constitutes the expiration phase.
By modifying the position of the slide valve 52 it is possible to control the intensity of this siphoning effect and, consequently, to adjust the level of aspiration through the channel 43 between zero and a maximum. ln the intermediate positions of the slide valve, the jet splits up into two parts, taking respectively the branch 48 and the branch 49.
It is of course understood that modifications can be brought to the ways of carrying out the invention described above, more particularly by substitution of equivalent technical means, without falling outside the scope of the present invention.
Having now particularly described and ascertained our said invention and in what manner the same is to be performed, we declare that what we claim is:
1. Apparatus for alternately intaking and outputting fluid, including:
a fluid pulse generator (A), comprising an input channel (12) receiving a continuous power stream and two output ways, the first of which (13) leads to the atmosphere and the second of which (14) leads to a chamber (16) where pulsation of pressure are occurring at a determined frequency;
a fluid operated selector (B) comprising an input channel (30) receiving a continuous power stream, two output ways (31) and (32) for delivering the pulse of fluid to be utilized, and two control channels (25) and (28);
one of the said control channels (25) being connected to the chamber (16) for control monitoring the fluid operated selector (B) at the same frequency as that of the pulses delivered by the said chamber 16);
the other of said control channels (28) being connected to the atmosphere by means ofa valve (29) for adjusting the relative duration of the operating phases of the selector (B) during each cycle of pulsation;
an output stage (D) provided with control channels (41) and (42) connected respectively to the output ways (31) and (32) of the fluid operated selector (B), an input channel (7) receiving a continuous power stream and two output ways, one of which (43) is connected to a capacity where it is required to alternately intake and output fluid and a fluid amplifier (C) located between the selector (B) and the output stage (D).
2. An apparatus as set forth in claim 1 comprising a valve (27) adjusting the section of the connecting means between the chamber 16) and the control channel (25).
3. An apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein said chamber (16) has an adjustable volume.
4. An apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein said fluid amplifier (C) is provided with control channels (35) and (36) connected respectively to the output ways (31) and (32) along the output ways (31) and (32) and control channels (41 (42) connection.
5. An apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein said fluid operated selector (B) is asymmetrical.
6. An apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein the other of said output ways of said output stage (D) is provided with two branches (48) and (49), one of which (48) is preferential and which is arranged in such a way as not to exert a siphoning effect on the channel (43) connected to the capacity, and the other branch (49) being arranged so as to exert a siphoning effect on said channel (43), means (52) also being provided for allowing the closing of said preferential branch (48).
7. An apparatus in accordance with claim 6 characterized in that the means for closing the preferential branch is constituted by a mobile slide valve.
8. An apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein generatur (A). selector (B) and amplifier (C) are fed from the same source of fluid.