|Publication number||US3582082 A|
|Publication date||Jun 1, 1971|
|Filing date||Jan 22, 1968|
|Priority date||Jul 22, 1967|
|Publication number||US 3582082 A, US 3582082A, US-A-3582082, US3582082 A, US3582082A|
|Inventors||Shino Atushi, Takagi Isamu|
|Original Assignee||Aiwa Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (13), Classifications (11)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent  Inventors lsarnu Takagi;  Field 271/3 X, Atushi Shino, both of Tokyo, Japan 44 X; 242/198, 199, 208; 179/1002 Z; 274/4 BCF,  699,595 11 BC; 353/1 1 1, 1 12; 352/123, 6-8; 221/236,
Appl. No.  Filed 1 Jan. 22, 1968 Patented June 1, 1971 [5 6] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 173] Assignee Aiwa Co.,Ldt.
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ABSTRACT: A tape cartridge automatic exchange device for automatically supplying a number of magnetic tape cartridges stacked in a magazine to a predetermined playing or recording  TAPE CARTRIDGE AUTOMATIC EXCHANGE DEVICE position one after another for playing or recording, in such a manner that the lowennost tape cartridge is placed in said playing or recording position, removed from said position upon completion of the playing or recording and then the next tape cartridge is placed in said position.
3 Claims, 21 Drawing Figs.  274/4, 221/236, 221/293, 352/8, 352/123, 242/200  Int. Gllb 5/00 PATENIEDJUN nan 3582.082
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sum 1DUF12 PATENIED Jun nan saw 12 0F 12 TAPE CARTRIDGE AUTOMATIC EXCHANGE DEVICE The present invention relates to a tape cartridge automatic exchange device adapted to be used with a magazine-type tape recorder, by which a number of tape cartridges stacked in a magazine are played or recorded one after another in sequence automatically from the lowermost one of said cartridge stack and which comprises a baseplate disposed below the magazine, a pair of cooperating swinging arms pivotally connected to the top surface of said baseplate with a predetermined space therebetween, a reciprocating sliding plate laterally slidably disposed below said baseplate and having a tape-cartridge-receiving hole formed therein, a guide member disposed below said sliding plate, another pair of cooperating swinging arms pivotally connected to the top surface of said guide member with a predetermined space therebetwecn, a drive motor to cause a lateral sliding movement of said sliding plate, a switch to interrupt the current supply to said drive motor, another switch to reverse the rotation of said drive motor and still another switch to reset said drive motor in operation upon completion of the playing or recording of a tape cartridge, the arrangement being such that when the drive motor is set in motion, the sliding plate is moved laterally opening or recording position, whereupon the'current supply to the drive motor is interrupted automatically by said first switch to hold the tape cartridge in said position and said second switch is actuated to provide for a reverse rotation of the drive motor, following which the tape in the cartridge is trailed along the magnetic head and the capstan on the associated tape recorder and pressed by a pad and a pinch roller either manually or automatically for playing or recording, and upon completion of the playing or recording, said third switch is actuated either by actuating means such as a plunger adapted to detect the completion of the playing or recording or by manual operation, whereby the drive motor is set in motion again but. rotating in a reverse direction, so that said sliding plate is returned to a point approximating to the original position with the used tape cartridge therein, whereupon the pair of swinging arms on the guide member are opened'by said sliding plate and the used tape cartridge is dropped gravitationally downwardly of the guide member, said sliding plate thereafter being further moved slightly laterally and then set in its forward stroke for carrying the next tape cartridge to the playing or recording position.
For a better understanding of the present invention, reference will now be made, by way of example, to the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view, partly broken away, of the tape cartridge automatic exchange device according to the present invention;
FIG. 2- is a perspective view, partly broken away, of the device of this invention in a position different from that shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged perspective view showing an example of the tape cartridge to be used with the device of this invention;
FIGS. 4 and 5 are enlarged plan views, partly broken away, of the inventive device in the positions shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 respectively;
FIG. 6 is an enlarged plan view, partly broken away, of the inventive device in still another position;
FIGS. 7 and 8 are vertical cross-sectional views taken along the lines VII-VII in FIG. 4 and the lines VIII-VIII in FIG. 6 respectively;
FIGS. 9, 10, 11 and 12 are perspective views of a tape cartridge magazine, a mounting baseplate, a sliding plate and a tape cartridge guide member respectively;
FIG. 13 is an enlarged perspective view showing the critical portion on the underside of the sliding plate shown in FIG. 11;
FIG. 14 is an exploded perspective view of the portion of the sliding plate shown in FIG. 13, in which A denotes an end portion of the sliding plate, B denotes a rocking member, C denotes a hooking member, D denotes a coil spring and E denotes a snap spring;
FIGS. 15 and 16 are enlarged perspective views of swinging arms respectively;
FIGS. 17 to 20 inclusive are fragmentary enlarged bottom views of one-half side of the inventive device respectively, illustrating the operation of the portion of the sliding plate shown in FIG. 13; and
FIG. 21 is a wiring diagram showing an example of the drive motor control circuit.
Referring to the drawings and first to FIG. 10, a mounting baseplate l is made of a metal sheet and has a relatively large rectangular hole In formed in the right side portion thereof. Adjacent the four corners of the rectangular hole Ia are provided four upstanding cylindrical bosses IA. A magazine 3 for the storage of a stack of tape cartridges 2, 2, one of which is shown in FIG. 3, has both the top and bottom ends open and is fixedly mounted on a guide plate ,4 as shown in FIG. 9. The guide plate 4 has a guide hole therein with downwardly bent lugs 4A formed at the edges of said hole, and is fixedly mounted on the aforementioned upstanding bosses IA on the baseplate I in spaced, substantially parallel relation to said baseplate. A pair of cooperating substantially L-shaped swinging arms 5, 5 are pivotally mounted at their flexed portions on respective pivot pins 5 5,, provided adjacent the right side end comers of the baseplate 1, in such a manner that their cooperating ends will block the passage in the rectangular hole la from the opposite sides of said hole to support a tape cartridge thereon. As best shown in FIG. 16, the swinging arms 5, 5 are each provided at the other end thereof with a downwardly projecting pin 5A, which is extending through a slot lb formed in the baseplate 1, and are biased towards each other by respective springs 6, 6 as shown in FIG. 10, with their cooperating ends urged inwardly of the rectangular hole 1a in the baseplate 1. The baseplate 1 is also formed therein with a substantially T-shaped slot 1c and elongate slots 1d, 111 on both sides of and in parallel to said T-shaped slot 10, all of which slots are extending from substantially the center towards the left or rear end of the baseplate 1. A sliding plate 9, as shown in FIG. 11, has a rectangular hole 9a formed therein with pairs of confronting downwardly bent lugs 9A formed along the edges of said hole. This sliding plate 9, as shown in FIGS. 7 and 8, is disposed below the baseplate l in adjacent parallel relation thereto and is connected to a rack 7 by means of bolts 8A, 8A extending through the guide slot 1c in the baseplate 1 and washers 8, 8 interposed between said rack and the baseplate with the free ends thereof screw threaded into said rack. Thus, it will be understood that the sliding plate 9 is slidable along the guide hole 10 in the baseplate 1 integrally with the rack 7. The rack 7 is meshing with a step gear 10 to be operated thereby, which step gear 10 is rotatably supported by a pair of L-shaped brackets 11 fixed on the baseplate 1 as best shown in FIG. 2. The step gear 10 in turn is in engagement with a pinion 12 which is mounted on the driving shaft of a reduction gearing 14. The reduction gearing 14 is operatively connected to the driving shaft m of a drive motor M by means of a belt 13, said reduction gearing 14 and said drive motor M being mounted on an L-shaped bracket 15 fixed on the rear end portion of the baseplate 1. The sliding plate 9 is also provided at substantially the center thereof with guide bosses 16, as best shown in FIG. 7, which are extending upwardly through the respective elongate slots 1d, lid in the baseplate l for a sliding movement therein so as to guide the sliding movement of said sliding plate. On the top ends of the guide bosses 16, 16, extending above the baseplate l, is mounted a U-shaped member 17 which has its arms extending rightwardly for reciprocal movement into and from the tape cartridge containing magazine 3, as shown in FIGS. 7 and 10. When the sliding plate 9 is moved to the right, the arms of the U-shaped member 17 project into the magazine 3,
as shown in FIG. 6, through respective slots 3a in the wall of the magazine shown in FIG. 9, to thereby prevent the downward movement of the tape cartridges in the magazine, except the lowermost one, in the manner shown in FIG. 8. On the front sidewall 7, of the rack 7 are fitted switch-actuating projections 7A, 78, as best shown in FIG. 5, for the actuation of a drive motor control switch to be described later.
Below the sliding plate 9 are arranged in spaced parallel relation thereto a substantially U-shaped guide member 18 and a substantially rectangular guide plate 19, which are secured to the downwardly extending bosses 1B, 1B of the baseplate 1 as shown in FIGS. 2 and 7. The guide member 18, as best shown in FIG. 12, is formed of confronting upwardly bent lugs 18A for guiding the tape cartridge, whereas the guide plate 19, as best shown in FIG. 12, is provided with a pair of parallel guide rails 19A, 193 at the opposite edges thereof. The guide member 18 also has a pair of substantially Z-shaped swinging arms 20, 20 provided on the root portion thereof in symmetrical relation. These swinging arms 20, 20 are pivotally mounted on respective pivot pins 20,, 20, on the guide member and formed of upwardly bent lugs 20A, 20A respectively at a location adjacent to the respective pivot pins. The ends of the arms 20, 20 which are closer to the pivot pins 20,, 20, are biased outwardly by means of respective springs 21, 21 which have one end connected to pins 20B, 20B on said respective arms and the other end to the guide member 18, so that the other ends of the arms 20, 20 are urged towards each other to cooperatively support the tape cartridge 2.
As shown in FIG. 11, in the forward or right side edge 9, of the sliding plate 9 are formed U-shaped guide notches 9b, 9b in symmetrical relation with respect to the centerline of said sliding plate. The sliding plate 9 also has downwardly projecting bosses 9B, 98 on the underside thereof, on each of which a substantially L-shaped rocking member 22, indicated at B in FIG. 14, is pivotally mounted with said boss extending through a hole 224 formed in said rocking member. Each of the rocking members 22 is provided with a pin 22A, to which a tension spring 23, indicated at D in FIG. 14, is connected at one end, the other end of said tension spring being connected to a pin 90, provided on the sliding plate 9 adjacent to the forward edge 9, of the sliding plate, as shown in FIG. 13. The rocking member 22 is also provided at one end with a boss 22B projecting downwardly from the underside thereof and a hooking member 24, indicated at C in FIG. 14, is pivotally mounted on said boss 228 at a hole 24a. A snap spring 25, indicated at E in FIG. 14, is mounted on the downwardly projectingboss 228 on the rocking member, with one end bearing against a downwardly bent lug 24A of the hooking member and the other end against a downwardly bent lug 220 of the rocking member 22 in a manner as shown in FIG. 13.
Now, the control circuit for the drive motor M will be explained with reference to FIG. 21. The terminals 1,, t of a DC power source are respectively connected to the outer fixed contacts S,,,,' S and the inner fixed contacts S S of a polarity-changing switch S of the bipolar double-throw type. The movable contact strip 8,, of the switch S is connected to another movable contact strip S of said switch S through a parallel circuit composed of switches S, and 5,,, and the drive motor M is connected to said parallel circuit in series. The movable contact strips 5,,, and S of the switch S have their end tips connected to a single connecting rod S, of electric insulating material for simultaneous switching operation. The connecting rod S, in turn is operatively connected to a switching strip extending from substantially the center of the body of the switch S by means of a compressed spring S With the arrangement described, when the switching strip S is operated by the switch-actuating projection 7A or 78 on the rack 7 to the solid-line position to the dotted line position shown in FIG. 21 or vice versa, the connecting rod S, and therefore the movable contact strips S S are moved in a direction opposite to the moving direction of the switching strip S by virtue of the compressed spring 5,. The swinging motion of the switching strip S, is limited by respective stopper plates 5,, 8,.
The device of the present invention constructed as described hereinabove will operate in the following manner, Namely, first of all the rack 7, the sliding plate 9 and the U- shaped member 17 connected to said sliding plate by way of the guide bosses 16, 16 are moved to the terminal ends of their leftward strokes, as shown in FIGS. 1, 4 and 7, and thereafter a plurality of tape cartridges 2 are stacked in the magazine 3 with the lowermost one resting on the swinging arms 5, 5 which are then in closed positions. Then, a prescribed voltage is impressed across the powerterminals t,, shown in FIG. 21. A power source current flows through a circuit composed of the fixed contact S and the movable contact S of the switch S, the switch S the drive motor M, and the movable contact strip S and the fixed contact 5,,, of said switch S, so that the drive motor M is set in motion with the drive shaft m thereof rotating in a predetermined direction. The rotation of the drive shaft m is transmitted through the belt 13, the reduction gearing 14 and the step gear 10 to the rack 7 to cause said rack to move to the right slowly along with the sliding plate 9 and the U-shaped member 17. The arms of the U-shaped member 17 go through the respective slots 3a, 3a, formed in the wall of the magazine 3, into said magazine to be located between the lowermost tape cartridge and the second one from the bottom of the cartridge stack as shown in FIG. 8.
In this case, the slant edge 24, of each hooking member 24, which is pivotally mounted on the boss 228 on the rocking member 22 on the underside of the sliding plate 9, is brought into engagement with the downwardly projecting pin 5A of the swinging arm 5 and as a result the hooking member 24 is caused to rotate in a clockwise direction, as viewed in FIG. 18, against the biasing force of the snap spring 25. When the pin 5A slips off the slant edge of the hooking member, the hooking member returns to its original position as shown in FIG. 20. Then, the downwardly projecting bosses 9B of the sliding plate 9 come in abutment against the upwardly bent lugs 20A of the respective swinging arms 20, and push the same as shown in FIG. 20. Therefore, the swinging arms 20, 20 are rotated about the respective pivot pins 20,, 20 against the bias of the associated tension springs 21, 21 and brought to open positions as indicated by the chain lines in FIG. 20 and by the dotted lines in FIG. 5. In this case, the lowermost tape cartridge 2 is still held on the swinging arms 5, 5 and no tape cartridge is present on the swinging arms 20, 20.
As the rack 7 is further moved to the right, the switch-actuating projection 7A moves the switching strip 5,, of the switch S from the solid-line position to the dotted line position in FIG. 21, changing the direction of current flowing through the drive motor M. The drive motor rotates in a reverse direction and accordingly the sliding plate 9 begins to be moved to the left slowly. Therefore, the upwardly bent lugs 20A of the swinging arms 20, 20 are released from engagement with the downwardly projecting bosses 9B, 9B of said sliding plate, and the swinging arms 20, 20 are again brought into the closed position as shown in FIGS. 6 and 19 under the bias of the associated tension springs 21, 21. As the sliding plate 9 moves further leftwardly, the hooking edges 24, of the hooking members 24 are brought into engagement with the pins 5A, 5A of the respective swinging arms 5, 5, extending downwardly of the baseplate 1 through the respective slots 11), 1b, and push said pins, so that the swinging arms 5, 5, which have been in the closed position as shown in FIG.. 5, are rotated about the respective pivot pins 5,, 5, in an opening direction and assume the open position as shown in FIGS. 6 and 19. Consequently, only the lowermost of the tape cartridges 2, 2 resting on said swinging arms 5, 5 is allowed to drop gravitationally through the guide hole 4a in the mounting guide plate 4 and the rectangular hole 1a in the baseplate 1 into the tape-cartridge-receiving hole in the sliding plate 9 by being guided by the downwardly bent lugs 4A of said mounting guide plate and the upwardly bent lugs 18A, 18A of the guide member 18, and rests on the closed swinging arms 20, 20. In this case, the tape cartridges 2, 2, other than the lowermost one, are retained in the magazine 3 by the arms of the U- shaped member 17 as shown in FIG. 8. The tape cartridge 2 dropped from the magazine 3 is loosely held between the confronting downwardly bent lugs 9A, 9A defining the tape-cartridge-receiving hole in the sliding plate 9, and carried towards the guide plate 19 slowly as said sliding plate moves leftwardly, while sliding on the swinging arms 20, 20 as shown in FIG. 7. In this case, since the leftward displacement of the pins 5A, 5A in engagement with the hooking edges 24 of the respective hooking members 24 are restricted by the terminal ends of the respective slot lb, lb through which said pins extend, the rocking members 22 having said hooking members pivotally connected thereto respectively are rotated by being pushed by the downwardly bent lugs 24A, 24A of said hooking members against the bias of the tension springs 23 as shown in FIG. 19. When the hooking edges 24, are disengaged from the respective pins 5A, 5A, the swinging arms 5, 5 are returned to their closed positions as shown in FIGS. 4 and 17. The U- shaped member 17 also moves to the left slowly by being carried by the sliding plate 9 and finally the arms of said U-shaped member are cleared from the magazine 3 as shown in FIGS. 4 and 7. Therefore, the stack of tape cartridges 2, 2 in the magazine drop all at once gravitationally for a height equivalent to the thickness of one cartridge through the hole 40 in the mounting guide plate 4 by being guided by the downwardly bent lugs 4A, and rest on the closed swinging arms 5, 5 on the baseplate l as shown in FIG. 7. When the sliding plate 9 has been moved to the position shown in FIGS. 4 and,7, with the tape cartridge 2 therein located in a prescribed position al the guide plate 19, that is the position in which the magnetic tape in the cartridge is held in pressure contact with the magnetic head H, the switching strip S for the drive motor control switch S is switched from the dotted line position to the solid-line position by the switch-actuating projection 78 on the rack 7 as shown in FIGS. 4 and 21', thereby providing for the rotation of the drive motor M in a reverse direction to cause a return movement of the rack 7 and the sliding plate 9. Immediately thereafter, an actuating plunger 8,, of the switch S which is fixedly mounted on the baseplate adjacent to the left-side end of the elongate slot M in said baseplate, is pressed in by the guide boss 16 on the sliding plate 9, opening said switch as indicated by the dotted line in FIG. 21, so that the current supply to the drive motor M is interrupted and the drive shaft m of said motor stops its rotation. Therefore, the sliding plate 9 is brought to a halt with the magnetic tape (not shown) in the tape cartridge 2 in pressure contact with the slit surface I: of the magnetic head H. Thereafter, the tape cartridge 2 is fitted at its mounting holes 2a on respective driving members, such as rotary shafts of the conventional type located below the guide plate 19 and the magnetic tape in said cartridge is driven in a predetermined direction at a predetermined rate while being held in pressure contact with the slit surface h of the magnetic head H for playing or recording.
Upon completion (or in the middle) of the playing or recording, the operation of the tape recorder is stopped either manually or automatically. The tape cartridge 2 is disengaged from the tape recorder and the switch 5,, is temporarily closed manually or automatically as by means of a relay so arranged as to be actuated by a conductive member provided at the terminal end of the magnetic tape. A current is again conducted through the drive motor M through the switch S to drive said motor. In this case, however, since the direction of rotation of the drive motor is reversed by virtue of said switch S, the rack 7 and the sliding plate 9 are moved to the right, so that the used tape cartridge 2 is slowly carried away from the magnetic head H rightwardly in said sliding plate. In the meantime, the guide boss 16 is detached from the actuating plunger S, of the switch 8,, closing said switch again to permit the power source current to be continuously supplied to the drive motor therethrough. When the sliding plate 9 has moved rightwardly to its original-position shown in FIGS. 5 and 8, carrying the used cartridge 2 therein, said tape cartridge rides on the closed swinging arms 20, 20 on the guide member 18. Then, the downwardly projecting bosses 9B, 93 on the sliding plate 9 push the upwardly bent lugs 20A, 20A of said swinging arms,
causing these swinging arms to swing to the open positions, indicated by the dotted lines in FIG. 5, against the tension of the tension springs 21, 21. The used tape cartridge 2 therefore drops gravitationally below the guide member 18 and is removed outside of the tape recorder. Then, the switching strip 5 of the switch S is moved to the solid-line position, shown in FIG. 21, by the switch-actuating projection 7A on the rack 7 to reverse the rotation of the drive motor, so that the sliding plate 9 is moved to the left. Immediately before the downwardly bent lugs 9A of the sliding plate 9 are brought in alignment with the corresponding downwardly bent lugs 4A of the mounting guide plate 4 during the leftward movement of the sliding plate 9, the hooking edges 24 of the hooking members 24 on the underside of the sliding plate are brought into engagement with the downwardly projecting pins 5A, 5A of the respective swinging arms 5, 5 which are then closed as shown in F IG. 5, and thereby said swinging arms are caused to make a pivotal movement about the respective pivot pints 5 5, to assume the open positions as shown in FIGS. 6 and 19. Upon opening of the swinging arms 5, 5, the lowermost one only of the tape cartridges 2, 2 in the magazine 3 drops on the swinging arms 20, 20, and the rest of the cartridges are retained in said magazine by the arms of the U-shaped member I7 projecting into said magazine. The tape cartridge thus placed on the swinging arms 20, 20 is carried to the playing or recording position by the sliding plate 9 and played or recorded in exactly the same manner as described previously.
In the manner described hereinabove, it is possible, by the use of the inventive tape cartridge automatic exchange device,
to play or record a number of tape cartridges stacked in the magazine one after another successively and automatically in a stable and positive manner without requiring any manual operation. Therefore, the friction device is highly suitable for use as a music programsource or a BGM source at a wirebroadcast station. The device of this invention is also useful as an endless tape cartridge automatic exchange device for the conventional endless tape automatic players, e.g. a Lear jettype automatic player. As such, the device of this invention can be used in an extremely wide range of applications and is therefore of great industrial advantage.
Although in the embodiment described and illustrated herein, use is made of the rack 7, gear 10 provided with the reduction gearing and the belt 13 for the transmission of the drive of the motor to the sliding plate 9, it is to be understood that a crank mechanism or a friction gearing suing rubber discs, etc. may also be employed for the purpose.
We claim: I
1. An automatic tape cartridge changer in a tape recorder comprising a first horizontal support means defining a first opening for passing a cartridge therethrough; an open-ended magazine, for receiving a stack of cartridges, mounted above said first opening; a first movable shutter normally closing said opening mounted on said support means for releasably supporting said cartridge stack; a second horizontal support means defining a second opening for passing a cartridge therethrough mounted below and spaced from said first support means a distance greater than the thickness of a cartridge; a second movable shutter mounted on said second support means for normally closing said second opening;
a cartridge retainer movably supported between said first and second support means; a cartridge stack support movably mounted above said fist support means for selective engagement with said cartridge stack; coupling means linking said cartridge retainer and said cartridge stack support for synchronous movement thereof; an electrically actuated drive means for reciprocally moving said coupling means, said cartridge retainer being moved from a cartridge-receiving position below said first opening to a record-replay position laterally offset from said receiving position, then to a cartridge disposal position above said second opening and then to the mentioned position, said cartridge stack support being moved into engagement with said stack for supporting all but the lowermost cartridge above said first shutter when said cartridge retainer is moved into said cartridge-receiving position; means linked with said coupling means for synchronous operation with said cartridge retainer opening said first and second shutters when said cartridge retainer is moved to said receiving and disposal positions, respectively, said cartridge retainer receiving the lowermost cartridge of said stack when said first shutter is opened, said cartridge retainer releasing said cartridge through said second opening when said second shutter is opened; means for sensing the end of play of a tape cartridge at said record-replay position to activate said driving means for moving a cartridge disposed in said cartridge retainer to said disposal position, then to said cartridge-receiving position, and then back to the record replay position.
2. An automatic tape cartridge changer as set forth in claim 1, wherein said coupling means is a slide plate and said driving means includes an electric motor, a control circuit therefore, a first switch for turning off or on the motor current which is arranged to be turned off by an actuator attached to said slide plate when said cartridge retainer is at said record-replay position, second switch for changing the motor connection so as to reverse the direction of rotation ofsaid motor, means linked with slide plate for actuating said switch when said cartridge retainer comes to said record-replay position, a third switch of normally open type connected in parallel with said first switch and means for temporarily closing said third switch in response to said signal indicating the end of the playing of a tape.
3. An automatic tape cartridge changer as set forth in claim 2, wherein said first movable shutter comprises a pair of rotatable arms each of which is normally urged to the closed position by a spring and said opening means therefore is a hook member pivotally attached to a rocking member which is attached on the underside of said slide plate, and said second movable shutter comprises another pair of rotatable arms each of which is normally urged to the closed position by a spring and said opening means therefor is a boss extending downwardly from said slide plate.
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|U.S. Classification||360/92.1, G9B/15.152, 352/123, 221/293, 352/8, 221/236, 360/91, 242/337.1|