US 3584751 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent lnventor Jean-Pierre B. Bellart Senlb, France Appl. No. 846,135
Filed July 30, 1969 Patented June 15, 1971 Assignee Soclete Anonyme Poclaim 019e, France Priority Aug. 2, 1968 France 161627 MECHANICAL EARTH WORKING MACHINE 3 Claims, 5 Drawing Figs.
Int. Cl. E02! 3/75 Field 01' Search 214/132,
Primary ExaminerGerald M. Forlenza Assis lam Examiner- Frank E. Werner Attorney- Mason, Fenwick & Lawrence ABSTRACT: This invention relates to a mechanical earth working machine, such as a mechanical excavator or loader, so designed as to permit rectilinear movement of the tool, the height and direction of travel of the tool also being selectively adjustable depending upon the work to be carried out, each of the said adjustments being produced automatically.
PATENTED JUN] s :97:
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MECHANICAL EARTH WORKING MACHINE Mechanical earth working machines are already known which partly carry out the functions of the machines according to the invention. Thus, there are machines provided with a telescopic jib having a working tool articulated at the end thereof. Such equipment has certain disadvantages, however, more particularly considerable length of the operating mechanism even in the retracted position. Consequently, these machines are relatively difficult to use. Machines of this type are also unable to carry out all the work which the machines according to the invention are required to perform, as will be apparent hereinafter.
Other machines are known which are provided with an operating mechanism comprising, inter alia, two deformable parallelograms, whose major sides are equal and can simultaneously be oriented in accordance with equal and opposite angles. However, the need to obtain an adequate travel of the tool has resulted in constructions which are limited by the size of the jibs towards the ground, at least insofar as concerns machines in which the means for orienting the major sides of the parallelograms prevents any independent orientation of said sides of the two parallelograms.
The object of the invention is to obviate these disadvantages. In addition to the special uses for which it provides an adapted civil engineering machine, it allows conventional usage without any modification of its working equipment.
To this end, the invention relates to a mechanical earthworking machine comprising a turret, a jib mounted pivotally on the turret, a tool operating mechanism comprising two defon'nable parallelograms, whose major sides are equal and are simultaneously adapted to be oriented according to equal and opposite angles by means of an angular orientation mechanism, and a means of adjusting the height of the tool with respect to the ground, characterized in that the angular orientation mechanism for the major sides of the parallelogram supporting the tool are pivotally connected to the means for adjusting the height of the tool with respect to the ground, while the means for adjusting the height of the tool is of the parallel-displacement type.
According to a preferred embodiment, the means for adjusting the height of the tool consists of a deformable parallelogram.
Also, the, the angular orientation mechanism rams are advantageously fed in series.
The invention will be more readily understood and secondary features and their advantages will be apparent from the description ofone embodiment which is given below by way of example.
In the accompanying drawings:
FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic side elevationof a machine according to the invention;
FIG. 2 is a diagrammatic view of part of the pressure fluid supply circuit for the orientation rams for the major sides of the parallelograms;
FIG. 3 is a diagrammatic side elevation of a variant of the machine according to the invention:
FIG. 4 is a diagrammatic view of part of the pressure fluid supply circuit for the rams for controlling the two parallelograms whose major sides are equal, with reference to the variant shown in FIG. 3; and
FIG. 5 is a diagrammatic view of part of a variant of the machine according to the invention.
The machine according to the invention, illustrated in FIG. 1, comprises a main chassis 29 mounted on wheels or an endless track 30. A turret 31 is rotatably mounted on the chassis 29 and carries a jib 1 pivotally connected thereto on a horizontal axis 13. The jib 1 is mounted to pivot about the axis 13, its angle of inclination being adjustable by means of a ram 25 pivotally mounted to the jib 1 and the turret 31 by means of pivots and 16 respectively.
The tool operating mechanism comprises a system of levers interconnected by pivots and adjustable as to shape and position by means of rams. The lever system comprises levers 2 and 3 pivotally connected at 14 and 13 to jib 1 and at 28 and 19 to a beam 4. A ram 5 is mounted between the lever 3 and the beam 4 on pivots 17 and 18 respectively. The pivots or axes 18, 19 and 28 on beam 4 are in alignment. The levers 2 and 3 are equal in length and the distances between the pivots l9 and 28 and 13 and 14 are equal, so that the geometric figure formed by the levers 2 and 3 and the straight-line portions of the jib 1 and the beam 4 between pivots l9-28and 13-14 respectively is a parallelogram which is deformable by means of the ram 5.
Similarly, a parallelogram is formed by levers 6 and 7 which are pivotally connected at 32 and 33 to the beam 4 and at 27 and'26 to a link 8, the distances between pivots 26-27 and pivots 32-33 being equal.
A ram 24 is mounted between this latter parallelogram and the beam 4, being pivotally connected at 26 to said parallelogram and at 34 to the beam 4 and serves to control the shape and position of said parallelogram.
Two levers 9 and 10 equal in length to levers 2 and 3 are pivotally connected respectively at 27 and 26 to the link 8 and at 22 and 21 to a rocker arm 11. The distances between pivots 26-27 and 21-22 are equal so that the geometric figure represented by the quadrilateral 21-22-27-26 is a parallelogram. Said parallelogram is deformable by means of a ram 12 pivotally mounted at 20 on the lever 9 and at 21 on the lever 10. The working tool 35, which in the example shown is a drag bucket, is articulated on the rocker arm 11 about pivotal axis 36 and a jack 23 for controlling the movement of the bucket 35 is mounted between the rocker arm 11 and an intermediate rocker arm 39. The ram is connected to the rocker arm 11 by a pivot 37 and the intermediate rocker arm 11 isconnected to the bucket 35 by a pivoted link 39. The levers 2, 7 and 10 and the jib 1 and rocker arm 11 are formed by two parallel lever parts so as to allow movement of the various rams between the two parts of said levers.
The jib and the bucket operating mechanism is shown in full lines in its operative position in FIG. 1 and in its inoperative position in broken lines. The straight lines AB and CD show the rectilinear paths of the tool in each case. Construction is such that the triangles formed by the pivotal axes 20-21-22 and 17-18-19 are similar and remain so during operation. For this purpose the distances between the axes 18-19 and 21-22 are in the same ratio as those of the axes 17-18 and 20-21 of the rams 5 and 12 are also in the same ratio. These distances apply when the rams are in similar end positions and in intermediate positions.
In intermediate positions, the condition is satisfied by providing movements of the rams 5 and 12 in the required ratio, and this can be achieved, for example, by using a refeed hydraulic system such as illustrated in FIG. 2 and which comprises three-way distributors 40 and 41 associated with the rams 5 and 12. These distributors are conventional and allow the corresponding ram to be supplied in either direction, a neutral inoperative position being provided between the two end positions. The rams are disposed in similar ways with the rods 42 and 43 extending upwardly, for example, the bottom chambers being 44 and 45 and the top chambers 46 and 47. It will be seen that the two distributors 40 and 41 are in similar positions and are pulled downwards, so that, for example, the chamber 46 of the ram 5 is connected to the chamber 45 of the ram 12, whereby the fluid expelled from the former by the movement of the piston supplies the second and causes its piston to move. This system is conventional and .it is known that if the sections of the top chamber 46 of the ram 5 and of the bottom chamber of the ram 12 are made in inverse ratio to the required travel, the required result is obtained inasmuch as the distributors are controlled simultaneously and in the same direction. The supply of pressure fluid is through the conduit 48 but the delivery to the reservoir 49 is through conduit 50. The rams 5 and 12 can thus be fed in series, control of the distributor being selectively chosen to be dependent on or independent of one another.
A modified form of the hereinbefore-described machine is illustrated diagrammatically in FIG. 3. Most of the parts of the first embodiment are shown and like references denote like parts. This modification differs from the first embodiment mainly in the formulation of the parallelograms whose major sides are equal.
Referring to FIG. 3 the straight line passing through the axes l8 and 19 is continued beyond 19 and is intersected by a line 2a passing through axes 28-14 and parallel to a line passing through axes 13-19. The straight lines 18-19 and 13-14 having been made parallel, the quadrilateral 13-14-28-19 is of course a parallelogram whose side 20, similar to the lever 2 in the first embodiment, is not in the form ofa physical lever. To maintain the part ofjib 1 between axes 13-14 parallel to the part of lever 4 between axes 18-19, instead of the arm 2 in FIG. 1, a ram 5a is used which is advantageously refed" by the ram 5 in accordance with the diagram shown in FIG. 4.
Similarly, there is a parallelogram 21-22-27-26 formed between the levers l and 8 of FIG. 1 being replaced by 100 and 8a, which are not actually embodied. A ram 12a fed in series with the ram 12 holds the lever 8, and hence the lever 8a, in the correct relative position to the rocker arm 11 so that the arms 21-22 and 22-27 can be completed by imaginary arms 8a and-10a to form the required parallelogram.
FIG. 4 is a diagram showing a circuit of the possible series supply of the rams 5, a, 12 and 12a. The hydraulic system is strictly similar to the one already described, to which are added distributors 40a and 41a for feeding the rams 5a and 12a. A system is provided to allow simultaneous operation of the four distributors, and hence combined operation of the corresponding rams, but independent actuation of each of the distributors is also possible.
FIG. 5 shows some variants ofthe details of the embodiment according to FIG. 1.
The parallelogram, whose major sides 9 and correspond to the sides 2 and 3 of FIG. 1 are directly articulated to beam 4 at 2711 and 260 without the interpositioning of the parallelogram, two of the sides of which are 6 and 7 of FIG. 1. It will be apparent hereinafter that the operation of the machine is unchanged, the parallelogram having the arms 6 and 7 being used to control the height of the tool with respect to the ground.
Although it has been found convenient to refer to the L J' a ds??? .Qf he ra l g ams 2 1 2-2 Q12 2 2a-27a-26a, these be ir 1g t he sides 9 and 10 equal to the sides 2 and 3, this is simply for ease of reference justified by the fact that in most cases the sides 9 and 10 or 2 and 3 are larger than 21-22 or 13-14; however, this ease of reference does not preclude the fact that in certain cases 9 or 10 may in fact be smaller that 21-22. They will still be referred to as major sides. This special arrangement has been intentionally shown in FIG. 5.
As a result of the direct articulation of the levers 9 and 10 on the beam 4, the ends 210 and 22a are no longer articulated on the rocker arm 11 but on an intermediate member 54 on which the parallelogram which includes levers 6 and 7 as sides is then articulated. This parallelogram may have an arrangement other than the first described. This new arrangement is shown in FIG. 5, which shows that the arms 8a and 4a, the counterparts of8 and 32-33, no longer have a fixed direction. The parallelogram has rotated through a right angle in the plane of the drawing. The arms 4a and 8a are articulated at 320 and 330 on the rocker arm 11 on which the tool is articulated, and at 55 and 220 on the intermediate element 54.
Operation is as follows. With the machine shown in FIG. 1, the rams 25, 24 and 23 being locked, the tool 35 is brought into the position indicated by the line AB parallel to a line passing through axis 13-14. The supply of pressure fluid to the ram 5 causes the latter to extend. If the distributors 40 and 41 are actuated simultaneously, the ram 12 also extends. Since the triangles formed by axes -21-22 and 17-18-19 are similar, the angles of the parallelograms at the equal major sides are equal. Raising of the beam 4 a certain height is therefore accompanied by an equal lowering of the rocker arm 11 and hence of the tool 35. The latter finally rests on the straight line parallel to the line through axis 13-14 and thus describes the straight line AB. This arrangement is suitable for levelling work for example.
It is a simple matter to allow the tool 35 to follow a straight line inclined to the horizontal, such as CD. It is only necessary to incline the jib l by means of the ram 25 so as to make 13-14 parallel to the required direction, i.e. CD in this example. This is the position shown in broken lines in FIG. 1, and is particularly suitable for embankment work.
Of course it is possible to operate the distributors 40, 41 independently of one another. With the other rams still locked, for example, the ram 5 is retracted and the ram 12 is extended and any desired path can be obtained for the tool.
For example, if the rams 24 and 5 are locked, operation of the distributors controlling the rams 25, 12 and 23 results in the machine operating as a conventional mechanical shovel; The rigid assembly of the levers 6, 7, the beam 4, the levers 2 and 3, and the jib 1 simply forms a large jib" which is oriented with respect to the turret 31 by means of the ram 25; the levers 9 and 10 form the balance beam which is oriented in relation to the "large jib by means of the ram 12; at the end of the balance beam is the tool 35 which is articulated on the rocker arm 11 and actuated by the ram 23.
When the tool 35 is made to describe the straight line AB, operation of the ram 24 adjusts the height of the tool 35 with respect to the line AB. The parallelogram 26-27-32-33 is therefore the means of adjusting the height of the tool in relation to the ground. Of course it will readily be seen that the variant in FIG. 5 satisfies the same function.
It will be seen that the assembly of articulated arms is clear of the ground, more particularly near the chassis 29. This is an advantage ofthis type of machine.
It is unnecessary to described details of the folding of the operating mechanism, in the transportation position, for example.
On the other hand, it should be understood that before any work is started, in order to obtain a rectilinear movement of the tool, the rams 5 and 12 must be retracted. Since the rams have lengths in similar end positions which are in the abovementioned similarity ratio, the starting position is thus controlled to permit the rectilinear working.
It is unnecessary to describe in detail the operation of the l EFPlQH- shown in. Fi .2. the a rans nsats be equivalent and substantially the same as those of the main embodiment. However, it should be pointed out that there are two additional degrees of freedom of moment, so that with independent operation of the rams 12 and 12a, for example, 12a can be retracted and 12 extended so that the rocker arm 11 is brought into a position which cannot be obtained with the main embodiment.
The machines according to the invention have various applications, inter alia, we may mention embankment works or levelling works, in which it is essential that the tool should described a straight line for clean operation.
As already stated, the operation of the machines described above is very simple because it is automatic. The specialization for straight-line working does not exclude conventional applications. These mechanical earth working machines may therefore be referred to as being really universal, since they can also carry out a number of completely different operations which would otherwise require the use of as many specialized machines.
Although a drag bucket has been chosen as the tool for the exemplified embodiment and its variants, this is not a limitative choice and the machines according to the invention are perfectly capable, for example, to operate as loaders provided that the appropriate tool is fitted as a replacement for the drag bucket. Some other details of construction may also be modified.
With regard to the machine shown in FIG. 1, although it was previously stated that in the exemplified embodiment the levers 2, 7 and 10, the jib 1 and the rocker arm 11 are in the form of two parallel arms, in a variant of the invention the said levers may be single members and the rams may be overhung, for example, on the levers 7 and in another variant, two rams are disposed on either side of the jib.
With the machines shown in FIGS. 1 and 3, it was found convenient to indicate that the axes 18, 19 and 28 were in alignment, but of course this feature has been given as an example and other arrangements are possible. On the other hand, it is necessary for the angles formed between axes l9l817 and 20-21-22 always to be equal.
It is not necessary to discuss the various ways in which the rams 5 and 12 HO. 1) can be mounted between two elements of each parallelogram.
Similarly, the parallelogram for adjusting the height of the tool in relation to the ground has been shown in one position in FIGS. 1 and 3 and in another position in FIG. 5. Generally, this parallelogram can be secured without it being necessary for two of its levers to be constantly vertical of constantly horizontal; in an alternative embodiment the four levers are capable of being oblique in relation to the horizontal for example. a
With regard to the points of attachment of the various rams,
although they have been arranged to coincide with some pivots, e.g. 26 in the case of ram 24 shown in H6. 1, this being an advantageous arrangement to avoid unnecessary components, they are not necessarily fixed to the points given as an example.
Of course, the rams 24 can be articulated other than at 26 without there being any disadvantage to operation.
What I claim is:
1. An earth working machine comprising a turret, an earth working tool, a jib pivotally mounted on the turret, jib and tool operating means comprising first and second deformable parallelograms, said first and second! parallelograms having major sides which are equal and are adapted to be oriented simultaneously according to equal and opposite angles by means of an angular orientation mechanism comprising two rams, said first parallelogram extending from and connected to said turret, said second parallelogram supporting said tool on its outermost end, means connected between said deformable parallelograms for adjusting the height of thetool with respect to the ground, and pivotal connection means connecting the two major sides of said second parallelogram supporting the tool to the means for adjusting the height of the tool with respect to the ground wherein the means for adjusting the height of the tool is of the parallelogram displacement type.
2. A machine according to claim 1, characterized in that the means for adjusting the height of the tool consists of a deformable parallelogram.
3. A machine according to claim 1, characterized in that the rams of the angular orientation mechanism are of the hydraulic type fed in series.