US 3586632 A
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United States Patent Oflice Patented June 22, 1971 US. Cl. 252-117 6 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE This disclosure relates to fatty acid soap-based cleaning preparations containing an N,N dimethyl higher alkyl sulfonamide as a curd dispersant.
The present invention relates to cleaning preparations, particularly, laundry and toilet soap compositions, containing watersoluble alkali metal soaps which are not adversely affected by their usual tendency to form insoluble lime soaps in hard water.
It is well known that soaps are effective cleansers in soft water, but in areas where only hard water is available, insoluble fatty acid salts commonly called lime soaps, precipitate during rinsing. These lime soaps form sticky curds which can readily be observed floating in the aqueous solution, and adhere to the clothes giving it a dingy appearance and to the walls of the tub as a ring. Consequently, the detergent art has replaced soaps with synthetic surfactants plus phosphate builders. It has been found that the widespread use of phosphate builders may introduce serious levels of phosphate nutrient into sewage and provides for rampant algae growth in rivers and lakes.
Accordingly, it is a primary object of this invention to provide a laundry soap product which performs well in all types of water and which introduces no plant nutrients into sewage efiluent.
Another object of this invention is to provide a soap based laundry product which functions well in hard water to provide good detergency and leaves clothes with a soft feel.
Other objects will be apparent from the following description. It has now been found that soap based clean ing compositions substantially free of phosphates and containing a minor amount of dimethyl higher alkyl sulfonamide as a curd dispersant functions well in soft and hard water with many advantages.
The sulfonamides employed in this invention are the dimethyl higher alkyl sulfonamides and may be represented by the formula:
(lit RVVSOZN/ wherein R is a higher alkyl group containing 8 to 18 carbon atoms and preferably 12 to 18 carbon atoms. The R substituent is preferably derived from paraffin hydrocarbons, polymers of mono-olefins, long chain fatty materials derived from coconut oil, tallow, myristic acid, lauric acid, stearic acid, and the like including mixtures thereof. Specific examples of sulfonamides are tetradecane or myristyl dimethyl sulfonamide, dodecane or lauryl dimethyl sulfonamide, octadecane or stearyl dimethyl sulfonamide, mixed saturated hydrocarbons of 12-18 carbons dimethyl sulfonamide, and the like. In the present invention, these polar nonionic compounds possess excellent curd dispersing properties and foam stabilizing properties with excellent sebum solubilizing power in spite of their relatively low solubility in aqueous solution.
These sulfonamide derivatives may be prepared in any suitable manner and numerous processes for their production are known in the art. A preferred sulfonamide material utilizes aliphatic paraffin cuts of about 10-18 carbons which can easily be prepared industrially, for example in petroleum fractions. The paraffin fraction is treated with sulfur dioxide and chlorine in the presence of ultra-violet light to form the sulfonyl chlorides, followed by treatment with dimethyl amine to form the corresponding higher alkyl dimethyl sulfonamides. The sulfonamides prepared by such known commercial methods are believed to consist of 90% monosubstituted and with usually a minor amount such as 10% disubstituted alkyl dimethyl sulfonamides. The location of these functional groups is not precisely known but is situated at random along the hydrophobe chain and the mixture functions well herein. Other ratios of substitution and other distributions of subslituent position are possible with differing methods of preparation and lead to satisfactory products also.
The novel compositions of the instant invention contain as the active cleansing ingredient a water-soluble fatty acid soap (including mixtures of fatty acid soaps). The water soluble soaps such as sodium, potassium, and other suitable alkali metal or ammonium soaps may be prepared from tallow, hydrogenated tallow, coconut oil and hydrogenated coconut oil, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, corn oil, olive oil, palm oil, peanut oil, and the like in the usual manner. These soaps usually comprise the water-soluble salts of higher fatty acids of about 12 to 18 carbon atoms. It is preferred to use the sodium soaps, particularly containing at least about 50% of saturated soaps and that the soap ingredient constitutes at least 50% by weight of the solid materials.
A minor amount of the higher alkyl dimethyl sulfonamide, generally less than about 20%, e.g. about 5-15% by weight of the solid content, is effective in both preventing the formation of calcium and magnesium lime soaps and in redispersing such lime soap curds after they have formed when fatty acid soaps are dissolved in hard water. This unusual effect is clearly evident despite the low solubility of said sulfonamides in aqueous solutions. Generally, the proportion by weight of the active soap ingredient (on an anhydrous basis) to the sulfonamide curd dispersant should be from about 100:1 to 3:1 and preferably 20:1 to 3:1. The optimum amount of curd dispersant will vary with the specific soap and sulfonamide utilized.
The sulfonamide may be incorporated with the active soap ingredient at any convenient point during the manu facturing process. More specifically, the sulfonamide may be milled into soap chips and formed into bars; or introduced into an aqueous mixture of the soap and subsequently dried in the preparation of a particulate, powdered, or beaded product; or dissolved in suitable solvents in the manufacture of a liquid laundry product. The physical properties of these sulfonamides such as their liquid nature at room temperature and their foam stabilization properties make them useful in a variety of cleaning compositions inclusive of shampoos, bubble baths, dish washing liquid and powdered laundry products soap bars, etc.
The instant laundry product is essentially free of phosphate, commonly used in the prior art. In lieu of said phosphates, alkaline salt builders such as sodium carbonate and/or sodium silicate may be utilized when desired. The absence of phosphates has many advantages. The sewage effluent does not contribute plant nutrient phosphates conducive to algae growth and the contamination of surrounding waters. Also, the eflluent is completely bio-degradable, thereby eliminating other contamination. Furthermore, the instant soap containing compositions exhibit particularly good sebum removal, leaving clothes clean and soft, without the use of anti-redeposition agents commonly needed in the prior art.
Various adjuvant materials may be added to these laundry compositions such as small amounts of viscosity builders and conditioning agents inclusive of gums and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, optical brighteners, bleaches, germicides, fungicides, bactericides, colorants, perfumes, etc., which do not interfere with the cleaning properties of the formulation.
The following examples are additionally illustrative of the nature of the present invention and it will be understood that the invention is not limited thereto. All parts are by weight unless otherwise indicated.
EXAMPLE 1 A cleaning composition is prepared by mixing 90% dry soap chips containing a sodium salt of 80% tallow fatty acids and cocyl (coconut oil) fatty acids with 10% C dimethyl sulfonamide. The sulfonamide was prepared in known manner as described from paraffin hydrocarbons comprising a mixture of 1018 carbons and averaging 14 carbon atoms.
This composition is dissolved in deionized Water at a A typical laundry soap powder exhibiting good performance and curd-dispersing power in hard water is the following:
Percent Sodium tallow fatty acid soap 60 Myristyl dimethyl sulfonamide 10 Sodium silicate Sodium carbonate 15 EXAMPLE 3 Example 1 is repeated employing the following sulfonamides in the indicated amounts:
Percent (A) Myristyl dimethyl sulfonamide 5 (B) Myristyl dimethyl sulfonamide l (C) Stearyl dimethyl sulfonamide 8 (D) Lauryl dimethyl sulfonamide 15 (E) Cetyl dimethyl sulfonamide 5 Similar products are obtained.
Although the present invention has been described with reference to particular embodiments and examples, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that variations and modifications of this invention can be made and that equivalents can be substituted therefor without departing from the principles and true spirit of the invention.
1. A soap-based cleaning preparation consisting essentially of a water-soluble alkali metal or ammonium higher fatty acid soap or mixture thereof and a minor and effective amount of a higher alkyl dimethyl sulfonamide wherein the alkyl group contains from 8-18 carbons as a lime soap curd dispersant therefor in hard water.
2. A soap product in accordance with claim 1, which is essentially free of phosphates.
3. A soap product in accordance with claim 2, wherein the sulfonamide ingredient constitutes about 5l5% by weight of the solid content.
4. A soap product in accordance with claim 2, wherein the ratio of soap content to sulfonamide content is from about 20: l to 3:1 by weight.
5. A soap product in accordance with claim 2, wherein the soap ingredient constitutes at least by weight of the total solid content.
6. A soap product in accordance with claim 2, wherein the higher alkyl group of said sulfonamide has 12 to 18 carbon atoms.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,002,613 5/1935 Orthner et a1. 252355 2,197,851 4/1940 Dietrich 260-556 2,428,317 9/1947 Moran 252 121 2,692,237 10/1'954 Krems 252137 2,721,847 10/1955 Gebhardt et al 252152 2,983,684 5/1961 Langdon 252l17 FOREIGN PATENTS 413,457 4/1933 Great Britain 252-117 LEON D. ROSDOL, Primary Examiner W. E. SCHULZ, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R.