US 3586593 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 22, D L, JR
MAGNETICALLY ACTUATABLE BUSINESS MACHINE CARD Original Filed Oct. 22, 1965 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 E. A. DAHL, JR
3 Sheets-Sheet 8 Original iled Oct. 22, 1965 June 22, 1971 DAHL, JR 3,586,593
MAGNETICALLY ACTUATABLE BUSINESS MACHINE CARD Original Filed Oct. 22, 1965 3 Sheets-Sheet 15 United States Patent 3,586,593 MAGNETICALLY ACTUATABLE BUSINESS MACHINE CARD Ernest A. Dahl, Jr., Wilmette, II]. 60091 Original application Oct. 22, 1965, Ser. No. 501,794, now Patent No. 3,526,562, dated Sept. 1, 1970. Divided and this application Dec. 22, 1969, Ser. No. 886,842
Int. Cl. B32b /12, 29/00; G06k 19/00 U.S. Cl. 16136 8 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A magnetically actuatable business machine card of stable flatness including an intermediate lamina of nonmagnetic and magnetic materials sandwiched between a pair of outer laminae having axes of grain orientation at an angle to the axis of grain orientation of the intermediate non-magnetic material.
This is a division of my copending application Ser. No. 501,794, filed Oct. 22, 1965, now Pat. No. 3,526,562.
This invention relates generally to the manufacture of business machine cards and more particularly to business machine cards of the magnetically actuatable type.
Both paper and paperboard are conventionally manufactured by continuous process; and whether Fourdrinier or cylinder machines are used, some orientation of the pulp fibers occurs, giving the product a grain, that is, an axis of physical property orientation. As a further result of the continuous nature of the manufacturing procedures, the freshly made paper or paperboard is impressed with a curvature imparted by the cylinder or reel upon which it is wound for collection, storage and handling. This curvature may be transient or semipermanent depending upon a number of factors including the thickness and wetness of the stock and the diameter of the winding reel. In any event, situations exist in the business card industry which point out the desirability of having a card that approaches an isotropic character.
Therefore, a general object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved business machine card, a method of making the same and apparatus therefor.
Another object of the invention is to provide a magnetically actuatable, business machine card of stable flatness.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a multi-ply, business machine card having the grain of the respective laminae disposed in relative right angular relationship.
And still another object of the invention is to provide substantially isotropic business machine cards in a continuous roll form.
A further object of the invention is to provide an economical method of making magnetically actuatable, business machine cards from a plurality of webs.
A yet further object of the invention is to provide apparatus for manufacturing interconnected business machine cards in which the cards are of laminated construction with the laminae disposed in relative right angular relationship and in which the inner laminae have substantially no spaces between them lengthwise of the train of cards.
These and other objects and features of the invention will become more apparent from a consideration of the following descriptions.
In order that the principles of the invention may be readily understood, reference now will be had to the accompanying drawings and the following disclosure. In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a schematic perspective view of manufactur- 'ice ing apparatus embodying the principles of the invention and operative in compliance with the method aspects thereof;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged, elevational view taken substantially along the line 2-2 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged, top plan view taken substantially along the line 33 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is an enlarged perspective view of that portion of the apparatus of FIG. 1 wherein discrete card elements are delivered to a station where their direction of movement is altered;
FIG. 5 is a schematic plan view on a reduced scale showing two sequential card elements being delivered in line for transfer;
FIG. 6 is a view similar to the showing of FIG. 5 but illustrating the first card in the sequence being altered in its path of movement;
FIG. 7 is a view similar to the showings of FIGS. 5 and 6 but illustrating a subsequent stage in the directional transfer;
FIG. 8 is an enlarged, side elevational view of the intermittently engaging drive rollers used in efiectuating transfer in the direction of movement of the card elements, the drive rollers being shown engaging a card element for accelerating the same into the path of movement of the webs of outer lamination material;
FIG. 9 is a view similar to the showing of FIG. 8 but illustrating the intermittently engaging rollers in their spaced condition for admitting overlapping card elements therebetween;
FIG. 10 is an enlarged, elevational view taken substantially along the line 1010 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 11 is an enlarged, perspective view of the punching and perforating rollers used to process the completed web;
FIG. 12 is an enlarged, cross-sectional view taken substantially along the line 12-12 of FIG. 11 and showing the makeup of the finished web; and
FIG. 13 is a perspective view of a finished business machine card produced in compliance with the invention.
Referring now in detail to the drawings, specifically to FIG. 1, apparatus for making a business machine card in accord with the invention is indicated generally by the reference numeral 20. The apparatus 20 broadly includes a lateral drive 22, a transfer drive 24 and a forward drive 26.
The apparatus 20 is arranged to manufacture business machine cards from a number of continuous sheets or webs comprising paper or other non-magnetic material and a pair of continuous strips comprising steel foil approximately 0.002 inches thick, for example, or other magnetic material. Consequently, a roll 28 of suitable paper card stock is provided as a supply for the lateral drive 22, roll 28 delivering a substantially continuous web 30 of inner ply material. Similarly, a pair of vertically spaced rolls 32 and 34 supply respective webs 36 and 38 of suitable outer ply material to the forward drive 26'. The webs 30, 36 and 38 are comparatively wide; and in order to produce a card of the type contemplated by the present invention, relatively narrow webs of both nonmagnetic and magnetic materials are also required. Specifically, laterally spaced rolls 40 and 42 supply parallel respective webs 44 and 4-6 of comparatively narrow, magnetic material to the forward drive; and rolls 48 and 50 supply respective, parallel webs 52 and 54 of comparatively narrow non-magnetic material to the same work operation. Advantageously, the rolls 40 and 42 and the rolls 48 and 50 are situated respectively above and below the central plane of the forward drive 26. It is to be understood that the aforementioned rolls are mounted for rotation in suitable journals, not shown.
In compliance with the principles of the invention, the webs 36 and 38 of outer ply material are delivered to the forward drive with their longitudinal axes disposed substantially parallel. Cooperatively, the comparatively narrow webs 44, 46, 52 and 54 are likewise delivered with their longitudinal axes parallel to the longitudinal axes of the webs 36 and 38. However and in compliance with the invention, the web of inner ply material is situated with its longitudinal axis disposed at an angle, specifically a right angle, to the axes of the other webs. In addition, the web 30 of inner ply material is severed into a sequence of discrete card elements, and these card elements are supplied to the transfer drive 24 rather than the con tinuous material of web 30.
Continuing with reference to FIG. 1 and with supplementary reference to FIGS. 2 and 3, the lateral drive 22 comprises a pair of freely rotatable idler rollers 56 and 58 which establish a path from the supply roll 28 to longitudinally spaced pairs of suitably powered feed or drive rolls 60 and 62. The rolls 60' and 62 are. rotated to drive web 30 in the general direction of arrow 64 and toward the transfer drive 24. In addition, the rolls 60 and '62 are spaced apart longitudinally of the axis of web 30 to admit a cooperating pair of cutter rolls 66 and 68 therebetween. In order to sever the web 30 at the desired, predetermined intervals, a blade or knife 70 is raised from the surface of cutter roll 66 and a cooperating anvil 72 is mounted in the roll 68 for the knife 70 to cut against. This arrangement of the rolls 66 and 68 is best shown in FIG. 2; and while a single blade and cooperating anvil has been illustrated, it is recognized that rolls of larger diameter carrying several peripherally spaced cutter blades may be employed. The interval or spacing of such multiple cutter blades, as determined by the circumference of the corresponding roll, is arranged to be a distance or spacing that is equal to the overall width of the card being produced less the combined width of the comparatively narrow strips. Thus, the circumferential spacing or cutting interval of the blades 70 determines the width dimension of the severed card element as measured in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the web 30.
The lateral drive 22 also comprises a final feed roller unit 74 and a depression roller unit 76. In addition, a transverse bar 78 is disposed across the path of travel of the card elements that emanate from the final feed roller 74, the roller unit 74 being situated relative to the bar 78 in proper position to preserve frictional contact with the card elements severed by the rolls 66 and '68 for the maximum possible travel toward the bar 78. Unit 74 is thus positioned to release each card element at the time just before it engages the bar 78. In order to achieve the desired positioning of the roller unit 74, the upper component of this unit is divided into a number of axially spaced roller elements 80, as is well shown in FIG. 3. The depression roller unit 76 is similarly composed of axially spaced roller elements 82, and the elements 80 are interspersed with the elements 82. The final feed roller unit 74 also includes a single, elongated roller 84 which is positioned in opposed relationship relative to its roller elements 80, as is shown in FIG. 2.
During the time that a leading card element of a sequential pair of such elements is executing a transfer movement, overlapping with the immediately trailing card element is contemplated. In order to initiate the overlap of leading and trailing elements of a sequential pair, each of the roller elements 82 in the depression roller unit 76 is provided with a radially otuwardly extending lobe 86, well shown in FIGS. 2 and 4. The lobes 86 of the roller elements 82 are aligned laterally to strike and depress an underlying card element substantially simultaneously. Continuing with reference to FIG. 4, the lobe elements 86 are seen acting to depress the trailing edge of a leading card element 88 whereby to permit the advancing forward ed e of a subsequent card element 90 to overlap 4 as the leading card element 88 is arrested in its motion by contact with the bar 78. It is recognized that the depression roller unit 76 could be replaced with a vertically reciprocal foot or the like element.
'For purposes of confining the card elements against substantial vertical dislocation in the vicinity of transfer drive 24, the lateral drive 22 incorporates parallel guide plates 92 and 94 that are disposed between the depression roller unit 76 and the transverse bar 78. As is best shown in FIG. 4, the guide plates 92 and 94 have respective lips 96 and 98 that open or diverge toward the depression roller unit 76 whereby to direct card elements between the plates. In addition, each of the plates 92 and 94 is apertured to expose a sandwiched card element to vertically aligned, high-spot rollers 100- and 102 which comprise elements of the transfer drive 24.
In the lateral drive 22, the drive rolls 60 and 62, the cutter rolls 66 and 68, the final feed roller unit 74 and the depression roller unit 76 are all supplied motive power in a manner that insures proper coordination of the various operations. In compliance with well known principles, an intermeshed gear drive may be employed for this purpose. Furthermore, the transit speed of the web 30 and the card elements cut therefrom, in the direction of arrow 64, is determined from the relative dimensions of the finished card and the transit speed in the forward drive 26. For example, the transit speed in lateral drive 22 bears an 8/5 ratio to the transit speed in the forward drive 26 when the finished business machine card is five inches high and the inserted, interlaminar card element is eight inches wide.
One a card element has had its motion in the direction of arrow 64 arrested by the transverse bar 78, the highspot rollers 100 and 102 are employed to engage and accelerate such a card element in the direction indicated in FIG. 3 by the arrow 104. As is shown in FIGS. 4, 8 and 9, each of the high-spot rollers 100 and 102 is provided with an axially extending high-spot or raised sector 106. In accord with the invention, the angular extent of the high-spots 106 corresponds in peripheral measure to the difference between the length of the high-spot roller and the width of the card element, i.e. the difference between the length of the high-spot roller and the dimension of the card element lying in the direction of the arrow 64.
The length of the high-spot rollers, on the other hand, is determined by a consideration of two factors. Highspot rollers of comparatively greater length provide greater holding power with respect to a card element gripped therebetween and hence reduce the tendency of the card to skew during transfer. However, the high-spot rollers 100 and 102 cannot take a length corresponding to the full width of a card element because it is necessary to permit an overlapping of sequential pairs of the card elements in the transfer station. This latter fact will be recognized from a consideration of the requirements for stopping and changing the direction of movement of the card elements. The low spot or region of the rollers 100- and 102 which is radially lesser in extent than the sectors 106 serves to admit a card element between the rollers before the card element is engaged and driven in the direction of arrow 104, i.e. in the forward direction. The low spots on the rollers 100 and 102 thus allows completion of the lateral movement of the card element.
In order to admit the high-spot rollers 100 and 102 into operative engagement, the guide plates 92 and 94 are fashioned with similar apertures 108 as is best shown in FIGS. 4, 8 and 9.
In one specific embodiment of the invention wherein production of a business machine card five inches high and having a card element insert eight inches wide was contemplated, the radius of the high-spot sector has been usefully selected to be 5/21r inches and the high-spot sector was advantageously selected to take an angular extent of degrees. Correspondingly, the length of the high-spot roller was selected to be two-thirds of the width of the card element insert or /3 inches. It is important to point out that the longitudinal dimension of the highspot roll and the angular extent of the high-spot sector are independent of the speeds of the lateral and forward drives although relatively dependent upon each other.
Turning to a consideration of FIGS. 1 and for a description of the forward drive 26, a pair of vertically spaced card element pickup rollers 110 and 112- are shown positioned close to the high-spot rollers 100- and 102 in order to engage and control a card element such as the card element 88 immediately upon the same being released by the high-spot sectors of the high-spot rollers. Advantageously, the pickup rollers 110 and 112 have the plane of their vertically aligned axes spaced processwise downstream from the corresponding plane of the axes of rollers 100 and 102 by the peripheral extent of the highspot sectors 106. By placing the pickup rollers 110 and 112 close to the high-spot rollers, skewing of the card elements, upon frictional engagement of trailing and leading card elements in a sequential pair, is prevented. In addition to the pickup rollers 110 and 112, the forward drive 26 includes a cooperating pair of powered laminating rollers 114, supplementary drive rollers 116 and a powered takeup roller or reel 118.
The laminating rollers 114 serve to combine the discrete card element such as the card element 88, the relatively wide webs 36 and 38 of non-magnetic material, the relatively narrow webs 52 and 54 of non-magnetic material and the relatively narrow webs 44 and 46 of magnetic material into a composite sheet or laminate from which business machine cards may be severed. In order that the laminate thus formed may have the character of perma nence, a suitable adhesive is advantageously applied to the confronting surfaces of webs 36 and 38 when considering the final product. For this purpose, upper and lower spray arrangements 120 and 122 are situated to dispense a suitable layer of adhesive onto the webs 36 and 38, as is shown in FIG. 10. These spray arrangements comprise elongated tubular elements fashioned with a horizontal line of spray orifices facing the respective web; and as will be seen in FIG. 1, the spray arrangements 120' and 122 are supplied by feed lines 124.
A series of idler rollers is employed in directing the various webs between the laminating rollers 114. An idler roller 126 is used with web 36, an idler roller 128- engages the web 38, an idler roller 130 directs the magnetic webs 44 and 46, and an idler roller 132 engages the comparatively narrow, non-magnetic webs 52 and 54. In addition, heat is advantageously employed in curing the adhesive applied in laminating the several webs. Accordingly, a heater unit 134 of the induction or other suitable type is situated flowpathwise subsequent to the laminating rollers 114 and generally between the rollers 114 and the supplementary drive rollers 116.
The finished web or continuous laminate which emerges from the supplementary drive rollers 116 is indicated by the reference numeral 136; and this element may be wound on the reel 118 or it may be directed to cutters for severing it into a plurality of individual business machine cards. However, it is advantageous to maintain the individual cards in interconnected form for subsequent printing and other operations while at the same time facilitating the separation of the individual cards from the remainder of the web. Accordingly, a pair of processing rollers 138 and 140 are located generally between the drive rollers 116 and the reel 118. If desired, one or more idler rollers 142 may be employed in controlling the path and direction of movement of the finished web 136.
Continuing with reference to FIG. 11 for a detailed description of the processing rollers 138 and 140', the upper roller 138 is shown to comprise a perforating and slitting roller made up of a cylindrical barrel or drum 144, a series of radially outwardly extending, tubular punches 146 located around the periphery of each end of the drum, and a pattern of peripherally aligned knives 148 and axially aligned knives 150. The punches 146 serve to perforate parallel lines of sprocket holes 152 in the web 136, and the knives 148 develop scores lines or slits 1'54 parallel to the sprocket holes 152. Cooperatively, the knives 150 develop score lines or slits 156 and 158 across the width of the web 136 at intervals corresponding to the height of the final business machine card. The score lines or slits 156 and 158 are closely spaced apart and are positioned to contain the confronting edges of the card elements therebetween. Thus, in the event that slight skewing of the card elements results in gaps or in overlapping, these minor malpositions will reside in the discarded material lying between the slits or score lines 156 and 158. Cooperatively, the longitudinal slits or score lines 154 insure even distribution of the inner ply material at the lateral edges of the finished card.
In order to cooperate with the roller 138 in developing the sprocket holes and slits or score lines in the finished web, the roller 140' is arranged to comprise a cylindrical barrel or drum 160 that is surfaced with a material which is soft enough to avoid seriously damaging the slitting knives 148 and 150 as they pass through the material of the web 136 and which is, at the same time, resilient enough to urge the web into incising engagement with the slitting knives. Additionally, the drum 140 is provided with two series of peripheral recesses 162; and each series of the recesses 162 is aligned radially and registered peripherally with a series of the punches 146 in roller 138. Moreover, the material of the opposite ends of the roller 140 in the vicinity of the recesses 162 is selected to be stiff enough to support the material of the web 136 against the entering edges of the punches 146 whereby to make clean sharp apertures in the web. This latter surfacing material may be but need not necessarily be the same material as that which is provided on the drum 138 in cooperative position with the slitting knives 148 and 150. As will be recognized, the slits or score lines 154, 156 and 158 readily permit a business machine card to be burst from the processed web 136- while the sprocket holes 152 permit the web to be driven through a printer at high speed and in accurate registration.
In the forward drive 26, the pickup rollers and 112, the laminating rollers 114, the supplementary drive rollers 116 and the processing rollers 138 and are all powered in coordinated fashion by means well known in the machine art, as for example by means of a system of intermeshing gears, not shown. The power train for lateral drive 26 is advantageously synchronized with the power train for lateral drive 22 as by means of suitable gearing providing a mechanical interlock.
For purposes of affording a more complete understanding of the invention, it is advantageous now to provide a functional description of the mode in which the described machine operates. With the various supply rolls loaded for operation and with the webs that emanate from the supply rolls trained through the various drive arrangements, it will be apparent that the webs 36 and 38.are delivered toward the laminating station comprising the rolls 114 sandwiching a space therebetween, the comparatively narrow webs or strips of metal and paper being cooperatively drawn into alignment between the edges of the webs of outer ply material. At the same time, the lateral drive 22 delivers a sequence of discrete card elements into the medial space sandwiched by the webs of outer ply material, these discrete card elements comprising segments cut from the web 30; These card elements are delivered with their longitudinal axes, i.e. their axes of physical property orientation, aligned generally perpendicular to or at right angles with the longitudinal axes of the webs 36 and 38 of outer ply material. To-state in another way, a web of interconnected, substantially isotropic business machine cards is produced by aligning the longitudinal axis of the material of web 30 perpendicular to the longitudinal axes of the material of webs 36 and 7 38. The finished web 136 is processed by the rollers 138 and 140 to produce a web that is readily printed and that may be severed transversely at uniform longitudinal intervals to produce individual cards.
Considering FIGS. 9, it will be appreciated that the card elements 88 and 90' which have been cut from the web are delivered toward the transverse bar 78 by the rolls 80 in the final feed roller unit 74, overlapping of the subsequent card over the leading, halted card 88 being achieved by the depressing action of lobes 86 of the roller elements 82. It will also be appreciated that, when the leading card 88 engages the transverse bar 78 to have its movement in the direction of arrow 64 halted, the high-spot sectors 106 of rollers and 102 will be rotated to initiate engagement with that leading card element so as to accelerate it in the direction of arrow 104 as is shown in FIG. 8. While this transfer in the direction of movement of the leading card element is taking place, the trailing card 90 will start to overlap the leading card 88 as is indicated in FIG. 6. Skewing of the two cards as a result of frictional engagement is substantially eliminated because, as the rollers 100 and 102 advance the card 88 in the direction of arrow 104, the pickup rollers engage and control the forward movement of that card upon the high-spot sectors 106 passing out of engagement therewith. Furthermore, the motion of the trailing card 90 is controlled through its engagement by the rolls 80 in final feed unit 74. Overlapping of the leading and trailing card elements while the high-spot sectors 106 are rotated out of engagement is illustrated in FIG. 9. A slightly subsequent configuration of the advancing card elements 88 and 90 is shown in FIG. 7 where the leading card element 88 has passed completely from between the rollers 100 and 102 and where the card element 90 is shown immediately before its engagement with the transverse bar or stop 78.
Turning to a consideration of FIGS. ll13, the finished web 136 comprises leading and trailing card elements 88 and 90 cut from the material of web 30; and these card elements are embedded between the webs 36 and 38 of outer ply material. Coplanar with the material of web 30 and immediately laterally outwardly thereof is the magnetic material of the comparatively narrow webs 44 and 46; and laterally outwardly of the magnetic material is the non-magnetic material of the comparatively narrow webs 52 and 54. It is to be recognized that the material of web 30, in the finished card is situated with its axis of physical property orientation disposed at an angle, specifically at a right angle, relative to the axes of physical property orientation of the material of webs 36 and 38. Thus, the finished card is substantially isotropic in character, having a stable flatness and other resultant desirable properties.
The specific example herein shown and described is to be considered as being primarily illustrative. Various changes beyond those described will, no doubt, occur to those skilled in the art; and such changes are to be understood as forming a part of this invention insofar as they fall within the spirit and scope of the appended claims.
The invention is claimed as follows:
1. A magnetically actuatable business machine card of stable flatness comprising: an inner ply of non-magnetic material; a pair of outer plies of non-magnetic material symmetrically disposed about said inner ply in laminated relationship therewith, said outer plies being situated with their axes of grain orientation located at an angle with the axis of grain orientation of said inner ply, and said outer plies having a greater transverse dimension than said inner ply whereby to define an opening at one edge of said inner ply; and a strip of magnetic material in said opening.
2. A business machine card according to claim 1 wherein said angle is a right angle.
3. A laminous, magnetically actuatable business machine card of substantially uniform thickness and of stable flatness, comprising: a central composite sheet; and a pair of outer sheets of non-magnetic material symmetrically disposed above and below said composite sheet in laminated relatonship therewith, each of said pair of outer sheets including a longitudinal axis of grain orientation and having substantially the same transverse dimension, said composite sheet including an intermediate card element of non-magnetic material having a longitudinal axis of grain orientation disposed at an angle with the longitudinal axes of grain orientation of said outer sheets whereby to provide a substantially isotropic business machine card, said card element further having opposite edges along its said longitudinal axis being recessed with respect to the transverse dimension of said outer sheets whereby to define spaces between said outer sheets adjacent said opposite edges, and said composite sheet additionally including a pair of relatively narrow strips of magnetic material, each of said strips being substantially in the plane of said card element and extending substantially immediately laterally outwardly of one of said edges whereby substantially to fill one of said spaces.
4. A laminous, magnetically actuatable business machine card according to claim 3 wherein said angle is a right angle.
5. A laminous, magnetically actuatable business ma chine card according to claim 3 and which further includes adhesive bonding means between said outer sheets and said composite sheet for connecting the same into a unitary structure.
6. As an article of manufacture, an elongated web of a plurality of separable, interconnected, substantially isotropic business machine cards, said elongated web comprising: a central web; a pair of outer laminae of nonmagnetic material disposed above and below said central web in laminated relationship therewith, each of said pair of outer laminae including a longitudinal axis of grain orientation, said central web including a relatively wide nonmagnetic central length having a longitudinal axis of grain orientation disposed at an angle with the longitudinal axes of grain orientation of said outer laminae whereby to provide a plurality of substantially isotropic business machine cards, said central web further including a pair of relatively narrow non-magnetic outer lengths, each of said outer lengths being spaced laterally from said central length at an opposite side thereof, said central web additionally including a relatively narrow magnetic length disposed between said central length and each of said outer lengths and being substantially in the plane of said central length; and adhesive bonding means between said outer laminae and said central web for connecting the same into a un1tary structure.
7. As an article of manufacture, an elongated web according to claim 6 wherein said angle is a right angle.
8. As an article of manufacture, an elongated web according to claim 6 and which further includes lines of weakness intermediate the side portions of said elongated web, said lines of weakness being arranged to define the edges of business machine cards and said lines being rupturable whereby to permit separation of said cards from saidelongated web, certain of said lines of weakness traversing said relatively narrow magnetic lengths whereby to include magnetic edge portions in each of said business machine cards.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,041,880 5/1936 Valtat 161-60 2,997,417 8/ 1961 Dirks 156-227 3,455,770 7/1'969 Dahl 161-36 WILLIAM A. POWELL, Primary Examiner US. 01. Xn.