US 3586204 A
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United States Patent  Inventor Ralph E. Roper Indianapolis, Ind. 121 Appl. N0. 844,815 122] Filed July 25,1969 I45] Patented June 22, I971  Assignee Wallace Expanding Machines. Inc.
 CONTAINER AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME 9 Claims, 21 Drawing Figs.
 U.S.Cl 220/67, 220/72, 220/97  Int. Cl 865d 7/42  Field ofSearch 220/67,72, 70, 66, 97, 1.5
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 829,477 8/1906 Kruse 220/72 X 867,940 10/1907 Bell 220/171 2,063,013 12/1936 Cooper... 220/72 2,335,260 11/1943 Chamberlain. 220/72 X 2,340,024 1/1944 Skaller 220/97 X 2,793,788 5/1957 Lysne 220/I.5 X 2,936,986 5/1960 Johnson 220/72 X 3,124,265 3/1964 Bertels.... 220/1.5
3,170,586 2/1965 Bulgrin 220/66x 3,207,359 9/1965 Heisleretal 220/97 3,315,839 4/1967 Catalanoetal 220/67 FOREIGN PATENTS 263.478 9/1964 Australia 220/72 Primary Examiner-Joseph R. LeClair Assistant Examiner-James R. Garrett A1/0rr1eyWoodard, Weikart, Emhardt and Naughton ABSTRACT: A container having an expanded rectangular tubular body section and a pair of opposing end panel sections. The body section includes a peripheral recess which facilitates lifting the container by, for example, the arms of a fork lift truck. For strengthening purposes the body section incorporates a plurality of gussets which are adjacent to the edge of said lifting recess. Such containers are adapted to stack one upon another by means of the complementary configurations of the two end panel sections. The end sections are secured to the body section by means of crimping or by a curled lock seam. In one embodiment of the invention crimping and decrimping of one end may be effected my meansof crimping and decrimping tools having C-shaped heads which are adapted to engage the outer leg of a U-shaped rim.
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AZQFEj/J CONTAINER AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention This invention is concerned with a metal container and a method for making the container as well as certain tools used in opening and closing the container.
2. Description of the Prior Art Liquid commodities are frequently shipped and stored in circular drums. The most widely used drums have a capacity of approximately 55 gallons. Because these drums are circular they are not adapted to advantageously utilize storage space. In other words, voids are inherently created between stacked drums. Also such drums have the disadvantage that they are not adapted to nest one upon another so that there are definite limits on the heights to which the drums may be stacked. Also such drums are difficult to move from place to place because there is no convenient way to firmly grasp the drums for such movement. In contrast with the above described prior art containers, this invention is concerned with a square or rectangular drum which has nesting provisions and a lifting recess. Because of its square or rectangular cross section and its nesting capability, the drum of this invention is adapted to make maximum utilization of warehouse space while its lifting recess makes more convenient movement from place to place.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION One embodiment of this invention might include a rectangular container comprising a section of rectangular cross section tubing which is closed ofl' on either end by a pair of opposing end panels. A lifting recess is formed in the central portion of the periphery of the body section of the container. The sides of the container adjacent the recess are reinforced by means of a plurality of gussets. One end panel incorporates an annular nesting projection while the opposite end panel incorporates a nesting recess. The nesting of two such containers is accomplished by having the nesting projection in one mate with the nesting recess in the other. The end panels of the container can incorporate bung apertures.
One embodiment of the method of this invention might include the steps of placing an annular member formed of sheet metal about an inner die structure and within an outer die structure, expanding the inner die structure to stretch the annular member and to force it against the outer die structure to produce a body section of generally rectangular shaped cross section and having a pair of opposite ends, attaching a first end panel to one end of said body section, and attaching a second end panel to the other end of said body section to form a closed rectangular container.
Objects of this invention are to provide an improved container, to provide an improved method of making a container to provide a container which is easily and conveniently stacked, to provide a container which is easily moved from place to place, to provide a container which is stronger than existing containers, to provide a container which can be completely drained, as well as other objects which will become apparent as the description proceeds.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a perspective view with portions thereof broken away and showing the container of this invention;
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view on line 2-2 of the container of FIG. 1 with a portion of the bottom seam unfinished.
FIG. 3 is a reduced side elevation of two containers illustrating the stacking capability of the container of this invention;
FIG. 4 is a sectional view illustrating the crimping tool of this invention; and
FIG. 5 is a sectional view illustrating the decrimping tool of this invention.
FIG. 6 is a perspective view of an alternative embodiment of the container of the invention.
FIG. 7 is an enlarged top plan view of the container of FIG. 6.
FIG. 8 is an enlarged vertical section taken along the line 8-8 of FIG. 7.
FIG. 9 is a reduced top plan view of the unassembled bottom panel of the container of FIG. 6.
FIG. 10 is an enlarged sectional view taken along the line 1010 of FIG. 9.
FIG. 11 is a reduced top plan view of the unassembled top panel of the container of FIG. 6.
FIG. 12 is an enlarged sectional view taken along the line 12-12 of FIG. 11..
FIG. 13 is a reduced to plan view of the unassembled body section of the container of FIG. 6.
FIG. 14 is an enlarged side elevation of the structure of FIG. 13.
FIG. 15 is a perspective view ofa work piece used in making the body section of FIGS. 13 and 14.
FIG. 16 is a perspective view of the inner die structure of an expanding apparatus used in making the body section of FIGS. 13 and 14.
FIG. 17 is a top plan view of the expander showing it in position for receiving the work piece.
FIG. 18 is a view similar to FIG. 17 but showing the expander in a different operating position.
FIG. 19 is a schematic view of one step involved in attaching the top (or bottom) of the container to the body section thereof.
FIG. 20 is a schematic view similar to FIG. 19 showing a further step in the process of attaching the top of the container to the body section.
FIG. 21 is a view similar to FIG. 3 of a further alternative embodiment of the invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, there is illustrated a container 25 which is formed from a rectangular tubular body section 26 and a pair of opposing end panels 27 and 30. The body section 26 includes four identical side panels 26A, 26B, 26C and 26D which are smoothly connected by rounded corners so as to form an annular shape of generally rectangular cross section. The panels 26A, 26B, 26C and 26D each include a raised main body section formed by intermediate panels 31 and 32. Between the lower termination of intermediate panels 31 and the upper termination of intermediate panels 32 is a recess 35 which extends around the periphery of container 25. The recess 35 provides a means whereby mechanical arms such as those of a fork lift truck can be used to lift the container for movement from place to place. Thus a fork lift truck having three side-by-side arms can be used to lift two side-by-side containers as well as containers supported thereon.
Formed in intermediate panels 31 and 32 and positioned adjacent the edge of lifting recess 34 is a plurality of strengthening gussets 36 which function to increase the structural strength of side panels 26A, 26B, 26C and 26D. While four strengthening gussets per penal are illustrated, it will be understood by one skilled in the art that any convenient number of strengthening gussets can be utilized.
Referring more specifically to FIG. 2, a rim 37 of L-shaped cross section is provided at the ends of the body section 26. The L-shaped rim 37 has a lowerleg 378 which is at right angles to the axis of body section 26 and an upper leg 37A which is parallel to the axis of body section 26. The first end panel 27 incorporates a downwardly opening rim 40 of U-shaped cross section having an inner leg 40A and an outer leg 408 which is longer than inner leg 40A. The U-shaped rim 40 is adapted to fit over the L-shaped rim 37 as shown so that the outer leg 40B of the rim 40 extends substantially below the lower leg 37B of L-shpaed rim 37. Referring to the right side of FIG. 2, the end panel 27 is secured to body section 26 by the crimping of outer leg 408 under and against the lower leg 37B. This crimping action is' accomplished by means of a special crimping tool shown in FIG. 5 and described below.
For purposes of effecting a liquid tight seal between the end panel 27 and body section 26, a flexible gasket 41 or sealing compound is used between lower leg 37B and the horizontal portion 42 of the panel 27.
The second end or bottom panel 30 is used to close the lower end of body section 26. At the edge of bottom panel 30 there is initially an L-shaped rim 45 which is best illustrated in the left-hand portion of FIG. 2. The L-shpaed rim 45 has a lower leg 45A which is parallel to the axis of body section 26 and an upper leg 458 which is perpendicular to the axis of body section 26. The body section 26 also has an L-shaped rim 46 which mate with L-shaped rim 45 in such a manner that legs 46A and 45A are in engagement with each other and legs 46B and 45B are in engagement with each other. Referring to the right-hand portion of FIG. 2, the second end panel 30 is shown as crimped to body section 26 by the rolling of leg 46A around leg 45A in such a fashion that they terminate at horizontal leg 45B and a seal is produced.
With regard to the stacking and nesting aspect of the container of this invention, the first end panel 27 has formed therein a stacking projection 47. The projection 47 includes opposing angularly disposed section 50 and 51. Inwardly of the projection 47 there is provided a recessed section 52 which is adapted to contain a plurality of bung apertures 55 and 56 generally useful as a means of adding and removing liquid from container 25. Located outwardly of the projection 47 in the panel 27 is a horizontal section 57, the surface of which functions as a stacking surface.
The lower end panel 30 has formed therein a stacking recess 60 which is outwardly bounded by an angularly disposed section 61. Contiguous with and surrounding the angularly disposed section 61 is a horizontal section 62 which leads into a vertical panel 65 which is in turn connected to the leg 45B of L-shaped rim 45. The sections 65, 62 and 61 define an annular projection suitably proportioned to mate with the annular recess defined by sections 51 and 57. Thus the sloping section 51 engages sloping section 61 and horizontal section 62 engages horizontal section 57. Also the height of stacking projection 47 above the section 57 is such that the projection nests with recess 60.
Referring to FIG. 3 a pair of containers 25A and 25B are shown nested one upon the other as above suggested in such a fashion that sections 62 and 57 are in engagement with each other. This arrangement is particularly advantageous in that all stacking stresses on containers 25A and 25B are positioned in the vicinity of their peripheries where there is maximum structural strength. The foreces exerted from stacking are not located at the center of the top panel 27 or the bottom panel 30 where bending of the panels might result.
FIG. 4 illustrates the crimping tool of this invention. It can be seen that crimping tool 66 incorporates a handle section 67 and a C-shaped crimping head 70. The C-shaped crimping head 70 has a downwardly and inwardly curved pusher portion 71 which is adapted to engage the outer leg 40B of the U- shaped rim 40 of first end panel 27 and also has a downwardly extending thumb portion 72 which is adapted to engage the inner leg 40A. When the crimping tool 66 is positioned as illustrated and rotated in a clockwise direction as viewed in FIG. 4, the thumb potion 72 is forced against inner leg 40A and the outer leg 40B is crimped to the position shown at the right-hand side of FIG. 2. In order to attach the top to the drum, it is necessary to use the crimping tool 66 at a number of locations around the drum. Thus the crimping tool might have a thickness of less than an inch and the crimp produced would be equivalent.
FIG. illustrates the decrimping tool of this invention. The decrimping tool 75 incorporates a handle section 76 and a C- Shaped decrimping head 77. The decrimping head 77 has a hooking arm 80 pivotally mounted thereon by means of pin 81. The hooking arm includes a projecting finger 82 which is adapted to engage the crimped outer leg 40B of U-shaped rim 40. Decrimping tool 75 incorporates a downwardly extending thumb 85 which is adapted to engage the junction of horizontal portion 42 and U-shaped rim 40. When tool 75 is positioned as illustrated and rotated in a counterclockwise direction as viewed in FIG. 5, the thumb is forced against inner leg 40A while the finger 82 pulls away the crimped lower extremities of outer leg 408 so as to generally return it to the position illustrated at the left side of FIG. 2. Of course, this procedure is carried out at each of the locations which have been crimped by tool 66. Upon such decrimping the end panel 27 can be removed from body section 25 to make accessible the contents of the container.
Referring now to FIGS. 6 through 14 a further embodiment of the container of the present invention is disclosed. The embodiment of FIGS. 614 is generally similar to the embodiment of FIGS. 1-5 except a described detail primarily below. The container includes a body section 101 which is generally rectangular in cross section a top panel 102 and a bottom panel 105. The body section 101 is expanded similarly to the body section 26 and in a manner described in more detail below. The top and bottom panels 102 and 105 are connected to the body section 101 by a lock seam operation also described in more detail below. FIG. 6 is intended primarily to show the location of all openings in the container. Thus the opening 106 can be used as a vent opening and also as a location for inserting an agitator or the like for stirring the contents of the container The opening 107 provides a location for a pump mechanism which uses the opening 106 as a vent. The opening 110 provides a location for mounting a faucet while the opening 111 serve as a drain.
FIGS. 13 and 14 show body section 101 prior to attachment of the top panel and bottom panel and shown that the body section 101 has generally the same configuration as the body section 26. FIGS. 9 and 10 show the bottom panel 105 in its unattached configuration and show that it is substantially different in shape than the bottom panel 30. The lock seam 115 (FIG. 8) which connects the body section and the bottom panel supports the weight of the container on a flat surface and in staking. The bottom panel is formed so as to cause all the liquid in the container to go to the drain 111. Thus in FIGS. 8 and 10 the annular portion 116 of the bottom panel slopes at approximately a 5 angle to the horizontal from lock seam 115 (in the finished product) or the flange 117 (in the initial shape of the bottom panel) to the inside termination 120 of the annular portion 116 of the bottom panel. The drain opening 111 is located in a central downwardly projecting portion 121 joined to the annular portion 116 by annular sloping portion 122.
FIGS. 11 and 12 show the top panel 102 in its unattached configuration. The top panel has a central recess or depressed portion 125 so formed and proportioned as to mate with the projecting portion 121 of the bottom panel. It should be understood however that in stacking the weight of the containers is supported in the upper and lower lock seams 126 and 115. Except for the recessed portion 130 provided for the opening 107 the top panel 102 is generally complementary in shape to the bottom panel. Thus the annular raised portion 131 complements the annular portion 116 and is joined to the depressed portion 125 by the annular sloping portion 126.
Referring now to FIGS. 15 l8 there is disclosed expander apparatus 200 for forming the body section 4 and 101 of the present invention. In many respects the apparatus is similar or identical to the expander apparatus disclosed in my US. Pat. No. 2,955,556 and therefore reference is made to that patent for further details of the expander apparatus. FIG. 18 corresponds in part to FIG. 1 of my patent. FIG. 18 shows four outer dies 201 which have the inside configuration at 202 appropriate for forming the part 101 in a generally rectangular cross section. The inner idler dies 205 and inner drive dies 206 have external configurations at 207 and 210 which cooperate with the outer dies to form the part 101. In order to begin the sequence, the work piece 211 (FIG. 15) is formed by welding sheet metal together at 212 to form a closed annular shape.
The workpiece is then inserted the expander apparatus around the inner dies 205 and 206 and inside of the outer dies 201 when the dies are in the position of FIG. 17. The positions of the various parts in FIG. 17 correspond to the position of the dies in FIG. 3 of my patent. The outer dies are then moved to the position of FIG. 18 in the manner illustrated in my patent. The part is then formed by expanding the inner dies to the position of FIG. 18. The expanding of the inner dies causes the metal workpiece to stretch and to plastically deform. Because the metal in the workpiece is caused to flow plastically and simultaneously is pressed between the rigid outer dies and the rigid inner dies, all, inherent or residual stresses are removed and the final part 101 is stable and retains the final shape to which it is formed.
In FIG. 16 the details of assembly of the inner dies is shown as including a top cap 215 and a bottom plate 216. A wedge 216 having four key heads 217 is vertically reciprocal in the top cap and bottom plate. As suggested in FIG. 16 the driven dies 206 are slidably secured to the wedge in such a manner that downward movement of the wedge causes outward movement of the driven dies 206 and upward movement of the wedge causes inward movement of the dies 206. Such a T- coupling arrangement is also shown in my US. Pat. No. 3,222,910 wherein the inner dies are moved inwardly and outwardly by a similar wedge. The wedge 216 is moved vertically by a hydraulic cylinder (not shown) similar to those of my two patents. The top cap 215 and bottom plate 216 are maintained in spaced relation by shouldered tie rods 220. Each of the idler segments 205 and driven segments 206 is provided with keys 221 nd 222 on the upper and lower surfaces of the inner dies. These keys ride within keyways 225, 226 and 227 in the top cap and bottom plate which guide the various dies in a radial direction. The idler dies 205 are provided with recesses 231 into which L-shaped cross section projections 230 extend. The projections 230 are fixed to the driven segments 206 and have a vertical dimension less than the vertical dimension of the recesses 231 even as partially closed off by the plates 232.
Behind the plates 232 which are fixed to the idler segments, the recesses 231 extend upwardly a short distance to receive the projections 230 so that in effect the idler segments are hung on the driven segments yet are slidable on the projections 230 with the projections acting as trackways. In other respects my patents can be looked to for various other details regarding the structure and operation of an expander suitable for carrying out this invention.
Referring now to FIGS. 19 one embodiment of my method involves the attaching of thetop panel and/or the bottom panel to the body section 101 by a lock seam. Such attachment of both the top panel 102 and the bottom panel 116 can be accomplished to the body section 101 simultaneously; however, for clarity only one such attachment will be described. In FIG. 19 there is schematically illustrated a back up collar 235 an a curling ring 236. The collar 235 may be split into two l80portions to make possible removal and insertion of body section 101. When the body section is in place, the collar is closed in the direction of the arrow 238 as shown in FIG. 20 with the collar backing up the radially projecting portion 241 of the part 101. As shown, the rim 240 of the part 101 has an L-shaped cross section which receives and seats the top panel 102 and more particularly its rim 242 of L- shaped cross section.
The c'urling ring is then brought together with the collar to cause the rims 240 and 242 to curl together to the position of FIG. 20 wherein the curling of the rims extends through approximately 540. It should be understood that the length of the axially extending portions 246 and 245 of the body section and top as well as the cutl/ature of the recess 247 determine the amount or degrees of curling. As will be evident from the drawing, the curling ring 236 moves in the direction of the narrow 248 so that the portions 245 and 246 move along the recess 247 adjacent the outside face 250 thereof. The portions 245 and 246 are then turned back in on themselves by the curved portion 251 of th'recess 247 as shown in FIG. 19 forming the lock seam.
Referring now more particularly to FIG. 21, there is-illustrated a further embodiment of the container of the present invention which incorporates many of the features of the container of FIGS. 614 as well as additional features. The containers 300A and 3008 are identical and include body sections 301A and 3018 which are similar to the body section 101. The body section 301A is different from 101 in that additional gussets 302 are provided to strengthen container 300A adjacent the lock seam 305which along with the lock seams 306A and 306B supports the weight of the containers in stacking. Appropriate commercially available closures 307A, 307 B, 3088, 310 and 311 are shown for the containers.
The top panel 312 is similar to top panel 102 except for the configuration in the area 315 where the top panel tapers conically at 316 into smoothly rounded dip portion 317 from which the top panel extends axially at 320 into the initially L- shaped cross-sectional rim portion 321. The lock seam 305 is formed in the same manner as described in connection with FIGS. 19 and 20. The top panel 312 and bottom panels 322A and 3228 are formed with four recesses 325A and 325B and four complementary projections 326 which mate and maintain the containers stable in relation to one another when stacked. The bottom panels 322A and 3228 have a smoothly downwardly tapering configuration extending from their radially outward portion 327A and 327B to the central drain closure 3088 at an angle of approximately 5 to the horizontal which makes possible substantially complete drainage of the container.
Because of the fact that no welding is required for attaching the top and bottom panels to the body section of the containers of this invention, prefinished materials can be used. As mentioned, the container of FIG. 21 can be stacked and is stable in stacking because the lock seams support the weight and the bumps or recesses and projections 325 and 326 prevent shifting. This structure also makes unnecessary shoring up required by conventional drums. It should be understood that the container of this invention can have a removable top as disclosed in connection with FIGS. 1-5 or a permanent top as disclosed at other portions of the application.
From the above description it can be seen that this invention provides an improved container or drum as well as necessary tools for the crimping and uncrimping of an end panel thereof. Further, this invention provides an improved method for making a container. Also the container of this invention is particularly advantageous in that it is able to make maximum utilization of storage space because it is generally rectangular in shape and is capable of being stacked to substantial heights.
The invention I claim is:
1. A container comprising a tubular body of rectangular horizontal cross section having a lifting recess formed in the periphery of said body section said recess having an upper terminal laterally extending peripheral wall and a lower tenninal laterally extending peripheral wall, said body section having a plurality of strengthening gussets extending between the innerfaces of the upper and lower terminal walls of said lifting recess, and the inner faces of the tubular body section, a top panel secured to and closing off one end of said tubular body section, and a bottom panel secured to and closing off the other end of said tubular body section.
2. The container of claim 1 wherein said bottom panel has a drain opening therein and said bottom panel slopes downwardly toward said drain opening, said top panel having a pair of openings therein one located centrally and one at the edge of said container, said body section also having an opening therein adjacent the bottom panel.
3. The container of claim 1 wherein said top end panel has an annular projection formed therein and said bottom panel has an annular recess fonned therein complementary to said top end panel annular projection.
4. The container of claim 3 wherein said top panel includes a recessed central section which has a plurality of bung apertures formed therein and which is surrounded by said projection.
5. The container of claim 1 wherein said body section has an upper end portion which defines an L-shaped rim with an upper and lower leg, said lower leg projecting outwardly at right angles to the axis of said body section and said upper leg projecting upwardly and being parallel to the axis of said body section.
6 The container of claim 5, wherein said top end panel has formed hereon a downwardly opening U-shaped rim having outer and inner legs, said outer leg being longer than said inner leg, said U-shaped rim having received therein said body section upper leg, said bottom end panel having an L-shaped rim with upper and lower legs with the lower leg being parallel to the axis of aid body section and the upper leg being perpendicular to the axis of said body section, said body section having an L-shaped rim at a lower end portion with an upper horizontal outwardly projecting first leg and a lower downwardly projecting second leg, said L-shaped rim of said bottom end panel being received within said L-shaped rim of said body section.
7. The container of claim 6 wherein the top end panel is secured to said body section by means of crimping said longer outer leg of said U-shaped rim under the lower leg of said L- shaped upper rim, said bottom end panel being secured to said body section by curling together the lower legs of the L- shaped rim of the lower portion of said body section and of said bottom end panel.
8. The container of claim 1 wherein said top and bottom panels are connected to said body section by lock seams, said body section and each of said top panel and bottom panel having nesting rims which are curled inwardly to provide said lock seams.
9. The container of claim 8 wherein said top panel has a conical portion leading into a smoothly curved dip portion leading into the rim of said nesting rims, and a plurality of strengthening gussets formed in said body section adjacent to the lock seam connection to said top panel.