US 3589852 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent  Inventor William L. Buchanan Sparta, NJ.  Appl. No. 837,230  Filed June 27, 1969  Patented June 29, 1971  Assignee Esso Research and Engineering Company  SWIRL GAS BURNER 9 Claims, 8 Drawing Figs.
 US. Cl 431/158, 431/175, 431/182, 431/353  Int. Cl F23r 1/00  Field of Search 431/158, l73,175,182,183,351, 353
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,722,253 7/1929 Sherwood .l 431/183X 3,244,220 4/l966 Kloecker 431/175X Primary ExaminerCarroll B. Dority, Jr. Artorney.\Manahan and Wright and William O. Heilman ABSTRACT: A vortex gas burner having a relatively small and constant diameter inlet air swirl chamber corresponding in diameter to the diameter of the inlet orifice connecting the swirl chamber to the combustion chamber. Gaseous fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber at injection points as close to the divergent section of the burner as possible by the use of a delta-shaped ring burner. The unique geometry of the ring burner achieves this feature along with minimum exposure to high temperatures present in the combustion chamber by being out of the direct line of radiation.
sum 2 OF 3 INVENTOR ATTORNEY M44 MM A .BUCA/A/VI/V SWIRL GAS BURNER DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION In general, the present invention relates to an improved swirl or vortex-type burner which produces a blue flame with a minimum of excess air wherein flame lengths and noise levels are substantially better than other equivalent burners. The present invention particularly relates to an improved burner construction yielding increased heat release per unit volume of combustion space and having a high degree of stability producing a minimum of pulsation noise. The invention also more particularly relates to an improved delta-shaped ring gas injection element wherein gaseous fuel is introduced as close to the divergent section of the burner as possible. Further more, the burner is positioned outside of the direct line of radiation.
In accordance with the present invention, a ceramic lined cylindrical combustion chamber is provided with an air induction chamber at one end thereof for the introduction of swirling air and a gaseous fuel mixture. The air induction chamber is of substantially uniform cylindrical diameter corresponding in diameter to the inlet orifice to the combustion chamber and is provided with a plurality of tangential nozzles about its periphery. Air, under pressure, is forced into the air induction chamber surrounding these tangential nozzles and tangentially enters the swirl sleeve to create an internal air vortex. Upon movement of the vortex into the combustion chamber, its expansion into the larger diameter of the combustion chamber is regulated by the provision of an angular fillet at the base of the combustion chamber. The included angle of the fillet is substantially the same as the divergent angle of the gaseous fuel from the delta fuel ring. In this way the flame stability is increased and the swirling motion of the air entering the combustion chamber is prolonged. The injection of fuel into the combustion chamber at a divergent angle corresponding to the angle of divergence of the fillet places the fuel at a point where it can burn immediately to produce an optimum blue flame" condition. This aspect of creating an environment of optimum combustion has produced a burner of exceedingly high heat release per unit volume of combustion space wherein the flame is highly stable and therefore produces a minimum of noise. Noise abatement is of considerable importance in burners having a capacity in the order of 50 million BTUs heat release per hour.
The present invention may be readily understood by reference to the drawings illustrating one embodiment of the same.
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of the burner showingthe door open.
FIG. 2 is a plan view with the door open in dot-dash position.
FIG. 3 is a vertical section of the embodiment.
FIG. 4 is a section on broken lines 4-4 of FIG. 3.
FIG. 5 is a section on lines 5-5 of FIG. 3.
FIG. 6 is an enlarged fragmentary section on lines 6-6 of FIG. 3.
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary section on lines 7-7 of FIG. 6.
FIG. 8 is a fragmentary section on lines 8-8 of FIG. 6.
Referring specifically to FIG. I, a typical burner 10 is shown having a hinged backplate 1, upon which is mounted a swirl sleeve 2 containing tangential air intake nozzles 3. A deltashaped ring burner 4 is also suitably mounted ahead of the swirl sleeve 2. Ring burner 4 is characterized by a plurality of apertures or gasjets 5 around the periphery ofthe ring. Burner 10 is characterized by having an air plenum chamber 6 which is supplied by pressurized air introduced through air conduit FIG. 2 is a top plan view of burner 10 showing it suitably positioned in furnace wall 8 with the hinge backplate door open in dot-dash position. Gas inlet conduits 12 and I3 are shown to supply fuel to the delta ring burner 4.
. through air conduit 7 into plenum chamber 6, through tangential air intake nozzles 3 and into swirl chamber or sleeve 2. The vortex mixes with gaseous fuel introduced through jets 5 of burner 4 and then passes into the combustion chamber 20 of burner 10.
The rear area or base of combustion chamber 20 comprises an annular fillet 14 in refractory material 9. As pointed out heretofore this fillet 14 is a frustoconical surface and surrounds the air and fuel inlets.
The rear secton of the refractory material 9 is beveled to an angle of about 45 to permit the seating of the delta burner ring in a manner such that It is out of the direct line of radiation thus materially increasing its life. Thus, the rear area 14a is a truncated cone surface which is substantially complimentary with a truncated cone surface of the delta burner 4 mounted on the hinged backplate 1. Air passageways 16 are provided to permit the flow of air from chamber 6 directly into combustion chamber 20 along the outside surface of delta burner ring 4 thus cooling the same.
- Referring specifically to FIG. 4, pressurized air flows through inlet air conduit 7 into the plenum chamber 6. This air flows through tangential nozzles 3 into the swirl chamber or sleeve 2. Gas inlets 12 and 13 to burner ring 4 are shown. Holes or openings 15 are provided about the periphery of chamber 6 so as to permit air to flow into passageway 16 and into the combustion chamber and thus provide cooling air about the burner ring 4. (See FIG. 6.) A seal 19 is provided so as to prevent air from flowing other than through the passageway 16. FIG. 5 is a view of lineS-S of FIG. 3 and shows spacer bars 18 positioned in passageway 16. Mounting hooks 17 are provided for affixing the insulation 9. FIG. 7 shows in some detail the spacer bars and the mounting hooks, while FIG; 8 illustrates in detail the jet nozzles in the delta burner ring.
1. An improved vortex-type burner for use in the burning of gaseous fuel comprising, in combination, an air swirl chamber for producing an airflow; a cylindrical combustion chamber lined with refractory material being disposed in operable relation relative to said air. swirl chamber, said combustion chamber having an outlet at one end for discharging combustion products therefrom, and an inlet having a first diameter formed at the end of said combustion chamber opposite the outlet end for the induction of gaseous fuel and said airflow; a first divergent portion of said combustion chamber having a second diameter greater than said first diameter and being situated adjacent said inlet so that said airflow has maximum expansion in the area of said combustion chamber defined by said first portion; means for introducing fuel into said combustion chamber and containing ports arrayed in annular fashion substantially adjacent the periphery of said inlet for exhausting the fuel directly into said first portion of said combustion chamber; the inlet end of said combustion chamber including a second divergent portion means for seating the fuel introducing means out of the direct line of radiation produced as a result of combustion.
2. An improved vortex-type burner according to claim 1 wherein said combustion chamber includes a third convergent portion located adjacent said outlet end. 7
3. An improved vortex-type burner for use in the burning of gaseous fuel comprising, in combination, a refractory-lined combustion chamber, said combustion chamber having a circular outlet at one end for discharging combustion products therefrom and a circular inlet of a first diameter at the end of said chamber opposite said outlet end for the induction of gaseous fuel and an airflow, air induction means in operable communication with said combustion chamber circular inlet for introducing a swirling annulus of air into said combustion chamber at said circular inlet, said combustion chamber including annular angular fillet means adjacent said circular inlet, said fillet means including a first internal exposed wall sloping outwardly from said inlet into said combustion to define an area within said combustion chamber adjacent to and having a diameter greater than that of said circular inlet to provide for turbulent expansion of said swirling annulus of air, fuel introduction means mounted concentrically with said circular inlet for receiving and exhausting gaseous fuel into said area of turbulent expansion, said fuel introduction means including an annular member having a pair of adjacent walls disposed to form an apex formed with orifice means substantially located at the periphery of said circular inlet, said fillet means further including on its opposite side from said internal wall a rear wall extending rearwardly outward from the periphery of said circular inlet at a slope complemental to that of an adjacent one of said walls of said fuel introduction means such that said fuel introduction means is maintained out of the direct line of radiation produced as a result of combustion, whereby said fuel is exhausted into said combustion chamber as close as possible to said area having maximum airflow turbulence.
4. An improved vortex-type burner according to claim 3 wherein said fuel introducing means comprises a burner ring having a delta configuration.
5. An improved vortex-type burner according to claim 3 wherein said air induction means includes a cylindrical member having a substantially uniform diameter that substantially corresponds to said first diameter.
6. An improved vortex-type burner according to claim 5 wherein said cylindrical member is provided with a plurality of nozzles tangentially arranged about the periphery thereof for producing an inlet for the air.
7. An improved vortex-type burner according to claim 3 wherein said rear wall comprises a continuous annular outer surface formed at the inlet end of said combustion chamber, said rear wall being spaced in predetermined distance from said fuel introduction means thereby to define an annular passageway for the entry of said swirling annulus of air into said combustion chamber.
8. An improved vortex-type burner according to claim 7 wherein spacing members are provided between said rear wall and said fuel introduction means for locating the latter in spaced relation relative to said rear wall.
9 An improved vortex-type burner according to claim 3 wherein said combustion chamber is cylindrical in shape and has a longitudinal axis, said first exposed internal wall being divergent relative to said longitudinal axis of said combustion chamber and said combustion chamber including a second exposed internal wall located between said first exposed internal wall and said outlet end converging toward said longitudinal axis as the second exposed internal wall extends away from said inlet end.