US 3585995 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent l 72] Inventors George D. Perkins South Pasadena; David E. Workman, Pasadena, both of, 0111.; Richard H. Dyer, Jr., l-lavertown, Del.
[21 Appl. No. 756,907
 Filed Sept. 3,1968
 Patented June 22, 1971  Assignee Said Perkins. Dyer and Stephen Scholtz. a
part interest to each Dyer, AMER. JOUR. OF SURGERY, v01 1 12, Dec. 1966, pps. 874-- 877, 12s- 214 Primary Examiner-Dalton L. Truluck Attorney-Jackson and Jones  AUTOTRANSFUSION APPARATUS 100mm 13 Drawing Figs ABSTRACT: Blood autotransfusion apparatus is described  US. Cl 128/214, whih employs the use of a dual container arrangement for /1 6, 123 reinfusing blood which is nonnally lost during surgery into a ] it. Cl. A61!!! 5/00 living mammal such as a human patient The arrangement in-  Field of Search 128/214, cl de a dual valve control system for controlling blood flow from an accumulation space, i.e. an abdominal cavity, into 1 123 one container and from a previously tilled container backjnto 56 R f the patient. Thereafter switching of the dual valve control 1 e system causes blood to flow from the previously filled con- UNITED STATES PATENTS tainer into the patient and from the accumulation space into 1,478,645 12/1923 Fuge 1 19/ 1 4.06 the empty or near empty container.
1 I /6 I M Z4; 6/ if 1 /i4 66 J m 1 w 2 Zfl / JZ1 74 M .4? ME /0 J0 l 74 1, 1;- /4-. L1 1;. O- na 0' O r z FL 1w PATENTED JUN22 19m SHEET 2 [IF 5 w 70 jun/0v m PATENTEUJU-221971 SHEET 5 OF 5 1! away 01/) AUTOTRANSFUSION APPARATUS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION I. Field of the Invention This invention relates to autotransfusion apparatus and more particularly to such an apparatus utilizing a pair of containers for collecting blood lost by a body during surgery and reinfusing such blood.
2. Description of the Prior Art In the prior art there has been provided apparatus for returning a patient's own blood back into his blood stream by placing a suction tip near the surgical field, i.e. the pools of blood in the hemorrhaging area. This method is sometimes referred to as autotransfusion. The blood preparation unit for receiving the blood is placed under a vacuum and draws the blood into a filtration system within the unit. The unit is comprised of two containers, normally of transparent material. When one of the containers is full, or it contains a sufficient supply of blood, it is connected to infuse blood back into the patient and the other of the two containers is placed under vacuum to draw in the blood supply from the pool of blood. Thus, by alternating between one container to the other, a flow of blood can be continually administered to a patient from his own supply. Such a method and apparatus is described in an article in the American Journal of Surgery, Volume 112, Dec. I966 edition, page 874, entitled lntaoperative Autotransfusion A Preliminary Report and New Methods, by Capt. Richard H. Dyer, Jr., MC USAF.
Heretofore methods have been employed whereby clamp ing arrangements have been placed on the inlet and outlet hoses of a Y-hose connection, for example. When one blood container was empty or near empty and a transfer to a full container was to take place, the operator of the equipment had to physically clamp off the empty or near empty container and unclamp the hoses to the full container. This required that the vacuum hoses, the blood inlet hoses, and the air vents had to be clamped and unclamped each time the role of the container was changed.
A need has developed for a fast and efficient method and apparatus for switching from one blood preparation container to the other while maintaining a smooth and uninterrupted flow of blood.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Briefly described, the present invention provides apparatus useful with autotransfusion equipment. The apparatus comprises a dual operating valve system for reversing inlet and outlet flow from one blood preparation container which is receiving blood to a second container which is infusing blood into the patient. Each container in the dual arrangement comprises blood inlet and outlet control ports. A first valve is connected to the control ports of one container for inducing blood flow into the container while a second valve is connected to the control ports of the other container for permitting blood to flow out of such container. All of the valves are controlled by a single actuating arm so that actuation of the arm simultaneously switches the inlet/outlet flow from one blood preparation container to the other.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a sectional view of a preferred autotransfusion apparatus in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a partial top plan view taken along the lines 2-2 of FIG. 1 which illustrates various hose connections from the blood preparation containers to the valves in the arrangement of this invention;
FIG. 3 is a bottom plan view taken along the lines 3-3 of FIG. 1 illustrating the outlet valve coupling of the preferred embodiment of the arrangement of this invention;
FIG. 4 is a partial side section view taken along the lines 4-4 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 5 is a sectional view taken along the lines 5-5 of FIG.
FIG. 6 is a perspective view of one of the pair of valves used in the arrangement of this invention;
FIG. 7 is a sectional view of the valve arrangement of FIG.
FIG. 8 is a top plan view of the valve taken along the lines 8-8 of FIG. 7;
FIG. 9 is a sectional view of the valve taken along the lines 9-9 of FIG. 6;
FIG. 10 is a perspective view of the connecting rod used in the preferred embodiment of this invention;
FIG. II is a top plan view illustrating the switching mechanism used in the arrangement of this invention;
FIG. 12 is a perspective view of the switching handle used in the valve arrangement of this invention; and
FIG. 13 is a schematic drawing useful in explaining blood inlet/outlet flow and switching of the valves shown in the preferred embodiment of this invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Turning now to FIG. I there is shown a pair of blood preparation containers l0 and 12. Each container contains steel wool I4 and a strainer 15 useful for filtering the blood therein as shown in FIG. I and as described in the aforesaid publication. The containers l0 and 12 are held together by a pair of end caps or covers 16 and 18, which can be clamped together in any suitable manner, as will be explained in a later discussion. A pair of spacer members 20 and 22 are positioned between the two containers l0 and 12, see FIGS. 3 and 5. These spacer members 20 and 22 serve as a barrier strip to obscure from view the inner mechanisms hereinafter to be described.
Each container 10 and 12 may be identical in construction and have an upper container cap 28 having a pair of inlet ports 30 and 32 as best shown in FIG. 2. For purposes of clarity in FIG. 2 end cap 16 thereof is removed to allow the inner structure to be viewed. Blood preparation container 10 has a lower container cap 36 which is shown in FIG. 3 and has an outlet port 38. Both containers I0 and 12 are identically arranged, but the drawing in FIGS. 2 and 3 have omitted this structure to container 12 to aid in the clarity of this description and to add to the simplicity of discussion. Upper container cap 28 and lower container cap 36 of blood preparation containers [0 and 12 may be hermetically sealed, and as illustrated in the eutaway section view in FIG. 1, the lower container cap 36 may be sealed by a sealing ring or gasket 40.
A pair of valve arrangements 50 and 52 are provided in this embodiment. Valve 50 is positioned near the upper end of the blood preparation containers 10 and I2 and within the upper end of cap 16. The valve 52 is positioned near the lower end of blood preparation containers l0 and 12 within lower end cap 18. Suitable brackets 54 and 56 are affixed to end caps 16 and 18 by screws 60, 61, 62 and 63.
FIG. 4 illustrates the side elevation of the embodiment shown in FIG. 1 with the blood preparation container 10 removed therefrom to show the valve installation. The brackets 54 and 56 include integral extensions 66 and 68. A center web 72 is attached to each extension 66 and 68 by screws 73.
A connecting rod 74 is keyed to each of the valves 50 and 52 to provide simultaneous operation of the valves. During assembly it is necessary that the rod 74 be placed within the valves 50 and 52 before they are secured to the bracket members 54 and 56.
With reference now to FIG. 6 through 9 there is shown various configurations of one of the valve assemblies 50 and 52 which is used for controlling blood flow to and from the containers. Each of the valves basically comprises two portions, a body portion and a core portion 110. The core is rotatable within the body portion 100. The body and core portions should be maintained in a close sliding fit and yet be capable of withstanding the high temperatures required for sterilization. The valves may be made of a plastic material or the like for providing a close leakproof tolerance. The body portion 100 has an inlet port and outlet port and, for example should the reference be to valve 50, the uppermost ports 122 and 120 provide outlets from the valve 50 which lead into the inlet ports 30 of the containers and 12 respectively. The valve includes an inlet port 126 which receives blood from the accumulation space, such as an abdominal cavity, by appropriate suction tips (not shown).
Appropriate tubing 130 is connected between the valve outlet port 122 and the inlet port 30 of the container 10. Tubing 132 is connected between the valve port 120 and the inlet port 30 of the container 12. A second set of valve ports 152 and 154 positioned directly below the first set of ports are operable to supply a vacuum to the selected container. Vacuum outlet port 150 may be connected to a suitable vacuum source (not shown) as referenced in FIG. 9 and ports 152 and 154 are connected to the vacuum outlet ports of containers 10 and 12, respectively. Port 152 is connected by tubing 156 to the vacuum port 30 in the cap 28 of container 10 and a similar connection is made by tube 158 to the cap of container 12.
The inner core 110 has appropriate passageways 160 and 162. FIG. 9 best shows the passageway 162 extending between ports 150 and 152. The core 110 can be rotated by rotating the valve cap 166 to change the position of flow from port 150 to port 152 or from port 150 to port 154. Also upon rotation of core member 110 the flow from the blood inlet port 126 is switched from outlet port 120 to 122 or vice versa.
A similar valve 52 is provided at the bottom of the apparatus to direct the flow of blood out of the appropriate containers 10 and 12 in relation to that container which is not receiving blood under the vacuum. With reference to FIG. 3 an inlet port 1711 of the valve 52 is connected by appropriate tubing 172 to the outlet port 38 in the cap 36 of container 10. Inlet port 174 receives blood through tube 178 from the other container 12. The upper ports 180 and 182 of the valve 52 are connected to tubes 184 and 186, respectively, which extend all the way to the top of the containers 10 and 12. See FIGS. 1 and 2. The tube 184 is connected to an air inlet port 33 in the cap 28 of container 10 and the tube 186 is connected to an appropriate air inlet port in container 12 (not shown). An air inlet filter 190 is disposed over a port 135 which cooperates with ports 180 and 182 to furnish clean air to the particular container from which blood is being withdrawn. With reference to FIG. 4, a lower outlet port 192 is connected by tubing 194 to appropriate apparatus (not shown) for administering the blood into the patient. The port 192 works in conjunction with ports 170 and 174 as previously explained.
The inner core 110 of both valves 50 and 52 are mechanically coupled together by the connecting rod 74, as shown in FIG. 10. The rod 74 is tubular in shape and has slots 75 and 76 disposed on either end thereof. These slots 75 and 76 fit over projecting keys 200 on the lower end of core 110 of valve 50 and the upper end of core 110 of valve 52, respectively. See FIGS. 3 and 7. The valve cores are thus rotated together. A handle 212 for controlling the position of the valve cores is coupled to valve 52 by a slot 213 which fits over a key 214 on the top of the valve cap 166. See FIG. 7. The handle 212 (FIGS. 11 and 12) can rotate through an arc of approximately l to assure the correct port positions in the valves 50 and 52.
A retainer 215 extends over an upper lip 216 of the handle 212 for holding the handle in an operative position over the top valve cap member 166. The screws 60 and 61 secure the retainer 215 to the upper bracket 54 as shown in FIGS. 1 and 11. A recess 226 is provided in the end cap 16 to accommodate the handle 212 as is illustrated in FIG. 11. By movement of the handle 212 from one position to the other position, say for example to connect ports 120 and 126, blood is drawn into container 10. Simultaneously the blood outlet is shifted from the outlet port 38 of container 10 to the other outlet port 33 of container 12 and air is vented into the container 12 to permit blood to flow into the patient by gravity.
To promote a better understanding of how the valve arrangements of the embodiment of this invention operate a schematic layout is shown in FIG. 13. The same reference numerals are used in this schematic drawing as those used in the mechanical drawings. This example illustrates the flow of blood into container 10 from the pool of blood located at the surgical site. If container 10 is being filled than the blood inlet 126 is coupled to the port 122. Blood flows through line to an inlet port 30 as a result of the vacuum applied to the container via ports and 152 from vacuum source 260. Blood is delivered to a blood infusion needle (not shown) from container 12 through the line 178, ports 174 and 192 and line 194. Clean air is supplied to the container 12 via ports 188 and 182. Blood is allowed to flow from line 194 by gravity for infusion into the patient. When the container 12 is almost empty or when the container 10 is full the position of the switch 212 is changed to reverse the role of the containers.
In operation the autotransfusion unit of this invention is normally suspended at a position above that of the patient receiving the blood supply. Therefore appropriate apparatus is provided on the end 16 for suspending the unit above the patient. A strap 250 is secured by the retainer 214 to the end cap 16 as illustrated in FIG. 1. The strap 250 may lead to an eye hook, or the like, to suspend the apparatus from a stantion or other suitable stand.
While there has been shown but one preferred embodiment of this invention it should be understood that many alterations and modifications can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of this invention.
What We claim is:
1. An autotransfusion apparatus comprising:
first and second containers, each container having an inlet control port and an outlet control port;
first means coupled to the inlet control ports for inducing blood to flow into the first and second containers;
second means coupled to the outlet control ports for inducing blood to flow out of the first and second containers; and
control means mechanically coupled to said first and second means for controlling the orientation thereof for selectively alternating the direction of the flow path into and out of the first and second containers.
2. The apparatus as defined in claim 1 wherein;
said first means comprises a first valve having a blood inlet port and a pair of outlet ports, formed therein the outlet ports of the first valve being connected to respective container inlet control ports; and
said second means comprising a second valve having a pair of inlet ports and a blood outlet port, the inlet ports of the second valve being connected to respective container outlet control ports.
3. The apparatus as defined in claim 2 wherein;
each of said first and second valves comprises a stationary body portion and a rotatable core portion disposed within said body portion, said core portion defining movable passageways between the outlet and inlet ports therein.
4. The apparatus as defined in claim 3 wherein said controls means includes means coupled to each of the valves for rotating the cores together.
5. The apparatus as defined in claim 2 wherein said first valve means further comprises means for applying a vacuum to the container which is receiving blood.
6. The apparatus as defined in claim 5 wherein said second valve means further comprises means for introducing filtered air into the top of the container from which blood is flowing.
7. In an autotransfusion apparatus including a vacuum source, a blood inlet, and a blood outlet the combination which comprises:
first and second containers, each of the containers having an inlet port, a vacuum port and an air inlet port disposed at the top thereof and an outlet port disposed at the bottom thereof,
a first two way valve connected between the blood inlet and the inlet ports of each of the containers to selectively connect the blood inlet to the inlet port of either of the containers,
a second two way valve connected between the blood outlet and the outlet ports of each of the containers to selectively connect the blood outlet to the outlet port of either of the containers to the blood outlet, and
control means for controlling the position of the first and second valves whereby the inlet port of one container is connected to the blood inlet and the outlet port of the other container is connected to the blood outlet.
8. The combination as defined in claim 7 wherein each of the valves includes a movable core member for controlling vacuum outlet ports being connected to the vacuum ports in the respective containers, and
the second valve includes an air inlet port and a pair of air outlet ports, the air outlet ports being connected to the air inlet ports in the respective containers, the first and second valves being operable to selectively connect the vacuum ports in one of the containers to the vacuum source and to simultaneously connect the air inlet port of the other container to the inlet port of the second valve, whereby vacuum is applied to one container for inducing the flood of blood into said container and air is supplied to the other container to permit blood to flow out of said other container.
10. The apparatus as defined in claim 9 wherein the first and second valves are disposed between the containers along a common axis and including a rigid member extending between the valves and connected to the core members.