US 3592473 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Z31 A ig United States Patent  Inventors George .lemakoff Loudonville;
Michael J. Moure, Schenectady; Donald B. Sorensen, Scotia, all oi, N.Y.
Dec. 5, 1969 July 13, 1971 General Electric Company [2| 1 Appl. No.  Filed  Patented [5A] DICE GAME HAVING TRULY RANDOM NUMBER GENERATION 4 Claims, 3 Drawing Figs.  US. Cl. 273/138 A [51 Int. Cl A63f 5/04,
A63b 71/06  Field ofSearch 273/138 A  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS $5,439,281 4/1969 McGuire et al 273/138 A X FOR DIE X 3.4593127 8/ l 969 Rhodes OTHER REFERENCES Spots Before Your Eyes" in POPULAR ELECTRONICS, September l967, pages 29 34. 273-138 A UX Primary ExaminerAnton O. Oechsle Assistant Examiner-Amold W. Kramer Attorneys-Richard R. Brainard, Paul A. Frank, Charles T. Watts, Leo l. MaLossi, Frank L. Neuhauser, Oscar B. Waddell and Joseph B. Forman ABSTRACT: A pair of electronic oscillator/feedback shift register/decoding circuitry combinations are used for a game of dice. Each of these combinations is arranged to randomly generate numbers in six states (1-6) and to independently display the numbers so generated by each combination upon actuation by the player, as by pressing a button. The states prevailing in the separate feedback shift registers upon cessation of pulse input are decoded and displayed to represent the results of a dice throw by the player.
FOR DIE Y PATENTEU JUU3|97I 3 SHEET 1 BF 2 43 3 9 38 44 42 O C C I O C 1/ n i t w :L
SWITCH-CONTROLLED 3/ 32 SWITCH-CONTROLLED REGENERATIVE K REGENERATIVE OSCILLATOR OSCILLATOR FEEDBACK FEEDBACK SHIFT 33 34 SH'FT REGISTER R REGISTER DECODING DECODING DRIvERs 36 37 DRIVERS DIE x DIE Y 6/ r 1% z H M H M /N VE N TORSJ GEORGE JERMKOFE MICHAEL J. MOORE, DONALD B. SORENSEN THE IR A T TORNE Y PATENTEU Jun 3 IQTI SHED 2 UF 2 x MB 06k IV VE N T0195 GEORGE JERNA/(OFE MICHAEL J. MOORE, 00 ALD B. 50/? /vs/v THE ll? A T TORNE Y DICE GAME HAVING TRULY RANDOM NUMBER GENERATION BACKGROUND OF THE lNVENTlON The generation of numbers with varying degrees of randomness has been accomplished in the prior art with mechanical devices, electromechanical devices and by the use of elec tronic means for generating random signals. Thus, for example, US. Pat. No. 2,012,544-ONeil, and U.S. Pat. No. 3,357,703Hurlcy, are examples of electromechanical apparatus for random generation for games of chance and U8. Pat. No. 3,439,281-McGuire et al., describes electronic means for generating random signals as part of a chance amusement device. The latter patent obviates difficulties encountered with mechanical and electromechanical systems, which require periodic servicing, are subject to wear by friction between moving elements and/or operate at relatively high voltages and currents. The McGuire et al. patent is, however, a very complicated electronic arrangement for accom plishing random number generation.
An electronic dice game purported to be truly random and to operate with true dice odds is disclosed in the article Spots Before Your Eyes in Popular Electronics (Sept. 1967, pages 29-34). A single 3kHz. oscillator is employed to drive a first counter, which has a dual output (a) an output to a decoder/driver that in turn produces die combinations on first display means and (b) a divide-by-six output to a second counter that in turn producesdie combinations on second dis play means. A special pulse circuit is provided so that the counters are automatically reset the instant the operating pushbutton is depressed.
Two features of the Popular Electronics device prevent 'truly random operation with true dice odds; namely, the
slave" relationship between the first counter and the second counter and the automatic reset to a preset starting state condition. With respect to the slave relationship in this device a run through six states on the first counter automatically moves the second counter through a single state, because of this fixed relationship between the operation of the two counters. With respect to the reset feature, this device upon being activated always starts from reset fixed states. These characteristics, particularly in view of the relatively low (500 Hz.) frequency of operation for the slave" die, offer the opportunity for influence of the dice odds by a practiced operator.
The object of the instant invention is to provide a reliable, completely random electronic device for independently generating die combinations on a simulated pair of dice, which device is greatly simplified in design.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Two separate electronic regenerative oscillator/counter/decoding and indicia sequences are operable by a single actuating mechanism to simulate conventional dice play or, if desired, are actuable by separate actuating mechanisms for a variation of the conventional dice game. The oscillators operate with slightly different, but very high, frequencies.
BRlEF DESCRlPTlON OF THE DRAWING The exact nature of this invention as well as the objects and advantages thereof will be readily apparent from consideration of the following specification relating to the annexed drawing in which:
FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating the overall system of random generation and display;
P16. 2 is a logic diagram of the system shown in FIG. 1, and
FIG. 3 is a view (partially cut away) showing the arrangement of lamps and their wiring for each die face.
DESCRlPTlON OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT As is shown in FIG. 1 high frequency electronic oscillators 31 and 32 (arranged to be actuated either independently or simultaneously) are electrically connected to feed fixedfrequency pulses generated thereby to feedback shift registers 33 and 34, respectively. These feedback shift registers are cycled through six states in a fixed sequence by these pulses inputs completely independently of each other. As each of the six states in the feedback shift registers 33 and 34 is attained each succeeding state is detected and decoded by the decoding drivers 36 and 37, respectively.
Decoding drivers 36, 37 are connected to a common power source and to a common ground and depending on the states prevailing in their respective feedback shift registers, each decoder driver permits 1, 2, 3,4,5 or 6 lamps of dies X and Y,
respectively, to receive electrical power to light and thereby indicate the particular die combinations represented by the states prevailing at that instant in registers 33, 34.
The lamps are arranged in each set (FIG. 3) so that when any given combination is lit it appears as such a combination would appear on one face ofa conventional die e.g. a showing of5" would light lamps H, P, K, M and L. Of course, as long as pulses are fed from the oscillators 31, 32 to the feedback shift registers 33, 34 the cycling of register states and lit lamp combinations proceeds much more rapidly than the eye can discretely detect. The frequency of each oscillator is at least 100,000 cycles per second. Preferably 1 MHz. regeneration oscillators are used for oscillators 31, 32. The 1 MHz. designation is nominal, because these oscillators do not (and must not) in fact issue pulses at exactly the same frequency due to component tolerances. Even though actuated at the same instant and nominally rated at the same frequency oscillators 31, 32 run completely independent of each other, each cycling the register to which it is connected through the six states approximately 165,000 times per second.
When the operator releases pushbutton 38 to open switch 39, which controls both oscillators 31, 32, the oscillators stop and each register stops counting. The state reflected in each register in response to entry of the last pulse into each respective register will be indicated by lighting of the proper lights, which will have been provided with power from the common power source 40 (e.g. battery or +5v DC source) by the voltage output of decoder drivers 36, 37. These lights reflecting dice combinations remain lit until the states of both registers are changed by starting up the oscillators once more.
Alternatively buttons 41, 42 actuating the switches 43, 44 (and oscillators 31, 32), respectively, may be separately depressed. In such a situation a single actuated oscillator/decoder driver/indicator combination may, for example, be cycled through the fixed sequence of states in a game in which the player seeks to match the die combination displayed on the second die in the nonactuated oscillator/decoder driver/indicator combination.
As will be developed in connection with the logic diagram of the system shown in FIG. 2 the sequence of count of die states by each register is 1-3-5-4-6-2.
FIG. 2 comprises two regenerative oscillators 31, 32 (each consisting of three inverters, e.g. single input NAND gates of the 836[Motorola] type, a 0.001 microfarad capacitor and the feedback loop); feedback shift registers 33, 34 (each consisting of three D-type 7474 [Texas Instruments] flip-flops with terminals connected as shown); decoder drivers 36, 37 (e.g. each consisting of five 0844 [Motorola] output drivers and two 0836 [Motorola] output drivers connected to the registers as shown and driving the small lamps shown in FIG. 3); both separate and common switch means, and a separate inverter connected in series between the switch means and each regenerative oscillator. The flip-flops are set and reset by 0" to 0" and 1 to 0" bilevel transitions, respectively and all output drivers are inverters providing a 0" output only when presented with a l input (and visa versa). In the device illustrated the 0" state is slightly positive as compared to 0 volts and the 1 state is equal to +5 volts.
To avoid duplication, operation of the device will be described for die X only, the operation of die Y being identical therewith and identical numbers being used for identical parts.
Thus, by way of illustration pulses leave oscillator 31 along line 46 enter register 33 and are simultaneously applied to ter minal 3 of flip-flop a, terminal 3 of flip-flop b and terminal 11 of flip-flop c as shown. Assuming a state with each of flipflops a, b and c of register 33 in the reset condition terminal 8 of flip-flop c, terminals 2 and 6 of flip-flop a and terminal 6 of flip-flop b are all in the l state. The first pulse reaching flipflop a will set flip-flop a by simultaneously changing the state of terminal 5 thereof from 0 to l and also changing the state of terminal 6 thereof from 1 to 0."
In this condition the electrical signal input to driver 47 is l and the output from driver 47 is 0 being, therefore, at about 0 volts. In this condition the +5 volts of the common power source will light lamp L (note FIG. 3) of die X. The input to driver 48 is 0" and the output therefrom is l."
lf lamps K and M of die X are to be lit there must be a 0" output for at least one of the drivers 48, 49. Because terminal 5 (flip-flop b) is in the reset state, the input to driver 49 is 0" and the output is 1"(+5v). Under these conditions although lamps K and M are connected to the common power source (+5v), there is no difference in potential across these lamps and lamps K and M of die X do not light.
The input to driver 51 is 0"; the output is 1, therefore lamps H and P are not lit. Because of the 0" state of terminal 5 of flip-flop b and the 1" state of terminal 8 of flip-flop c, only driver 53 of'the drivers 52, 53 can provide a 1" state input for driver 54. Therefore, with a 0" input to driver 54 prevailing, the output therefrom will be l whereby lamps .l and N are unlit. Thus, it may be seen that for the l-0-0 state for flip-flops 0, b and c, respectively, the die reflecting this state will display a die combination of one.
The second pulse passing along line 46 does not alter the set condition of flip-flop a (terminal 5 in the l state), but places flip-flop b in the set condition, because terminal 5 thereof will now be at "l." Flip-flop c is not affected and remains reset. Thus, register 33 is in the l-l-0 state. An analysis of driver inputs and outputs in the manner described above as set forth in the following table will show that lamps L, K and M are lit to produce a die combination of three:
TABLE I Input Output state state Lamp lit L. }K and M.
The next pulse reaching register 33 will set flipflop c (terminal 9 will be placed in the l state and terminal 8 will be in the 0" state) and the state of register 33 will become l-l-l. At the same time, therefore, the input to flip-flop a becomes reset to 0 with the outputs from terminals 5 and 6 thereof remaining at l and 0, "respectively. in state l-l-l the outputs from register 33 to decoder driver 36 cause the lighting of lamps L, K, M, H and P with the resulting die combination of five for die X as shown in the following table:
TABLE II Input Output sta state Lamp lit TABLE III Input Output state state Lamp 111;
K and M.
H and P.
The subsequently occurring states for register 33 of 0-0-l and 00-0 will produce combinations for die X of six and two,
respectively. Thereafter, the state of register 33 reverts to state l-0-0 and the sequence is repeated. The rate at which the sequence is repeated is, of course, extremely rapid being at least 166,000 times/sec. for each oscillator.
Die Y will have its lamps H, K. L, M, N and P lit to present the same numerical sequence (I-3-5-4-6-2) but at a different rate of change, because regenerative oscillators 31, 32 operate at different speeds. The difference in speed is not critical, but for practical reasons it is advantageous to select oscillators that have the same nominal rating and rely upon the difference in their actual speed of operation brought about by the slight differences in the components of the oscillators within the allowable manufacturing tolerances.
Capacitors 56 and 57 (reg. about ufd. and 0.0] ufd, respectively) prevent the entry of spurious signals to interfere with operation of the device and the inventers 58, 59 present the switch outputs to their respective oscillators in logic form. Faces 61, 62 are transparent colored plastic.
There is no need for resetting registers 33, 34, because regardless of the states of these registers existing after a previous operation of the device there is absolutely no dependence of either register on the other. For the next play the counting" proceeds from the states prevailing in the registers. This feature, of course, simplifies the circuitry, while contributing still further to the randomness of the dice game of this invention.
Modification may be made in the specific arrangement shown e.g. employing a ring counter or a binary counter without the necessity of providing a reset feature. The substitution of a different counter would, however, require different decoder-driver arrangements.
What we claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent ofthe United States is:
l. A simulated dice game for producing truly random die combinations on each die and reflecting true dice odds for each play of the dice comprising in combination:
a. a first oscillator having a frequency of electric pulse generation in excess of about 100,000 cycles per second,
b. a second oscillator having a frequency of electric pulse generation in excess of about 100,000 cycles per second, pulse generation in said first oscillator being independent of and at a different rate than pulse generation in said second oscillator,
. means electrically connected to said first and second oscillator for actuation thereof, said means for actuation being adapted for selective manual activation and deactivation,
. first means electrically connected to receive the pulse output from said first oscillator for generating changes in bilevel states in response to pulse input thereto, the changing states proceeding in a fixed repetitive sequence of six distinct states,
. second means electrically connected to receive the pulse h. first display means electrically connected to said first decoding means, said first display means being driven by said first decoding means in response to the decoding function conducted thereby to display at any instant the particular state prevailing in said first generating means, and
. second display means electrically connected to said second decoding means, said seconddisplay means being driven by said second decoding means in response to the decoding function conducted thereby to display at any instant the particular state prevailing in said second generating means.
2. The simulated dice game as recited in claim 1 wherein the first and second oscillators are regenerative oscillators that operate at frequencies of about one million cycles per second.
3. The simulated dice game as recited in claim 2 wherein each means for changing bilevel state is a feedback shift register and each decoding means comprises seven output drivers arranged to decode the six states of the register connected thereto into four display conditions taken singly or in combination to cause the display means connected thereto to sequentially reflect the prevailing states in said register, each display means comprises seven low voltage lamps, the arrangement of said output drivers being as follows:
a. the first, second, fourth and fifth drivers are individually electrically connected to four separate output terminals of said register,
b. the third and sixth drivers are electrically connectedin common to a fifth output terminal ofsaid register,
c. the output of said first driver is electrically connected to a first lamp,
d the outputs of said second and third drivers are electrically connected in common to second and third lamps arranged in parallel,
e. the output of said fourth driver is electrically connected to a fourth and fifth lamp arranged in parallel and f. the fifth, sixth and seventh drivers are interconnected with the outputs of said fifth and sixth drivers being applied in common to said seventh driver, the output of said seventh driver being electrically connected to the sixth and seventh lamps arranged in parallel.
4. The simulated dice game as recited in claim 1 wherein the means for actuation of the oscillators comprises switches for separately actuating either oscillator and a switch for simultaneously actuating both oscillators.