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Publication numberUS3594547 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 20, 1971
Filing dateDec 17, 1968
Priority dateDec 23, 1967
Also published asDE1816051A1
Publication numberUS 3594547 A, US 3594547A, US-A-3594547, US3594547 A, US3594547A
InventorsJoseph Thomas Quinn
Original AssigneeSpace Age Products Sales Ltd
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electrical heaters
US 3594547 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent [72] Inventor Joseph ThomasQuinn [54] ELECTRICAL HEATERS 5 Claims, 3 Drawing Figs.

[52] US. Cl 219/529, 219/202, 219/211, 219/358, 219/549, 338/211, 338/308 [51] Int. Cl 1105b 1/02, HOSb 3/34 [50] Field of Smrch '219/345,

[56] References Cited umrso STATES PATENTS 1,534,220 4/1925 Kercher 219/208 2,392,712 1/1946 Woodman 219/529 Primary ExaminerA. Bartis Attorney-Mason, Fenwick & Lawrence ABSTRACT: An electrical heater for use in heating the engine, battery, seat or rear window of an automobile includes a thin, flexible rectangular heating pad embodying a composite electrical resistance sheet, a time switch mounted on the pad at a comer thereof and a pair of leads extending from the corner to provide for the operative connection of the heater to the vehicle battery. The pad comprises a resistance sheet composed of a flexible substrate of glass cloth having a coating of electrically resistive material on one surface. Header and distributor conductors an electrical contact with the face of the coating and connectable to said leads through the time switch are formed by a pair of elongated flexible braided wire electrodes extending sinuously across the coating and stitched to the sheet. Each electrode forms a plurality of U-shaped portions. The electrodes cross each other near their U-bases so that longitudinal stretches of one electrode alternate with 1ongitudinal stretches of the other. The electrodes are electrically insulated from each other at the crossings.

PATENTED JUL2OI97I 3,594; 547

JDSBPH THOMAS QU N 6" Cum w A llorneys PATENTED JUL20 197i sum 2 UF 2 lnvenl n' Jose-PH HOMAS Qumu B Wa m mm&i%m

J V Attorneys ELECTRICAL HEATERS This invention relates to electrical heaters,the chief object being to provide an electrical heater which operates efficiently with a low voltage electricity supply, for example, with the usual l2-volt battery of a motor vehicle.

According to the present invention, an electrical heater includes a heater element comprising a flexible sheet composed of a base layer of electrically insulative material and a coating of electrically resistive conducting material on the base layer, a pair of elongated flexible electrodes of braided wire in electrical contact with the face of the coating, each of the electrodes extending sinuously across the coating width in a plurality of elongated U-portions and one of the electrodes crossing the other near the U-bases so that longitudinal stretches of one electrode alternate with the longitudinal stretches of the other electrode, pieces of electrically insulative material between electrodes at the crossings, stitching securing the electrodesto the sheet, and means for connecting the electrodes to a power source.

An embodiment of the invention will now be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings in which: t

P10. 1 is a front view of. an electrical heater for connection to the battery of a motor vehicle,

FIG. 2 is a sectional view on the line ll-Il of FIG. 1, and FIG. 3 is a fragmentary sectional view on the line lll-lll of FIG. 1.

Referring to the drawings:

An electrical heater for use in a motor vehicle having the usual l2-volt battery includes a thin, flexible, insulated rectangular heating element or pad embodying a composite electrical resistancesheet'll, a time switch 12 mounted on the pad at a corner thereof, and a pair of external leads 13 and 14 extending from said corner of the pad to provide for the operative connection of the heater to the battery.

The resistance sheet 11 is composed of a base layer of glass cloth [5 and a coat of thermally stable, electricityconducting material 16, such as a rubberlike polymer or a silicone rubber, formed on the surface of the cloth [5. A suitable resistance sheet of this kind is supplied by Imperial Chemical Industries Limited under the Trade Mark Flexel." The conducting coat 16 may be applied to the face of the cloth by roller. The thickness of the composite sheet 11 is approximately 0.008 inch. Flexible reinforcing strips 17 and 18 of insulating material are stitched to the ends of the sheet 11, against the coat l6; and a rectangular, flexible reinforcing patch 19 of insulating material is stitched to the sheet 11 at a corner thereof and against the coat l6.

, A pair of elongated electrodes 20 and 2] are stitched to the sheet 11 and to the end reinforcements thereof so as to lie on the face of the coat 16. The electrodes consist of a pair of lengths of flat, braided metal wire, each length extending sinuously across the sheet width in a plurality of elongated, substantially rectangular U-portions (FIG. 2). The electrode 21 overlaps the electrode 20 at the U-bends, so that the longitudinal stretches 21A of the electrode 21 alternate with the longitudinal stretches 20A of the electrode 20, and a pair of ends 208 and 21B of the electrodes are located adjacent to the comer reinforcing patch 19. Insulating patches 22 of flexible material are provided between the electrodes at the U-bends thereof, being stitched with electrode 21 to the reinforced ends of the sheet 11. The stitching of the strips, patches and electrodes is of a polyester/cotton thread. The distance between the reinforcing strips 17 and 18 is about l8 inches, and the electrode stretches 20A and 21A divide the coat 16 into a plurality of longitudinal side-by-side resistance strips R each about 2 inches wide.

A sealed, rectangular, electrically insulating envelope 23 neatly houses the resistance sheet 11 to form therewith the pad 10; the envelope is formed by welding together the edges of two superposed rectangular sheets of black, heavy-duty pol thene.

he time switch 12 mounted on the pad 10 includes a 12- hour clock composed of a cylindrical casing 24 penetrating a circular opening in the patch-reinforced corner of the pad, a pair of short internal leads 25 and 26 extending through an opening in the casing, and a square face portion 27 closing the casing and forming a flange thereon. The lead 25 is connected to the adjacent end 203 of the electrode 20, and the lead 26 is connected to the external lead 13 which is connectable to the positive terminal of the vehicle battery by a suitable clip. The external lead 14 is connected at one end to the end 213 of the electrode 21 and is connectable at the other end to the vehicle chassis by a suitable clip. The face portion 27 has thereon at its rear a set of four studs 28 penetrating the reinforced corner of the pad and penetrating also an annular backplate 29 extending around the casing and engaging the rear of the pad. Nuts 30 on the studs provide for clamping of the pad between the flange 27 and the blackplate 29 so that the clock is securely mounted on the pad.

The envelope is fitted at the corners with adhesive pads 31 to enable mounting of the heater in any desired position in the vehicle. Alternatively, the envelope is fitted with eyelets, loops or other means enabling suspension of the heater in the vehicle.

In use of the heater say to protect the automobile battery and electrics from the effect of overnight frost and condensation and so facilitate starting of the automobile, the clock is set to close the switch in the heating circuit at a suitable time e.g. a few hours before the starting time, the heater is mounted in a suitable position under the engine bonnet, and the external leads are'clipped to the battery and to the chassis. Following the timed closure of the switch, the heater runs at 4.5 amperes per hour to produce 50 watts of radiant heat under the bonnet.

The heater may alternatively be used as a seat heater, or may be placed on the back-window ledge to prevent misting of the back window.

Clearly the heater has a wide field of use where only a low voltage electrical supply is available.

We claim:

I. An electrical heater including a heater element comprising a flexible sheet composed of abase layer of electrically insulative material and a coating of electrically resistive conducting material on the base layer, a pair of elongated flexible electrodes of braided wire in electrical contact with the face of the coating, each of the electrodes extending sinuously across the coating width in a plurality of elongated U-portions and one of the electrodes crossing the other near the U-bases so that longitudinal stretches of one electrode alternate with the longitudinal stretches of the other electrode, pieces of electrically insulative material between electrodes at the crossings, stitching securing the electrodes to the sheet, and means for connecting the electrodes to a power source.

2. An electrical heater according to claim 1, wherein the heating element includes a cover of electrically insulative flexible material enclosing the flexible sheet.

3. An electrical heater according to claim 1, including a time switch mounted on the heating element and in circuit with the electrodes to control the current flow through the sheet.

4. A heater according to claim 3, wherein the time switch is mounted on the heating element at a corner thereof, and a pair of external supply leads extend from said corner.

5. A heater according to claim 4, wherein the time switch is connected to one electrode and to an external lead connectable to the positive terminal of a vehicle battery, and the other external lead is connected to the other electrode and is connectable to the vehicle chassis.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1534220 *Jun 12, 1922Apr 21, 1925Arthur J KercherAutomobile radiator heater
US2392712 *Sep 6, 1943Jan 8, 1946Westinghouse Electric CorpWarming pad
US2669646 *Jan 20, 1950Feb 16, 1954Goodyear Tire & RubberElectrically conductive material
US3156813 *Oct 15, 1962Nov 10, 1964Milesmaster Inc Of AmericaBattery warmer
US3287684 *Feb 27, 1964Nov 22, 1966Motson Services IncElectrical heating device
US3385959 *May 26, 1965May 28, 1968Ici LtdFlexible heating elements
US3400254 *Jul 18, 1966Sep 3, 1968Takemori HiroshiElectric heating device for mounting inside a fabric covering
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4162395 *Jun 3, 1976Jul 24, 1979Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd.Heating unit for heating fluid
US4209675 *Dec 7, 1977Jun 24, 1980Vitale Andrew PVariable duration electric clock timer unit
US4293759 *Dec 19, 1979Oct 6, 1981Higgins Pink MElectric heating system for heating the interior of a motor vehicle prior to starting
US4399347 *Apr 29, 1981Aug 16, 1983Firma Carl FreudenbergDevice for attachment to motor vehicle windows to prevent fogging or icing
US4410843 *Mar 25, 1982Oct 18, 1983Saint-Gobain VitrageElectrically controlled sliding window and proximity detector
US4700046 *Sep 30, 1986Oct 13, 1987Ab Mekania-VerkenControl device for vehicle in-seat heater
US5055656 *Dec 21, 1989Oct 8, 1991Globe-Union, Inc.Battery heating system using instantaneous excess capacity of a vehicle electrical power generating subsystem
US5160827 *Aug 6, 1991Nov 3, 1992Parker Darren LAutomotive windshield deice apparatus
US5731568 *Oct 13, 1995Mar 24, 1998Arctic Fox, Inc.Battery heating device and method
US5928548 *Jun 20, 1995Jul 27, 1999Tocksfors Verkstads AbElectric cushion heater
US6483078 *Feb 9, 2001Nov 19, 2002Oceanit Laboratories, Inc.Moisture control system for electrical devices
US6963049Oct 15, 2004Nov 8, 2005Martin Jamarell MSnow removal system
US7405378Jun 27, 2006Jul 29, 2008Ernestine Marie WhitlowSafety blanket
US7718923 *Feb 9, 2007May 18, 2010Hansen Scott PDefrosting windshield sunshade panel
US8399805 *Nov 8, 2006Mar 19, 2013Nel Technologies LimitedAnti-fogging device and anti-fogging viewing member
US8415590Oct 14, 2008Apr 9, 2013The Boeing CompanyTemperature controlled electronics tray
US20070212597 *Mar 9, 2006Sep 13, 2007Psion Teklogix Inc.Insulated smart battery pack for low temperature applications
US20080290081 *Nov 8, 2006Nov 27, 2008Nel Technologies LimitedAnti-Fogging Device and Anti-Fogging Viewing Member
US20100089895 *Oct 14, 2008Apr 15, 2010Brown Myles ETemperature controlled electronics tray
US20120193338 *Jan 27, 2012Aug 2, 2012Sullivan Nancy AApparatus for removing ice and snow from the roof of a vehicle
WO1987001549A1 *Aug 26, 1986Mar 12, 1987Odd Stephan IrgensA device for heating with energy saving in cars and boats
WO2009146538A1 *Jun 2, 2009Dec 10, 2009Alfonso AndradeHeating apparatus for snow and ice removal
Classifications
U.S. Classification219/529, 219/203, 219/549, 219/202, 338/211, 392/439, 219/211, 338/308
International ClassificationH05B1/02, B60H1/22, H05B3/26, H05B3/34, B60S1/58
Cooperative ClassificationH05B2203/029, H05B3/26, H05B2203/011, B60S1/586, H05B1/0225, H05B2203/013, H05B2203/033, H05B2203/017, H05B2203/005, H05B3/342
European ClassificationH05B1/02A8, B60S1/58D, H05B3/26, H05B3/34B