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Publication numberUS3583678 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 8, 1971
Filing dateSep 15, 1969
Priority dateSep 15, 1969
Also published asDE2031772A1
Publication numberUS 3583678 A, US 3583678A, US-A-3583678, US3583678 A, US3583678A
InventorsHarder Richard E
Original AssigneeDow Badische Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Interfacial surface generators
US 3583678 A
Abstract  available in
Images(5)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

y layers m mk n 0 J wwm mm en 9mm 6 am, mm mm X i, We m mm PA 7/l968 Harder............. 10/1968 Harder a H 8 6 9 l O l ABSTRACT: lnterfacial surface generating means are disclosed which have, an inlet end adapted to receive fluid, and outlet end adapted to discharge fluid, and a plurality of separate passage ways connecting the inlet end and outlet end, the passage ways opening l on the inlet end essentially along a first line lying approximately through the center of the inlet end and (2) on the outlet end essentially along a second line lying approximately through the center of the outlet end the second line being essentially normal to the first line. A plurality of the generating means can be used in series to make an interfacial surface generator which will produce man within a stream.

lnventor Richard E. Harder Williamsburg, Va. Appl. No. 857,734 Filed Sept. 15, 1969 Patented June 8, 197] Assignee Dow Badische Company Williamsburg, Va.

INTERFACIAL SURFACE GENERATORS 10 Claims, 12 Drawing Figs.

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References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 7/1965 Harder......

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sum 2 OF 5 Fig 2 Fig 20 Fig 2b INVENTOR.

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Richard E. Harder Fig 4 PATENTEDJUN am 3583678 SHEET 5 OF 5 INVIL'NTOR. Richard E. Harder ATTORNE INTERFACIAL SURFACE GENERATORS DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to interfacial surface generators which can be constructed with a minimum of difficulty and which do not contain major" and minor axes.

An interfacial surface generator is a static device which mixes fluids. Such mixing is obtained by division of a fluid stream into a plurality of substreams, recombination of the substreams into a main stream and subsequent division, repositioning and recombination until the desired degree of mixing is obtained. Interfacial surface generators are known in the art and are disclosed, for example, in the following U.S. Pat. Nos: 3,015,452, 3,0l5,453, 3,182,965, 3,l95,865, 3,394,924, 3,404,869, and 3,406,947. They are further discussed in Harder, Challenges in Mixing Viscous Systems, Symposium 2e, 65th National Meeting of A.I.Ch.E. (I969); Pattison, Chemical Engineering, page 94 et seq. (May I9, 1969); and French Pat. No. 735,033.

The present interfacial surface generators are easily constructed from materials such as steel or plastic. The generators are solid bodies having (i) an inlet end adapted to receive fluid, (ii) an outlet end adapted to discharge fluid, and (iii) a plurality of separate passage ways through the body connecting the inlet end and outlet end, the passage ways opening l) on the inlet end essentially along a first line lying approximately through the center of the inlet end and (2) on the outlet end essentially along a second line lying approximately through the center of the outlet end the second line being essentially normal to the first line.

With reference to the attached drawings:

FIG. 1 is a three-dimensional view of a single generating means.

FIG. la shows a side view from the left-hand side of the generating means of FIG. 1.

FIG. lb shows a side view from the right-hand side of the generating means of FIG. 1.

FIG. 2 is a three-dimensional view of another generating means.

FIG. 2a shows a side view from the left-hand side of the generating means of the generating means of FIG. 2.

FIG. 2b shows a side view from the right-hand side of the generating means of FIG. 2.

FIG. 3 is a partial cross section of generating means having securing means in the form of threads.

FIG. 4 shows an interfacial surface generator comprising two generating means confined with a pipe.

FIG. 5 is a front view of a preferred interfacial surface generator.

FIG. 6 shows the bottom view of the generator of FIG. 5.

FIG. 7 shows the top view of the generator ofFIG. 5.

FIG. 8 shows the left-hand view of the generator of FIG. 5.

In FIG. 1 there is depicted a single generating means which is a solid body 1 in the form ofa cylinder having an inlet end 2 an outlet end 3, and four passage ways, 4, 5, 6, 7 through body 1. The passage ways open on inlet end 2 essentially along line A-A (shown in FIG. 1a) which lies approximately through the center of the inlet end. The passage ways open on the outlet end essentially along line B-B (shown in FIG. lb) which lies approximately through the center of the outlet end and which is essentially normal to line A-A. The generating means used in this invention must contain at least two separate passage ways. Thus, the generating means may have two, three, four or more separate passage ways. When the generating means contain four passage ways, as shown in FIGS. 1, la, and 1b, the passage ways can connect the inlet end (FIG. Ia) to the outlet end (FIG. lb) via channels connecting inlet holes a, b, c, and d (FIG. la) to outlet holes a,, b,, c,, and 11, (FIG. lb) respectively. Alternatively, inlet holes a, b, c, and :1 may be connected via a passage way to outlet holes a,, d,, b,, and 0,, respectively. FIG. 2 shows an interfacial surface generating means 8 having an inlet end 9, an outlet end 10, and four passage ways ll, 12, 13, and 14 through generating means 8. The passage ways open on inlet end 9 in a staggered manner essentially along line C-C (shown in FIG. 2a) which lies approximately through the center of the inlet end. The passage ways open on the outlet end in a staggered manner essentially along line D-D (shown in FIG. 2b) which lies approximately through the center of the outlet end and which is essentially normal to line C-C. The passage ways shown in FIGS. 2, 2a, and 2b connect inlet holes e,f, g, and h (FIG. 2a) to outlet holes e,,f,, g, and h, (FIG. 2b) respectively.

In connection with the devices shown in FIGS. la, lb, 2a, and 2b, it is not essential that line AA and line C-C be exactly normal, i.e., to lines 8-8 and D-D, respectively. The closer to normal the lines, the more efficient the generating means. If the angle between line A-A and line 8-8 is 0, how ever, essentially no mixing will be obtained.

The generating means shown in FIGS. I and 2 are cylinders. It should be recognized that other convenient shapes, such as cubes, can be used to make interfacial surface generators in accordance with this invention. Likewise it should be noted that while in the drawings, the cross section of the passage ways is circular, there is no reason why the cross section can not be any other convenient shape, such as square or triangular.

FIG. 3 is a partial sectional side view of a cylindrical interfacial surface generator means (dotted lines showing passage ways have been omitted) showing an inlet end 11 and an out let end 12. Male threads 13 and female threads 14 are integral parts of the generator and serve to connect one generator to another and thereby form a series of generators. Such an arrangement provides an easy method for securing one generating means to another.

Another interfacial surface generator is shown in FIG. 4 wherein two single generating means l5, 16 are securely held within pipe 17. A space must be provided between generating means 15 and 16 to permit flow of fluid. The optimum shape of such a space is a tetrahedral configuration because this shape minimizes the region in which material can hang-up." Such a configuration may be obtained by using a plurality of generating means such as that shown in FIGS. 5-8 (in which dotted lines have been eliminated in FIGS. 6 and 7). FIG. 5 is a front view of a generating means. FIG. 8 is a left-hand side view of the generating means. FIGS. 6 and 7 show the bottom and top view of the generator in FIG. 5. If the flow of fluid is upward through the generating means of FIG. 5, then the fluid will enter at points, i, j, k, and m (FIG. 6), pass through passage ways 18, 19, 20, and 21 (FIG. 5), and exit at points i,, j k,, and m, (FIG. 7), respectively.

The apparatus of FIG. 4 operates in a manner similar to the apparatus shown in the above-identified U.S. patents. Two layers of fluid flowing downward become eight layers as the fluid flows through generating means 15 and eight layers of fluid leaving generator 15 increase to 32 layers upon flowing through generator 16. The size, configuration, and number of generating means used in a given situation will depend upon the particular circumstances.

What I claim is:

l. lnterfacial surface generator means comprising a solid body having (i) an inlet end, (ii) an outlet end, and (iii) a plurality of separate passage ways through the body connecting the inlet end and outlet end, the passage ways opening l) on the inlet end essentially along a first line lying approximately through the center of the inlet end and (2) on the outlet end essentially along a second line lying approximately through the center of the outlet end the second line being essentially normal to the first line.

2. The interfacial surface generator means of claim 1 wherein the solid body is cylindrical.

3. The interfacial surface generator means of claim 2 wherein the cross section of the passage ways normal to their respective axes is circular.

4. The interfacial surface generator means of claim 1 wherein the passage ways opening along the inlet end are staggered along the first line and the passage ways opening along the outlet end are staggered along the second line.

5. An interfacial surface generator comprising a plurality of generating means securely held together by securing means the generating means comprising a solid body having (i) an inlet end, (ii) an outlet end, and (iii) a plurality of separate passage ways through the body connecting the inlet end and outlet end, the passage ways opening l on the inlet end essentially along a first line lying approximately through the center of the inlet end and (2) on the outlet end essentially along a second line lying approximately through the center of the outlet end the second line being essentially normal to the first line.

6 The interfacial surface generator of claim wherein the securing means is a hollow cylinder and the generating means are contained therein.

7. The interfacial surface generator of claim 6 wherein the cross section of the passage ways normal to their respective axes is circular.

8. The interfacial surface generator of claim 7 wherein any space between any two generating means is essentially in the shape of a tetrahedron.

9. The interfacial surface generator of claim 5 wherein the passage ways opening along the inlet end are staggered along the first line and the passage ways opening along the outlet end are staggered along the second line 10. The interfacial surface generator of claim 5 wherein any space between any two generating means is essentially in the shape ofa tetrahedron.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3195865 *Sep 9, 1960Jul 20, 1965Dow Chemical CoInterfacial surface generator
US3394924 *Jul 18, 1966Jul 30, 1968Dow Chemical CoInterfacial surface generator
US3404869 *Jul 18, 1966Oct 8, 1968Dow Chemical CoInterfacial surface generator
US3406947 *Aug 19, 1966Oct 22, 1968Dow Chemical CoInterfacial surface generator
US3424437 *Aug 28, 1967Jan 28, 1969Shell Oil CoApparatus for mixing viscous fluids
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3738615 *Nov 8, 1971Jun 12, 1973Dow Chemical CoInterfacial surface generator
US3914360 *Apr 23, 1973Oct 21, 1975Dow Chemical CoExpansion of expandable synthetic resinous microspheres
US4112520 *Mar 25, 1976Sep 5, 1978Oscar Patton GilmoreStatic mixer
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Classifications
U.S. Classification366/340
International ClassificationB01J19/00, B29C47/00, D01D5/28, B29B7/00, B01F5/00, B01J8/00, B01F5/06, B29C47/58
Cooperative ClassificationB01F5/0644
European ClassificationB01F5/06B3C4
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
May 29, 1986AS01Change of name
Owner name: BADISCHE CORPORATION, A CORP. OF DE.
Effective date: 19851227
Owner name: BASF CORPORATION A CORP. OF DE.
Owner name: BASF SYSTEMS CORPORATION A CORP. OF DE.
May 29, 1986ASAssignment
Owner name: BASF CORPORATION A CORP. OF DE.
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNORS:BADISCHE CORPORATION, A CORP. OF DE.;BASF SYSTEMS CORPORATION A CORP. OF DE.;GLASURIT AMERICA, INC. A CORP. OF DE.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:004568/0622
Effective date: 19851227