US 3594568 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Inventor Edwin F. Gutl|,,lr.
St. Louis. Mo. Appl. No. 745,219 Filed July 16, I968 Patented July 20, 1971 Assignee The Edwin F. Guth Company St. Louis, Mo.
LUMINAIRE 2 Claims, 11 Drawing Figs.
us. Cl. .Q 240/s1.u R, 240/47 Int. Cl 1105b 33/02 FieldulSeareh 240/5l.ll R,47,9,9A,11.4,25
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,159,352 12/1964 Wakefield et al /1965 Muller et a1.
3,469,089 9/1969 Picha 240/5 1.1 1 2,619,584 1 1/1952 Hathaway 240/51.1 1 3,012,132 12/1961 Rosenfield 240/51.l1 X 3,113,694 12/1963 Sulzer 240/5l.11 X 3,240,928 3/1966 Young 240/5 1 .1 1 3,293,426 12/1966 Zeitz et al. 240/25 3,398,291 8/1968 Zerfoss 240/25 X Primary ExaminerSamuel S. Matthews Assistant ExaminerRobert P. Greiner Attorney-Paul M. Wenk ABSTRACT: Luminaire for fluorescent lamps in which the ballast is housed in a compartment of the luminaire at one end of the lamps, and the compartment is provided with a downwardly opening, detachably hinged, door upon which the ballast is mounted. When the door is in closed position, the ballast casing is in heat-conductive contact with a metallic part which is exteriorly exposed at the top of the compartment for dissipating heat from the ballast.
PATENTED JUL20 Ian SHEET 1 OF 4 PATENTED JUL2O I971 l sum 2'UF 4 U mw PATENTEU JUL20 m1 SHEET 3 OF 4 PATENTED JUL20 I971 saw u or 4 LUMINAIRE This invention relates generally to illumination, and particularly to a luminairefor use with fluorescent lamp tubes, or other energizable sources of illumination which require a ballast, or comparable accessory, which generates heat during operation, or is likely to require inspection or replacement during the useful life of other parts of the luminaire.
Luminaires for fluorescent lampsare usually provided with a ballast located on the top of the luminaire where it is out of sight, and in position to dissipate the heat generated by it to the circumambient air. Such an arrangement of the ballast requires that the overall luminaire have a vertical dimension or depth considerably in excess of that which is required for accommodating the fluorescent lamp tubes and the usual reflector elements.
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a luminaire of substantially reduced depth, but which accommodates the ballast in a manner which is compatible with aesthetic criteria.
Another object of the .invention is to improve the accessibility of the ballast for a luminaire without dismounting the luminaire.
A further object of the invention is to provide a luminaire chassis with removable'parts which may be eliminated or substituted in order to improve the versatility'of the device, and adapt it to various conditions of use.
These and otherobjects of the invention, which will become apparentas the description proceeds, are accomplished by providing a luminaire chassis having permanently connected end members and side members, and a permanently connected partition extending substantially parallel with one of the end members, but spaced therefrom adistance sufficient to accommodate aballast, or the like, in a compartment circumscribed by one end. member, the partition, and parts of two sidewalls. The space between the partition and the opposite end member provides a stall accommodating one or more fluorescent lamp tubes disposed lengthwise of the chassis, and mounted in the usual paired lamp receptacles which are situated near the top of the chassis. The sidewalls of the chassis extend longitudinally parallel to the lamp tubes, and
may serve as reflectors, or serve to mount auxiliary reflectors in the space between the aforesaid partition and the end member most remote from it, so that the lamp tubes are located within the chassis, but shielded in the sidewise direction by thesidemembers, and arranged to emit light through an aperture, usually downwardly addressed, which is circumscribed by 'thelower edges of: the partition; the end member most remote therefrom; and that portion of the side members between the partition and said end member.
Preferably, the ballast is mounted upon a closure for the ballast compartment; and the closure is normally located in substantially the same plane as the plane of the aperture aforesaid. The closure is preferably releasably hinged to one of the chassis members which surround the compartment, for example, the partition; and the ballast is preferably mounted upon such closure in a manner such that when the closure isin its closed position, the ballast is completely concealed within the compartment, but when access to the ballast, or to the conductors associated with it, is required, the closure may be hinged to move the ballast from the confines of the compartment without necessarily disconnecting it from the luminaire. It is also contemplated that the compartment which confines the ballast, under normal conditions, be ventilated, and equipped with a part of relatively high heat conductivity which makes substantial surface contact with the casing of the ballast within the compartment, and is exposed on the exterior of the compartment, preferably at the top, for dissipating the heat of the ballast.
One embodiment of the invention is companying drawings, in which:
FIG. I is a perspective view of the luminaire as viewed from the floor of a room to whose illumination it contributes;
illustrated in the ac- FIG. 2 is a view corresponding, in part, to FIG. I, and showing the ballast compartment end of the luminaire with its closure open;
FIG. 3 is a perspective view of the ballast mounted on the compartment closure in separated condition, together with the ballast conductors terminating in a plug-in connector-half;
FIG. 4 is a sectional view taken along plane 4-4 of FIG. I,
with parts broken away to expose the contents of a ballast compartment;
FIG. 5 is a sectional view taken along line 5-5 of FIG. 4; FIG. 6 is a sectional view taken along plane 6-6 of FIG. 1; FIG. 7 is a sectional view taken along line 7-7 of FIG. 4; FIG. 8 is a sectional view taken along line 8-8 of FIG. 4 and showing a counterweight in elevation;
FIG. 9 is a sectional view taken along plane 9-9 of FIG. 1; FIG. 10 is a wiring diagram for the lamp receptacles; and FIG. I! is a wiring diagram for the ballast.
. The luminaire shown in the drawings consists essentially of a chassis, which includes permanently connected end members l and 2 permanently connected together by sidewalls 3 and 4, with an intermediate partition 5 substantially identical in perimetrical configuration with the end members, but spaced from end member 1 a distance sufficient to define therebetween a compartment of volume sufficient to accommodate a ballast 6. The space circumscribed by the sidewalls 3 and 4, and by end wall 2 and partition 5, constitutes a stall for the reception of a plurality of fluorescent lamp tubes 7 and 8, as well as a trough 9 extending parallel with, but between, said lamp tubes, so that its exterior surfaces of the trough constitute reflectors for the respective lamp tubes, while its interior constitutes a conduit for accommodating conductors serving the usual lamp receptacles mounted on end member 2, as well as service conductors which may extend from one such luminaire to another in end-abutting relationship with it. The usual lamp receptacles are mounted in pairs, with one member of each pair mounted on end member 2, and the other member of each pair mounted on partition 5, all with the lamp-receiving portions thereof addressed inwardly of the lamp stall. The trough 9 is preferably removably mounted upon a center sill I0, which is preferably fluted lengthwise in order to stiffen it, and mounted at its opposite ends to end member 2 and partition 5, respectively. The sill 10 thus serves as the backbone of the luminaire, and provides the stiffness required to prevent distortion of the luminaire when installed in suspended relationship to a ceiling, without requiring that the side members 3 and 4 be disfigured by flutes or folds which would stiffen them to an extent sufficient to prevent such distortion. When it is desirable to provide ventilation about the lamps, or where it is desirable to provide some uplight from the luminaire, the longitudinal edges of the sill 10 are appropriately spaced from the adjacent upper inward edges of the respective side members 3 and 4.
The interior surfaces of sidewalls 3 and 4 may, if desired, serve as reflectors for the respective lamp tubes, but as clearly shown in FIG. 6, the invention contemplates the optional provision of separate auxiliary reflectors II and 12. To facilitate the removable mounting of reflectors 11 and 12, the outer margins of side members 3 and 4 may be formed with channels 13 and 14, and the outer margins of the reflectors 11 and 12 formed with mating channels I5 and 16. To retain the reflectors l1 and 12 in proper position relative to the side members 3 and 4, the respective reflectors may be equipped with detents l7 and 18, or other fastening devices, located adjacent the inner or upper margin thereof, for engagement, respectively, with flanges 19 and 20, as clearly shown in FIG. 6; Thus, the reflectors 11 and I2 may be used or not used, or readily replaced with ones whose active reflecting surfaces are differently contoured, or differently finished, at the option of the user, without the use of tools or separate fastening devices. Similarly, as shown in FIG. 6, the channels 21 and 22 of sill 10 open downwardly, and are adapted to removably receive the diverging margins of trough 9, and suitable spring clips 44 of any convenient form may be provided to releasably engage the gated apertures 24 and 25 (seen in FIG. 4), which are shaped to loosely receive tongues 26 and 27 formed integrally with closure plate 23.
' As clearly shown in P10. 5, the partition 5 has, at its lower margin, a flange 28 projecting therefrom toward end member 1, and for the double purpose of biasing the tongues 26 and 27 into fully seated relationship within openings 24 and 25, and
for preventing the closure 23 from becoming unhinged from partition 5 without deliberate-attempt to do so, the closure is provided with an arcuate spring finger 29 which engages the edge of flange 28 As seen in H0. 5, the arcuity of finger 29 is such that the closure 23 may be'moved to a position substan tially parallel with partition 5, without tongues 26 and 27 becoming disengaged from openings 24 and 25, yet when it is desired to completely remove the closure member, the spring finger 29 may be deliberately flexed to an extent sufficient to disengage the tongues 26 and27 when theclosure member 23 is within about ten or fifteen degrees from its closed position shown in FIG; 1. Suitable latches 30 and 31, which are manipulatable from. the exterior, are provided on closure member 23 at the side thereof opposite tongues 26 and 27, for engagement with the channels 13 and 14 to hold the member 23 in the closed position shown in FIG. 1.
The ballast 6 customarily employed in connection with of .vents shown in the form of louvers 32, 33, 34, and 35, 2
located at opposite sides of the ballast 6, and the ballast compartment is equipped with a cover plate 36 whose opposite edges 37 and 38 are deformed to lie in spaced relationship with flanges l9 and 2 of the respective sidemembers 3 and 4. Hence, the spaces between deformed edges 37 and 38, and the respective flanges I9 and 20, have staggered openings for ventilating the ballast compartment, so that ambient air enters the ballast compartmentthrough louvers 32-35, circulates about the ballast, and is exhausted through the spaces adjacent edges 37 and 38 of the cover plate 36. Additionally, the cover plate 36 is equipped with a conductive heat dissipator 39, which is shown in the form of a metallic, open-top box having a bottom 40 in heatconductiverelationship with the ballast, and four sidewalls extending from the bottom 40 to the level of cover plate 36, so that the top side of bottom 40, as well as the several sidewalls of box 39, are exposed to ambient air on the exterior of the ballast compartment. If desired, the sidewalls of box 39 may extend above the level of cover plate 36 to increase the rate of heat dissipation.
in order tofacilitate the complete removal of the ballast from .the luminaire whenever necessary, the electrical connections between the ballast and the several lamp receptacles are reconnection after separation. The circuitry between the male half of the separable connector and the several lamp tube receptacles is shown in FIG. 10, where receptacles 71 and 72 serve lamp tube 7, and receptacles 81 and 82 serve lamp tube 8. A pair of conductors 73 extend from lamp receptacle 71 to the male half 41 of such a separable connector, and terminate, respectively, at poles 731 and 732, which are diagonally related in the connector half 41. Likewise, a pair of conductors 74 extend from lamp receptacle 72, and terminate, respectively, at poles 741 and 742 of conductor half 41, such poles being related in quadrature to each other. Similarly, from lamp receptacle 8], a pair of conductors 83 extend to poles 831 and 832 of the connector half 41, said poles being in diagonal relationship with each other. Likewise, a pair of conductors 84 extend from lamp receptacle 82 to poles 841 and 842 of the connector half 41, said poles being in quadrature to each other.
The intermediate portions of conductors 83 and 73, as well as two or more service mains 50 and l, are accommodated within, and concealed by, trough 9.
As shown in FlGS. 3 and 11, the ballast 6 has a plurality of conductors which extend to the female half 42 of the separable connector, and th'e'respective conductors areconnected to poles of the female half 42 which correspond in polar orientation to the proper poles of male half4l. Among these is a primary conductor 53 which extends from the ballast 6 to poles 532 and 631 of the female half 42 of the separable connector; and a primary conductor 63 extends from the ballast to poles 632 and 531 of the female connector half; a pair of secondary conductors 54, which extend, respectively, to poles 542 and 641 of the female connector half; and a pair of secondary conductors 64, which extend from the ballast to poles 642 and 541 of the female connector half. Thus, the relationship shown in FIGS. 10 and 11 is such that if one or the other of the connector halves 41 and 42 be turned upside-down to mate with the other, the several poles will be connected as follows: 531 to 731, 532 to 732,541 to 741, 542 to 742, 631 to 831, 632 to 832, 641 to84l, and 642 to 842. In order to assure the proper mating of the male and female poles of the respective conductor halves, the casings of the respective conductor halves may have a corresponding side of each serrated, or otherwise configurated to match only whenthe two connector halves are .in the single correct relationship of. orientation. If desired, the service mains 50 and 51 may also be connected through a separable-connector which may be the same or a different one from that which connects the ballast leads to the several lamp receptacles; or the connection between the service lines to the ballast and the service mains may be made by wire nuts, or in any other acceptable fashion.
As many ballasts of commerce are heavier at one end than at the other, such will tend to tilt a suspended luminaire, but the imbalance may be rectified by applying a counterweight, such as one or more plies of heavy gauge sheet metal, 43 along one of the side members within the ballast compartment, and atthe side opposite the heavier end of the ballast.
From the foregoing description, those skilled in the art should readily understand that the invention accomplishes its objectives, and provides a luminaire for fluorescent lamp tubes in which the ballast is, during normal operation, concealed from view, but is readily accessible and replaceable without dismounting the luminaire. In spite of the concealment of the ballast, the luminaire provides for the dissipation of heat therefrom, both by convection and by conduction. Moreover, the luminaire is constructed to provide for dissipation of heat from the lamp tubes by convection currents rising upwardly from the several lamp tubes through elongates apertures whose width can be varied to regulate theramount of uplight emanating from the luminaire in a direction opposite its own aperture. V
The provision of readily removable and substitutable reflector elements adjacent each sidewall of the luminaire, as well as a readily removable-reflector having V-related surfaces addressed toward lamp tubes on either side thereof, not only increases the versatility of the luminaire, but also provides a wireway for the concealment of ballast conductors which, of necessity, must extend from the ballast compartment to the most remote lamp receptacles, and may, if desired, also accommodate and conceal source conductors or mains which serve one or more such luminaires.
While one complete embodiment of the invention has been disclosed in detail, it is not intended that the appended claims be limited to the details of that embodiment.
1. A luminaire for lamp tubes having an elongated troughlike casing for accommodating said tubes and a comnecting at least one of said end members parallel with and spaced from the upper margins of said side members, a partition extending between said side members substantially parallel with said end members and forming to either side said compartment for holding a ballast and a stall for accommodating a plurality of said lamp tubes, a plurality of pairs of lamp receptacles, the receptacles of each pair being mounted respectively one on said partition and on an end member, each receptacle being disposed to accept a lamp tube within said stall, and the receptacles of a given pair being located adjacent the space between said sill and the upper margin of said side member, a reflector depending from said sill between pairs of lamp receptacles and having V-related opposite reflecting exterior surfaces addressed respectively towards different pairs of lamp holders, said reflectors diverging towards said sill and having a hollow interior defining a wireway, a series of electrical wires engaging said lamp receptacles and being disposed through said wireway for disposition into said compartment, the conductors leading from said wireway terminating in a multipole plug-in connector half located in said compartment, and electrical conductors leading from said ballast being terminated in a multipole plug-in connector half also located in said compartment, said multipole plug-in connector halves being configurated to be intermated in only one relative orientation, a closure for said compartment, and said ballast being provided through said partition, said hinged connection commounted upon said closure, said closure having a hinged connection with said compartment, and quick release means for freeing said hinge connection, there being a series of apertures prising a pair oftongues integral with said closure member and being bent to provide for their insertion through said partition apertures and allowing for limited retained pivotal movement of said closure with respect to said partition, a spring member engaging with said closure and normally biased against the opposite side of said partition through which the tongues insert to thereby maintain said closure in snug retention to said partition, and said ballast and closure capable of being removed from the compartment through the movement of said tongues out ofsaid apertures against the bias of said spring member.
2. The invention of claim 1 wherein said ballast mounts upon said closure and is normally disposed upwardly within said compartment, said compartment having an upper wall thereof provided with an aperture therethrough, heat dissipating means mounted to said upper wall thereof and being exposed to the exterior of the luminaire casing through said wall aperture, and said ballast being disposed in contiguity and heat-conductive contact with said heat dissipating means when said closure is latched closed within the compartment.