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Publication numberUS3593348 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 20, 1971
Filing dateDec 22, 1969
Priority dateDec 22, 1969
Publication numberUS 3593348 A, US 3593348A, US-A-3593348, US3593348 A, US3593348A
InventorsFred Toerge
Original AssigneeInt Swimming Pool Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Modular swimming pool construction
US 3593348 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

164 5/1957 Cauffielm... 52/615X 1/1962 Lucchesi...l..l.... 4/172.19

O69 7/1964 OConnelletalnm 4/l72.l9 O38 1/1967 OConnelletal...... 4/l72.19 662 2/1969 .locuzzietal. 4/172.l9 263 5/1969 Minasy.........., 4/l72.l9

i i a 3 i v Primary Examiner-Laverne D. Geiger Assistant Examiner Henry K. Artis Attorney--Hane & Baxley inventor Fred Toerge Stamford, Conn.

Appl. No. 886,876

Dec. 22, 1969 [45] Patented July 20, 1971 Assignee International Swimming Pool Corporation Deer Park, N.Y.

15 Claims, 14 Drawing Figs.

United States Patent [22] Filed (54] MODULAR SWIMMING POOL CONSTRUCTION ABSTRACT: A swimming pool, the sidewalls of which are constructed by selectively joining a plurality of modules having straight or curved sidewalls. By selectively joining such modules a great variety of different geometrical outlines of the pool area is obtainable. Each module includes in its inner and outer wall an archlike structure which transmits hydrostatic mwmma J6 .6 2 3 2 7 h79 l 11l uim w B 5 .1 m2 m m "9 N n 6 n n 1. u u d m m m m m2 n "7 n L. L o C M S m .n U I. F .l l. 2 l 0 5 5 5 .l l. 1.

pressure upon the inside wall of the module to the outside wall thereof in a manner such that the forces of pressure are substantially in balance. Thus minimal distortion of the modules is 4/172.19 obtained.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,490,272 12/1949 PATENTEUJUL20|971 3.593348 SHEET 3 UF 4 INVENTOR. ti Fae-o Toe/es: k 1 1 I I BY Hm HTTo NEr's PATENTEU JUL20 an SHEET b [IF I 4 INVENTOR. Fr: 5.0 To: Ra! BY W 4, firm R NE rs MODULAR SWIMMING POOL CONSTRUCTION The invention relates to a permanently installed swimming pool as distinguished from collapsible pools, and more particularly, to an outdoor swimming pool.

BACKGROUND There are known belowground swimming pools which are. constructed by lining a suitable excavation, usually with concrete or reinforced fiberglass. There are also known aboveground swimming pools built by assembling a wooden structure in situ, the pool area of such wooden pool structure being lined with a suitable lining, usually a liner of tough plastic material or fiberglass.

Pools lined with concrete have a tendency to crack due to alternate freezing and thawing of the surrounding soil causing heaving or shifting thereof. Wooden pools are somewhat limited as to possible shapes of the pool area; they usually have a generally rectangular outline. All types of pools as now known have in common that once they are completed it is very difficult to change the shape or size of the pool, and if possible at all, the costs are likely to be prohibitive.

THE INVENTION It is a broad object of the invention to provide a novel and improved swimming pool which can be rapidly installed in situ and is virtually crackproof.

It is also a broad object of the invention to provide a novel and improved swimming pool, the sidewalls of which are constructed by a plurality of watertightjoined modules.

A more specific object of the invention is to provide a novel and improved swimming pool, the sidewalls of which are formed by a plurality of modules detachably joined to each other. Such modular construction has the advantage that a multitude of different geometrical outlines of the pool area can be readily selected by judicially joining differently shaped modules.

Another more specific object of the invention is to provide a novel and improved swimming pool which permits subsequent change of the outline of the pool in a comparatively simple and inexpensive manner.

Still another more specific object of the invention is to provide a novel and improved swimming pool, the sidewalls of which are formed of modules made of molded and comparatively light components, yet capable of sustaining the hydrostatic pressure upon the pool walls.

It is also an object of the invention to provide a swimming pool of modular construction in which the top wall of the modules constitutes a deck and may be used to support a railmg.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The aforepointed out objects, features and advantages of the invention, and other objects, features and advantages which will be pointed out hereinafter, are obtained by constructing the sidewalls of a swimming pool from a plurality of joined modules. Each of the modules has an inner wall facing the pool area and an outer wall facing outwardly. The two walls of each module are disposed in spaced-apart relation ship, and each wall includes a well, preferably of archlike cross-sectional configuration with a flat bottom. The bottoms of the wells in each module are in abutment to transmit hydrostatic pressure acting upon the inner wall and the well therein to the outer wall and the well therein, the flat bottom of the walls constituting in effect the keystone of an arch. The inner and outer walls of each module are joined and stiffened by cross walls, each two adjacent modules preferably having one cross wall in common.


In the accompanying drawing, several preferred embodiments of the invention are shown by way of illustration and not byway of limitation.

In the drawing:

FIG. 1 is a perspective schematic view of the modular construction of a swimming pool according to the invention;

FIG. 2 is a partly broken open exploded perspective view of modular structure of the pool walls;

FIG. 3 is an elevational sectional front view of one of the modules of the pool structure;

FIG. 4 is an elevational sectional side view taken on line 4-4 of FIG. 3;

FIG. 5 is a section taken along line 5-5 of FIG. 4 on an enlarged scale;

FIG. 6 is a section taken along line 6-6 of FIG. 4 on an enlarged scale;

FIG. 7 is a sectional view of a modification of a watertight seal between two adjacent modules;

FIG. 8 is a plan view ofa comer module;

FIGS. 9 and 10 are fractional schematic plan views of different types of corner modules;

FIG. 11 is a diagrammatic plan view of one of the geometrical outlines of the pool area obtainable with the modular structure according to the invention;

FIG. 12 is a perspective view upon part of a deck with railing obtained with the modular pool construction of the invention;

FIG. 13 is a section taken along line 13-13 of FIG. 12 on an enlarged scale; and

FIG. 14 is a section taken on line 14-I4 of FIG. 12 on an enlarged scale.

Referring now to the figures more in detail, FIG. 1 shows a view of a swimming pool with a rectangular pool area.'The present invention is concerned only with the sidewalls of the swimming pool. The foundation may be constructed in a conventional manner and the bottom of the pool should also be visualized to be conventional. It may be constructed of a plastic liner or tiled, or it may also be bare concrete. The sidewalls are of modular construction, that is, they are constructed of a plurality of suitably joined modules as will be more fully described hereinafter.

The pool area can be given virtually any geometrical outline by judiciously selecting the number and shapes of the modules which in effect constitute building stones for the sidewalls. FIG. 11 shows by way of example, one of the many possible outlines of the pool area. It is also comparatively easy to change the outline of the pool after the initial construction by adding or removing modules, and of course correspondingly restructuring the foundation.

Referring now to FIGS. 2 to 6, each of the modules shown in these figures comprises a pool side or inner sidewall unit 20A and an outer sidewall unit 20B. The walls are molded of suitable plastics material for example a plastic known under the trademark Cycolac, which has been found to be suitable for the purpose as it is tough and durable.

Each of the walls has a flat area 21A and 218, respectively, surrounding a deep well or recess 22A and 228 respectively. Each of the wells has a flat bottom area 23A and 23B respectively. The wells have sidewalls of curved preferably archlike configuration, the flat bottom walls constituting in effect the keystone of the arch structure, as will be more fully explained hereinafter.

Flat areas 21A and 21B of the sidewalls are bordered by inwardly extending upper horizontal flanges 24A and 248 respectively, and vertical flanges 25A and 25B respectively. The lower edges of the flat areas'ZIA and 21B are bordered by recessed return flanges 26A and 268 respectively. The upper flanges and the vertical flanges of both sidewalls are preferably predrilled, as is shown, for conveniently joining adjacent modules by means of screwbolts, as will be more fully explained hereinafter.

The sidewalls 20A and 20B are disposed spaced apart and substantially parallel; they may be slightly slanted toward each other as is shown, so that the base of the pool walls as formed by the modules is wider than the top thereof.

A panel 26, such as a plywood panel, rests on upper flanges 24A and 248. The panel supports and rigidifies a molded deck panel 27 having end flanges 27C. Panel 27 is preferably predrilled at its four comers aligned with holes in flanges 24A and 248 to facilitate bolting of the panels to the flanges. Deck 27 should be visualized as being also molded of a suitable plastic. Of course, it is also possible to make the deck itself sufficiently rigid so that a special reinforcing panel 26 is not necessary, or panel 26 can be covered with a suitable waterresistant layer. Flanges 27C of adjoining decks 27 abut against each other on assembly, and thus serve as end closures. Instead of forming the pool deck of individual panels 27, a continuous deck panel may of course be provided. However, it has been found preferable to construct each module as a selfcontained unit.

A panel 28 made of plywood, metal or a suitable plastic, serves as a partition wall between adjacent modules so that each module forms a rigid box. Vertical flanges 25B of two adjoining sidewall units 208 are placed in aligned contact and at the back of one of the flanges 253 the respective partition panel 28 is placed so that holes drilled in the flanges and the panel are in alignment. At the back of the respective other flange 25B is placed a preferably also predrilled reinforcing member 293, such as a plywood strip. The flanges 25B, strip 298 and panel 28 are then bolted together.

Vertical flanges 25A on inner wall units A are similarly secured to the respective edge of partition panel 28, except that a water seal strip 30 such as a neoprene strip, is preferably interposed between the flanges A of wall units 20A, as it is clearly shown in FIG. 2.

Partition panel 28 preferably includes a large opening 31 to provide ventilation as protection against damp rot.

The flat bottom areas 23A and 23B of the wells in each sidewall unit are in abutment when the modules are assembled. As previously stated, each of the wells has a generally archlike structure, the flat bottom surface constituting the keystone of the structure. In other words, the wells duplicate in effect a vaulted ceiling.

Assuming now that a swimming pool such as shown in FIG. 1 is filled with water. The water will press against the flat area 21A of each inner wall 20A, and this area will transmit the pressure acting upon it to the oval rim 32A of well 22A. The pressure along the rim of the well is transferred by the curved sidewalls of the well to the bottom wall 23A. In addition, the water pressure as detennined by the area bounded by rim 32A presses against the base 23A. All the pressure forces due to the resolved components parallel to flat face area 21A are balanced out, thereby causing a minimal deformation of inner sidewall unit 20A. As the bottom wall 238 of the well 228 in outer sidewall unit 20B abuts against base wall 23A, the pressure thus transferred to base 238 reverses itself when transferred via the curved sidewalls of well 22B and is dissipated in the flat surface area 218 of wall unit 20B. As a result, a comparatively light structure such as the described module is capable of resisting high water pressures. In actual practice, a slight bulging in of inner wall unit 20A and a slight bulging out of outer wall unit 203 is likely to occur when the pool is filled with water. However, it has been found that such in and out bulging is generally so slight that it is not or hardly noticeable by the eye, and if desired it can be completely avoided by making the walls of the modules of stiffer material, which of course results in a corresponding increase of the costs of the material, and also increases the shipping weight of the modules.

As is apparent from the previous description, the two sidewall units of the modules are alike so that manufacture of the modules is very simple and inexpensive. Moreover, the two modules provide support for a deck or walkway of sufficient width.

The modular structure of the pool, or more specifically the sidewall units of the modules are supported on suitable blocks 39 such as cinder blocks, on which rest heavy rails 40 such as rails made of wood. These rails in turn support continuous light wooden rails 41. The ends of rails 41 and the cinder blocks are centered under partition walls 28. Blocks 42 are nailed or screwed to rails 41 and straddle each assembly of partition panel 28, flanges 25A or flanges 25B, sealing strip 30 and stiffener 29A or 29B at each inner and outer corner of the partition wall. The described assemblies produce the required longitudinal stability of the sidewalls. To provide lateral stability also, an additional reinforcement member 43 is provided on one side of each partition wall 28 and nailed to the described substructure.

To protect the base of the inner and outer pool sides, channelled strips 45 are preferably fitted over the lower edges of flanges 26A and 26B and rails 40, as it is clearly shown in FIG. 4. The protective strips may also be in the form of extensions of the bottom flanges 26A and 263 as it is shown in FIG. 2. These extensions are preferably molded as part of the flanges. The recessed configuration of flanges 26A and 26B serves to minimize scuffing, wear and possible damage to the modular structure as may be caused by the shoes of persons standing or walking near the pool.

The water seal 50 of FIG. 7 may be made of a suitable material such as neoprene. It has two branches 51 which straddle partition panel 28 and lips 52 which overlie the edges of flat areas 21A of the two adjacent inner sidewall units 20A. These lips are held tightly against the flat surface areas 21A due to the water pressure acting upon the face 53 of the seal, thereby assuring complete watertightness. Instead of providing a flat exposed face 53, the lips and the center face may also be slightly curved. The water pressure will then flatten the lips against the underlying surface areas 21A, thus assuring a tight seal.

The heretofore described modules have plane inner and outer sidewall units and are designed for use as a straight section of the pool wall. If curved pool walls are desired, such as are shown in FIG. 11, modules suitable to form such walls can be readily obtained by giving the sidewall units an appropriate curvature. Modules with curved sidewall units can also be used as comer modules by selecting the curvature of the walls in accordance with the desired angle at the comer.

Instead of using smoothly curved sidewall units, the same effect can be obtained by modules, the sidewall units of which have the shape shown in FIG. 8. In this figure, each of the sidewall units defines part of a polygon. The inner sidewall unit is formed by three portions 121A, 221A and 321A. Similarly, the outside wall unit is formed by three wall portions 121B, 221B and 321B. The midportions 221A and 221B include the wells 22A and 228 respectively. As may be noted, the inner sidewall unit must have a total length which is less than the total length of the outer sidewall unit to obtain the desired formation of a corner.

Instead of using comer modules as shown in FIG. 8, corner modules according to FIGS. 9 and 10 may also be used. The comer module 60 of FIG. 9 has a rounded outer wall and the comer module 61 of FIG. 10 a right angle outer wall. Corner modules such as modules 60 and 61 are not exposed to the water pressure as are the hereinbefore described modules. Hence, they do not require the water pressure-compensating well structures previously described, but may be simple box structures of sufficient strength as they merely have to bridge the gap between the adjacent modules which should be visualized as being constructed as hereinbefore described.

As shown in FIG. 1 a ladder 63 may be provided so that the pool area can be conveniently entered or left and a stairs 64 on the outside of the pool wall facilitates access to the deck 27 through a passage 65 in rail 62.

What Iclaim is:

1. A modular swimming pool construction assemblage having walls formed by a plurality of watertight joined modules, each module of said assemblage comprising an inner wall and an outer wall disposed in spaced-apart relationship and a top wall extending crosswise of said inner wall and said outer wall,

said inner and said outer wall each including a well projecting substantially transversely of said inner wall and 'said outer wall, inwardly of said module and terminating in a substantially flat bottom portion, said bottom portions being in abutment with each other to transmit hydrostatic pressure upon the inner wall and the well therein to the outer wall and the well therein.

2. The assemblage according to claim 1 wherein the lengthwise cross-sectional outline of at least the well in the outer wall defines an arch structure, the flat bottom wall of said well constituting a keystone of the arch structure for resolving vertical pressure thereupon into a substantially horizontal thrust.

3. The assemblage according to claim 1 wherein each module has four substantially upright disposed sidewalls defining a substantially box-shaped cross-sectional outline, the inner wall of each module facing toward the pool area and the outer wall facing outwardly, each of the two remaining walls extending crosswise of the inner wall and the outer wall.

4. The assemblage according to claim 3 wherein each crosswise wall is common to two adjacent modules.

5. The assemblage according to claim 3 wherein the inner wall and the outer wall of the modules have flanges along their vertical edges, the crosswise walls being secured to said flanges.

6. The assemblage according to claim 5 wherein a sealing strip is interposed between the crosswise walls and said flanges.

7. The assemblage according to claim 5 wherein a substantially T-shaped sealing member is interposed between the two vertical flanges of adjacent modules, the shank of said sealing member having two branches straddling the respective crosswise wall and the crossarm of the sealing member overlying the outside of the respective outer walls.

8. The assemblage according to claim 5 wherein said crosswise walls have flanges along their upper horizontal edges, and wherein a flat deck is supported on said horizontal flanges.

9. The assemblage according to claim 3 wherein a railing is secured to said deck along the outward edge thereof.

10. The assemblage according to claim 3 wherein said inner and outer walls are straight walls to define a module of substantially rectangular cross-sectional outline to form a straight pool wall portion.

11. The assemblage according to claim 3 wherein said inner wall and said outer wall are curved to form a curved pool wall portion.

12. The assemblage according to claim 3 and wherein the inner wall of the module is shorter than the outer wall to form a corner wall portion of the pool.

13. The assemblage according to claim 3 wherein said inner and outer walls have outwardly extending flanges along their lower horizontal edges, and wherein foundation rails support said flanges along the length thereof.

14. The assemblage according to claim 13 wherein channeled scuff bars straddle said rails and the outwardly extending lower horizontal flanges resting thereupon.

15. The assemblage according to claim 14 wherein said inner and outer walls are lengthwise grooved adjacent to said lower horizontal flanges.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2490272 *May 13, 1946Dec 6, 1949Kascle CliffordPortable swimming pool
US2792164 *Aug 10, 1951May 14, 1957Cauffiel JohnPreformed structural units
US3015191 *Dec 27, 1956Jan 2, 1962Leo LucchesiSwimming pool and method for erecting same
US3142069 *Dec 4, 1962Jul 28, 1964Trojan Pools IncConstruction members for swimming pools
US3298038 *Jul 24, 1963Jan 17, 1967Trojan Pools IncConstruction members for swimming pools
US3427662 *Mar 16, 1966Feb 18, 1969Jacuzzi Bros IncSwimming pool construction
US3443263 *Apr 17, 1967May 13, 1969Arthur J MinasySwimming pool construction
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4055922 *Sep 24, 1976Nov 1, 1977Heldor Associates, Inc.Frame structure for swimming pool
US6896445 *Jan 5, 2004May 24, 2005Eric EnglerModular artificial reef, sea wall and marine habitat
U.S. Classification52/284, D25/2, D25/113, 52/789.1
International ClassificationE04H4/00
Cooperative ClassificationE04H4/0043
European ClassificationE04H4/00C3