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Publication numberUS3596379 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 3, 1971
Filing dateJul 5, 1968
Priority dateJul 5, 1968
Publication numberUS 3596379 A, US 3596379A, US-A-3596379, US3596379 A, US3596379A
InventorsFaulkner Albert A
Original AssigneeSpitz Lab Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Automatic control for planetarium operation
US 3596379 A
Abstract  available in
Images(7)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent [72) Inventor Albert A. Faulkner Conshoboeken, PI. [21] Appl. No. 742,879 [22] Filed July 5,1968 [45] Patented Aug. 3, 1971 [73] Assignee Spitz Laboratories, Inc.,

Chadds Ford, Pa.

[54] AUTOMATIC CONTROL FOR PLANETARIUM OPERATION 7 Claims, 10 Drawing Figs.

[52] US. Cl 35/415, 200/27, 318/162 [51] Int. Cl. 60% 27/00 [50] Field of Search 35/42.5, 47, 35.3; 179/1002 5; 318/162, 467; 200/27, 38; 40/28.1,28.3;340/339,334

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,576,903 11/1951 1mm 318/162X 3,131,508 5/1964 Brown 200/27 X 3,178,000 4/1965 Myska 318/162 X 3,269,033 8/1966 Redfield etal 3,303,582 2/1967 Farquhar 35/47 FORElGN PATENTS 1,183,002 l/l959 France 179/100.2S

Primary Examiner-Jerome Schnall A norney Zachary T. Wobensmith ABSTRACT: A planetarium for projecting celestial objects includes control means which is connected to a magnetic tape recorder. A description of a celestial display is normally recorded on the magnetic tape through the recorder and alternatively or in conjunction therewith information can be recorded on photographic slides. As the persons in attendance listen to the voice description of the display from the magnetic tape recorder, a second track on said tape provides control signals to automatically tum ofi' certain of the planetarium lamps. The control signals further act to turn on and turn ofi motors which move the lamps, therebysimulating the movement of the celestial bodies as they are being described by the voice from the tape recorder. At the same time, switches can be operated to cause a library of slides to be shown from a projector if it is deemed appropriate to have such slides shown during the recorded lecture.

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sum 5 BF 7 IN VENToa 41,5527 4. FAUL KNEE A TTOZNEY AUTOMATTC CONTROL FOR PLANETARIUM OPERATION BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the invention This invention relates to a planetarium and more particularly to a means for automatically illuminating and moving the significant lights and projectors of a planetarium in conjunction with, and in response to, a recorded voice description and/or with photographic slide description of a display and the movements thereof.

2. Description of the Prior Art A planetarium is a device for showing the movement of the planets. Probably the simplest form of a planetarium is called an orrery. The orrery has a central ball that represents the sun and a mechanical array associated therewith consisting of a series of gears and linkages attached thereto. The linkages carry the lesser bodies representing the earth, moon and planets. When the gears are set into motion the movements of the earth, moon and planets around the sun are simulated. The present planetarium basically provides a display of projected lights, many of which can be moved. The orrery simulates an arrangement whereby the viewer is setting off in space, whereas the present type of planetarium has the viewer ob serving from earth, as he actually does.

Despite the fact that the science of astronomy is one of the oldest sciences, if not the oldest, the first modern planetarium was not installed until approximately 1923 in Munich, Germany The present device is a smaller type of planetarium than those found in certain large cities (such as Munich) throughout the world. The present device is a classroom-type planetarium and makes it possible to automate the displays in order to provide more meaningful lectures relating to different aspects of astronomy.

Heretofore with such classroom-type planetariums, it has been the practice to manually turn on the various lights that are necessary to represent the celestial bodies, as the lecturer is describing a particular arrangement of such bodies. This procedure of course has some inherent undesirable aspects. For instance, there is the monotony of repetition and inconsistency of the lecturer, or his assistant, in proper timing and the failure of less experienced operators to obtain the maximum use of and benefits from the equipment. in addition, since the operation is undertaken in a darkened room some times the improper switches are turned on or turned ott, and this detracts from the study atmosphere that is usually created within a planetarium structure. The arrangement to be described eliminates the undesirable characteristics mentioned above.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present device provides a drum mechanism into which there can be placed removable plugs. The holes into which the plugs fit form tracks around the circumference of the drum and hence a plurality of plugs located in the track form a ridge protruding from the surface of the drum. Located in close proximity to the drum is a set of microswitches. The microswitches are turned on and held on by a ridge, or a plurality, of the plugs. The microswitches when closed serve to complete electrical circuits which activate the various functions of the planetarium, such as turning on certain of the lights, turning on certain of the motors, and regulating other operations of the planetarium. The motor which drives the drum is connected through a synchronizer means to the mag netic tape recorder and hence when a control signal is received from the magnetic tape recorder, the drum is rotated to close the proper microswitch or microswitches which in turn automatically cause the functions of the planetarium to take place. In addition the present device provides the altematives of manually turning on the various functions of the planetarium as well as overriding or readily changing the automatic control.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The features of the present invention will be better understood by reference to the following description of an embodiment of the invention taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. 3 is a pictorial of the instrument and control console of the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a side view of a portion of the pictorial shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is an enlarged side view of the drum mechanism;

FIG. 4 depicts a schematic of a drum surface which has been developed into a plane;

FIG. 5 shows the layout of FIGS. 6A, 6B, 6C, 6D and 6E; and

FIGS. 6A through 6E, when viewed as one drawing, is the schematic electrical circuit diagram of the planetarium and controls.

It should, of course, be understood that the description and drawings herein are illustrative merely, and that various modifications and changes canbe made in the structure disclosed without departing from the spirit of the invention.

Like numerals refer to like parts throughout the several views.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Before considering in detail the apparatus depicted in the figures, consider what would be expected in the way of a planetarium display. In the planetarium about to be described the observer is considered to be located on the earth. As he looks at the simulated heavenly bodies of the planetarium he can see the Sun, the planets Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, Mercury as well as the Moon. In addition he can see the ecliptic, or the path of the sun through the sky; the celestial meridian which is an imaginary line running through the poles of the celestial sphere; and in addition the celestial equator. Further this particular planetarium provides an illumination of the eastern horizon, the western horizon and the latitude and the latitude axis. In addition and almost as importantly as the display of all of the other elements together, there is a dome on which are depicted the stars as they appear in the heavens including such well-known constellations as Ursa Minor, (Little Dipper) and Ursa Major (Big Dipper). Now as is well known, the planets, and the stars have not only a diurnal change of position with respect to earth but have an annual change of position with respect to earth. Accordingly the planetarium provides a means to actually rotate the projector representing the sun and the planets, the moon and the stars on a diurnal basis as well as an annual basis. The eastern horizon display, the western horizon display, the meridian, are fixed light patterns and hence they are not coupled to a movable means. However the ecliptic display as well as the latitude and celestial equator displays are connected to a movable means so that the paths defined by the projected lights representing the same can be moved.

Typical planetariums with which the control apparatus may be employed are shown in the U.S. Pat. Nos. 1,616,736 to Bauerfeld, and 2,632,359 to Spritz. Other planetariums which could be used with slight modifications are shown in the U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,l68,799 to Korkosz; 3,303,582 to Farguhar and 3,526,619 to Frank.

Consider now FIG. 1 which is a pictorial of the planetarium structure and control console with which the present invention is employed. It should be understood that there is a dome which approximates at least half a sphere which is also employed with the present planetarium as a type of screen against which the lights of the planetarium are projected. This dome is not shown but it should be simply understood that it is employed with the planetarium for the display of projected lights representing the celestial bodies.

In FIG. 1 there is shown a sphere 11 which has a plurality of holes therein. These holes are not shown because it would become complicated to try to arrange a pattern of holes on the drawing which would resemble the various constellations which are defined by light passing through these holes. Inside the sphere 1] there is a lamp which is designated in the circuitry configuration hereinafter to as the stars." When this star" lamp is illuminated the light rays therefrom pass through the holes of the sphere 11 and onto the dome and effect spots of light thereon which when considered together define the various constellations found in the heavens.

The dome 11 is mounted on a bar 13 which is further coupled to a motor within the housing 15. The motor within the housing is able to move the sphere ill at one speed which represents a diurnal motion. The motor is reversible. By being able to move sphere 11 in either of these two directions, the lecturer can cause a star configuration to be variously located, at any particular time, for instance to show what it might be at some l2 hour period before or after a hypothetical time offered in the lecture.

Beneath the motor housing 15 there is a rack of projectors 17. The bottommost projector 19 includes a lamp which will create a spot on the dome representing the sun. The projector 21 will create a spot on the dome representing the planet Saturn. The projector 23 will create a spot on the dome representing the planet Jupiter. The projector 25 will create a spot on the dome representing the planet Mars. The projector 27 will create a spot on the dome representing the planet Venus. The projector 29 will create a spot on the dome representing the planet Mercury, while the projector 31 will create a spot on the dome representing the Moon. Now it should be understood that while many of these projectors appear in the drawing to be limited in the same plane, such as projectors 21, 25, 27 and 29, actually these projectors are angled in and out of the plane of the drawing so that the paths, which are defined by the light spots that they create, are different from each other. It is to be further understood and will be readily apparent with respect to the discussion of the circuitry that these projectors are capable of being turned on and off in accordance with the subject matter of the lecture.

On the top of the rack of projectors 17 there is located a housing 33 with an aperture therein. Within the housing 33 there is a lamp which when illuminated creates a beam of light and ultimately a trace on the dome representative of the ecliptic. On the right-hand side of the drawing there is shown a dome 35 which may be employed to give any of various different patterns or effects. There is a lamp housed in the dome 35, and through the dome 35 the western horizon display is effected. On the lefl-hand side of the structure there is a second dome 37 which is similar to the dome 35 and for other patterns or effects. Within the housing 37 there is housed a lamp which when illuminated effects a display of the eastern horizon. Alongside of the dome 37 there is a housing 39 with a slit therein. Within housing 39 there is a lamp and when it is illuminated it creates a projected kind of light line which represents the celestial meridian. Although it is not shown in the pictorial of FIG. 1, it should be understood that at the rear of the housing 15 there is a further housing which has a slit therein. In this further housing there is a lamp which when illuminated creates a linelike effect to represent the celestial equator. Finally, there is a small housing 4! on the right-hand side of the motor housing 15. Within the small housing 41 there is a pair of gears which move the instrument in latitude and around the latitude axis. Since the latitude, in a celestial sense, will be the measurement of the angular distance of a celestial body from the horizon, the dome 11, housing 15, and projector 17 must be movable and accordingly it is linked to a motor held in the housing 43, which motor is controlled by a switch 1850 (FIG. 1).

The projector as described is held above the console by four legs, two of which legs, 45 and 47, are readily seen in FIG. 1. Below the projector structure just described is the upper control panel 49. On the control panel there are found, at the upper left-hand side, two knobs 51 and 53. The upper knob 51 is the eastern horizon knob. When knob 51 is turned on, the lamp in the housing 37 is illuminated to give a display of the eastern horizon. The knob 53 is called an auxiliary knob and when it is turned on it causes power to be provided at the auxiliary outlet 54.

Somewhat to the right is found the knob-55 which controls the lamp inside the sphere 11 and is called the stars control. When it is turned on the stars lamp is illuminated and the star array can be seen on the dome. The knob 56 is the sun-moonplanet knob and when it is turned on all of the lamps in the stack 17 are illuminated. The switch 57 is the diurnal motion motor switch and when it is turned on the stack 17 is rotated around the axis of shaft 58 at a speed which simulates (within a given time period of a lecture) the daily movements of the celestial bodies represented by the projectors l7. Knob 59 is the meridian knob and when it is turned on the lamp inside the housing 39 is turned on. The knob 60 is the equator knob and when it is turned on the lamp which creates the equator display and the lamp which is located behind the housing 15 (as described earlier) is illuminated to create the celestial equator. Knob 61 is the ecliptic knob and when it is turned on the lamp held in the housing 33 is illuminated to create the ecliptic path on the dome. The switch 62 is the annual motion switch and when it is turned on the annual motion motor located on the housing 33 is turned on to rotate the various projectors 17 in accordance with an annual movement of the celestial bodies within a given period of a lecture. The next position is the panel light switch 63 and when it is turned on it causes light to illuminate from the panel light position 64 which enables the lecturer to look at his notes if he so desires. The knob 65 is a pointer switch and when it is turned on there is power at the pointer jack 66 to enable a hand held projector to be inserted therein and used as a pointer device to particularly direct the observers attention to something on the dome. Finally, the knob 67 is the west horizon switch and when it is turned on, the lamp in the housing 35 is turned on to create the western horizon display on the dome. The switch 68 in the lower left-hand comer is one of the master switches and when it, along with switch 52, of panel 69, is turned on, power is supplied to all of the necessary electrical circuits.

Below the control panel 49 is an indicator and switch panel 69. This indicator and switch panel 69 has 21 positions. The first four positions on the right-hand side are switches which will be described more in detail with the description of the electrical circuits and the last two positions are also switches. The positions in between are simply indicator lights that give an indication that certain projector lamps should be illuminated and if in fact such an indicator light is on, while its related projector is not illuminated, it can be generally assumed that it is a failure of the projector bulb and not the power circuit.

Below the switch and indicator panel 69 there is housed within the lower section of the console, a slide projector 70. The slide projector 70 is a typical lantern to project light through a photographic slide and through a lens to a mirror 71. The mirror 71 is properly located to show the display at some suitable location.

Below the slide projector 70 and disposed within the housing is a tape recording machine 72, the utility of which has been explained above and which will become more apparent hereinafter. Finally below the tape recorder 72 there is depicted a drum device 73 the details of which will become more apparent hereinafter.

FIG. 2 shows a side view of the console with the control panel 49. The three end switches 51, 53 and 55 as well as the master switch 68 and master switch 52 of the switch indicator panel 69. As will become more apparent in the discussion of the circuitry, switch 52 is actually a second master switch and both switches 68 and 52 should be on when the device is in operation. Also shown in the side view of FIG. 2 are the slide projector 70, the tape recorder 72 and the drum mechanism 73.

Consider now FIG. 3 which is an enlarged side view of the drum mechanism 73. The surface of the drum 73 is formed so as to be able to hold a plurality of removable plugs such as the plugs 75. Although it cannot be readily seen in FIG. 3, actually the drum surface has tracks 'or columns of holes into which these plugs can be inserted or from which they can be easily removed. As can be seen in FIG. 3 when there is a plurality of plugs, these plugs in effect form a type of ridge. Accordingly, when the roller 76 of the microswitch mechanism 77 comes in contact with the plugs it is held up in a contact position for as long as there are plugs continuously located along a column of holes. When the roller mechanism 76 has passed over the end plug of a series of plugs and rolls into a position wherein another plug might have been (but is not so located) the microswitch 77 will be fully opened and the circuit will no longer be connected. The drum 73 is driven by a gear arrangement made up of the gears 78 and 79. The gear 79 is secured to the shaft 80 which in turn is coupled to a motor whose operation will become more apparent hereinafter. As can be noted, in FIG. 1, the shaft 81 to which the drum is secured has a pair of manually operable knobs 82 mounted thereon. The knobs 82 enable the operator to manually turn the drum around in a forward direction in order to pace the drum through an operation to see what will transpire after certain plugs have been inserted into the drum and certain plugs removed therefrom. The drum can be readily removed from the machine in order to enable the user to easily insert the plugs to conform to a predetermined program. As is evident in FIG. 3, the microswitch 77 is mounted on a frame 83.

FIG. 4 shows a schematic of a portion of a drum which has been developed into a flat plane. Each of the squares, such as squares 84, represents an indentation, or aperture, or hole into which a plug may be inserted. If the automatic control were on during the time that a lecture was in effect and the stars were to be shown for four segments of time with a break, and then for five segments of time, there would be plugs inserted as shown in column 85. In addition, if the sun, moon and planets lamps were to be illuminated for six segments of time, the plugs would be inserted in the position shown in column 86. It will be noted down at the lower section of the layout in FIG. 4 that there is a timer track. The timer track, as will become more apparent hereinafter, has plugs inserted therein as needed to interrupt and stop the rotation of the drum at each plug. This character of control differs from the other plug functions. As will become further apparent, but which needs some explanation with respect to FIG. 4, there is shown a plus lights" column and a minus lights" column. The motor which dims the lights or intensifies the lights can drive in a forward or backward direction. The plus lights can be arbitrarily chosen as the forward direction and the minus lights as the reverse direction in accordance with whether the operator wants to dim the lights or turn up the lights. Assuming that in this case the drum would be moving from the right side of the drawing toward the left-hand side of the drawing, the lights would be dimmed initially by the minus lights" plug in position 87 and turned on again by the plus lights" plug in position 88. The meaning of the location of the plugs in FIG. 4 will become more apparent as we study the electrical circuitry hereinafter.

Consider now FIGS. 6A, 6B, 6C, 6D and 6B which when taken together represent a schematic circuit diagram of the electrical circuit arrangement of the planetarium. The FIGS.

6A, 6B, 6C, 6D and 6E should be laid out as shown in FIG. 5. In FIG. 6C there is shown an electrical plug 89 which is normally plugged into an outlet in the planetarium room to provide the main power to the electrical circuitry. It will be noted that electrical plug 89 provides power to some additional electrical plugs 90 and 91. It is into one of the female plugs 91 that the electrical plug 93 shown in FIG. 6B is normally connected.

Having established power at the electrical plug 89 we find that if we follow the circuit path 94, through the fuse 95, into FIG. 61), through the terminal board 102 at location 96, up and along wire 94, back into FIG. 6C, we arrive at the righthand point of the normally opened points 97. The normally opened points 97 are the electrical structure of the switch 52 which we described in conjunction with the description of FIG. 2. Switch 52 is one of the two main switches, along with switch 68. When switch 52 is closed, the normally opened points 97 are closed and hence the power circuit path that we have thus been tracing passes through the now-closed points 97 to the wire junction 98, back along the line 99, into the wires shown on FIG. 6D, through the wire junction 100, to the wire junction 101, to the left therefrom to the terminal board 102, through terminals 103, to the left-hand terminal 104 of the primary winding 105 of transformer 201, through the right-hand terminal 106, back to the terminal board 102, through the terminals 107, to the right to the wire junction I08, upward and to the left to the terminal board 102, through the terminals 109, further along the left into the circuitry on FIG. 6C, to the middle line of the electrical plug 89. Hence it should become apparent that when the electrical plug 89 is plugged into the main source of power and the switch 52 is turned on, closing the points 97, the primary winding 105 of transformer 201, (FIG. 6D) will be energized. The energization of the primary winding 105 will become more important in our discussion of the automatic operation of the system, but for the moment let us digress and establish power at the electrical plug 91 so we might consider the manual operation of the system before we consider the automatic operation. It will be recalled that we traced a power path through the closed points 97 to the wire junction 100 (FIG. 60). If we start at the wire junction 100 in FIG. 6D and go left, through the terminal board 102 at the terminal points 111, and further to the left along line 301-into the circuitry in FIG. 6C we find that we have traced power to the righthand side of each of the electrical plugs shown on the plate 91; Hence, when the electrical plug 93 is plugged into one of the electrical plug 91, power is established to that electrical plug 93 when the switch 52 is closed.

MANUAL OPERATION Before we consider the automatic operation let us consider the manual operation which can be readily understood from a study of the circuitry shown in FIGS. 6A and 68.

Above we have described the circuitry to establish power at the plug 93 when it is plugged into one of the female plugs at position 91 in FIG. 6C. Earlier we made mention of the fact the main switch 68 as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 was one of two main power switches and was closed. The electrical structure of the switch 68 are the open points 112 (FIG. 6B) and hence when switch 68 is closed, the electrical points 112 will be closed and hence the primary winding 113 of transformer 114 will be energized. The transformer 114 of which 113 is the primary winding is a step down transformer and develops approximately 7 volts at the secondary winding 115.

Having established power at the primary winding 113 of transformer 114 let us consider what happens when we close the switch 118 which is the electrical structure of the switch 53 shown in FIGS. 1 and 2. It will be recalled that switch 53 is an auxiliary switch which provides power to the auxiliary outlet. The auxiliary outlet in FIG. 6B is shown as the space 119 between two terminals. When voltage is developed across the secondary winding there is current path from the upper line, or common line 120, to the left, then upward along line 121 and to the left and further upward along line 121, leftward along the line 122, downward and to the right to the left-hand side of the auxiliary outlet 119. The right-hand side of the auxiliary outlet 119 has a circuit path along the line 123 to the circuit junction 124, upward and to the right through closed switch 118, through the resistor 125, upward and to the left and back down along the line 126, to the wire junction 127, downward to the middle tap line 128 and back to the middle tap of the secondary winding 115. Hence it becomes apparent that when the switch 53 is closed, closing the points 118, there is electrical energy supplied to the auxiliary outlet 1 19.

Consider nowthe circuitry arrangement when the switch points 129 are closed. The switch points 129 are the electrical structure of the switch 51 which was discussed in connection with FIGS. 1 and 2. It will be recalled that switch 51 was'the eastern horizon switch and turned on the lamp which effected the eastern horizon display. The eastern horizon lamp is lamp 130 in FIG. 6A. The power to the eastern horizon lamp 130 is transmitted along the path starting at the common connection line 120 to the left, up and along the line 121, into the circuitry of 6A, along the line 131 to the ground terminal 132. The power path continues from the ground terminal 133, up along the line 134 to energize the lamp 130, along the return path 135, through the resistor 136, through the closed switch points 129, down along the line 126, back to the wire junction 127, down to the tap wire 128 back to the tap position of the secondary winding 115. Hence it becomes apparent that when the switch points 129 are closed, the light 1311 will become illuminated.

When the switch points 137 are closed, it will light the stars" lamp 135 in FIG. 6A and hence produce the star array from the dome 11 shown in H6. 1. It will be recalled that the third switch which was depicted as switch 55 in FIGS. 1 and 2 was identified as the stars switch and when it is turned on the lamp 138 (FIG. 6A) will be illuminated. The circuitry for illuminating the lamp 135 can be readily traced out by following the path from the common connection line 120, to the ground connection 132 as was previously just described. Starting at the ground connection 139, the power path is through the lamp 138 to the return side of the lamp, through the contact 140, along the line 141 into the circuitry of FIG. 611, through the resistor 142, through the closed switch points 137, back along the line 302 to the tap position of the secondary winding 115. The contact M permits the rotation through 360 and beyond, of the bulb 1313 and its associated mechanism without binding the wires. When the switch points 143 are closed in response to the switch 56 (shown in FIG. 1) being manually moved, there will be a circuit to light the sun, moon and planet lamps of rack 17 (depicted in FIG. 1 and FIG. 6A). The circuit for lighting the lamps 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29 and 31 can be readily determined by once again starting with the common connection line 1211 and tracing the path along lines 121 and 131 to the ground terminal 132 (FIG. 611). Now it will be noted that each of the lamps 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29 and 31 has left-hand electrical connections connected to the ground terminal 164. Hence commencing with the ground terminal 1434 we find a path through each of the lamps 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, and 31, to a common connection 165. The common connection line 145 is further connected to the line 146 which can be traced downward to the right in FIG. 6A and over to the left in FIG. 613, through the resistor 1 17, through the closed switch points 1 13 and back to the tap of the secondary winding 115. Hence when the switch points 143 are closed, the lamps 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29 and 31 are illuminated to provide light for the Sun as well as for the displays of the planets Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, Mercury and the Moon.

Consider the operation of the daily motion and the annual motion at the same time since common circuitry is used. The daily motion motor 148 is shown on the right-hand side of light stack 17 in FIG. 6A, while the annual motion motor 149 is shown on the left-hand side of stack 17 in FIG. 6A. The switch 150 which controls the daily motion motor 142 as well as the switch 151 which controls the annual motion motor 149 are double throw switches which enable the respective motors to be driven in a forward direction and in a reverse direction. Consider that the switch 150, connected as it is shown, is to drive the motor 148 in a forward direction. Thus we find that the circuit path is from the common line 120 of the secondary winding 115 upwards along the line 152 in FIG. 6B and along the line 152 in FIG. 6A to the wire junction 153. The circuit path continues through the right-hand winding 154 of the motor 148 along the line 155, through the closed points as shown in switch 150, to the other side of the secondary winding 115 via lines 3113 and 156. If the switch 150 had been closed on the other side so that the switch point 157 had been connected, the circuit would have been the same up to the wire junction 153 (P10. 6A), but it would have been through the winding 158, returned along the line 159 to the closed point 157, back to the other side of the secondary winding via lines 303 and 156. The circuitry for driving the annual motion motor 149 is very similar to that just described in connection with the daily motion motor and a further description thereof does not appear to be necessary.

The next three switches, i.e., the meridian switch, the equa tor switch and the ecliptic switch designated in FIG. 1 as switches 59, 61 and 60 respectively cause the lamps 160, 161 and 32 to illuminated. The lamp is the meridian lamp and its power path can be traced starting at the line 120 of the secondary winding 115, left and up along the line 121 and 131 to the ground terminal 132. From the ground junction 133 (1 1G. 6A) the path is through the lamp 160, downward and back to the switch point 162 (FIG. 613), through the switch 162, through the wire junction 127 to the middle tap line 128, and hence to the middle tap of the secondary 115. The equator lamp 161 has its power path through the common line 120 of the secondary winding 115, up and along lines 121 and 131 to the ground terminal 132. From the ground position 163 (FIG. 6A), through the lamp 161, downward and back along line 369 to the resistor 164$ through the closed switch 165, (which is the equator switch similar to switch 61 shown in FIG. 1), back along the line to wirejunction 127, downward to the tap line 128 and finally to the tap of the secondary winding 115. Hence, when the switch 61 is activated and the points 165 closed the lamp 161 will be illuminated. Finally an ecliptic lamp 32 is turned on when the switch points 166 are closed. The circuit path for energizing the lamp 32 is similar to the others starting with the common connection line 120 of the secondary winding 115, along lines 121 and 131 to the ground terminal 132. The path continues from the ground terminal 144, through the lamp 32, upward and back along the line 167, to the resistor 168 (FIG. 68) through the closed switch points 166, to the right and down to the wire junction 127, back to the middle tap line 128 to the tap of secondary winding 115.

The panel switch 63 in FIG. 1 when activated causes the panel light switch points 169 (FIG. 68) to be closed. The energization of the panel light 170 can be readily seen by tracing the path from the common line 120 of secondary winding 115, along the line 121 to the wire junction 171. The path continues from the wire junction 171, through the lamp 170, along the return line 172, to the resistor 173, through the closed switch points 169, down to the right to the wire junc tion 127, down and along the center tap line 128 to the center tap of the secondary winding 115.

When the switch points 174 are closed in response to the switch 67 (FIG. 1) being activated, the west horizon lamp 175 (F16. 6A is illuminated. The power for illuminating the west horizon lamp 175 is obtained by the circuitry commencing at the common line 120 of secondary winding 115, along the lines 121 and 131, to the ground terminal 132. The path continues from the ground terminal 176 (FIG. 6A), through the lamp 175, along the return line 177 to the resistor 178, through the closed switch points 174, along the line 179, down and to the right to the line junction 127, down to the center tap line 128 and thus to the center tap of the secondary winding 115.

When the switch points 180 are closed in response to the switch 65 (FIG. 1) being activated there is power supplied to the pointer jack 181. The power path to the pointer jack 181 is along the line 120 of secondary winding 115, along the line 121, to the wire junction 182, leftward along the line 122, down and to the right of the pointer jack 181. The path continues from the other side of the pointer jack 181, up along the line 133, through the closed switch points 180, through the resistor 1M upwards and along the line 179, downwards and to the right to the terminal 127, downwards and to the right along the center tap line 128 to the center tap of the secondary winding 115.

The latitude switch 165 is a switch that is connected to the latitude movement motor 186 and hence it is a double throw switch in order to enable the motor to go in a forward or reverse direction as did the motors 148 and 149. When the latitude switch 185 is in the position shown, there will be a power circuit commencing along the common line 120 of secondary winding 115, to the line junction 187, along the line 188, to the wire connection H89, through the winding 180, through the limit switch 191, back along the line 192, through the closed points 185, (as shown), along the line 193 to the full voltage side of the secondary winding 115. When the switch M35 is thrown to the opposite side from whence it is shown, the circuitry will be the same excepting that the path will be through the winding 194 of the motor 186, along line 304, through the limit switch connection 195, back along the line 196, to the wire junction 197, through the closed switch 185 (on the other side from where it is shown), back along the line 193 to the full voltage side of the secondary winding 115. Accordingly, we have considered the manual operation of the planetarium as shown by the circuitry in FIGS. 6A and 68. Much of the circuitry just described is capable of being operated automatically. We will now discuss the automatic operation, bearing in mind that where possible we will not repeat the actual circuitry of energization once we get into familiar circuit paths already described.

AUTOMATlC OPERATION The automatic operation of the system takes place in conjunction with a lecture on a magnetic tape. The recording of the lecture on the magnetic tape is not part of the invention but the use of the stop and start signals on a second track of the magnetic recorder are employed with the invention. Accordingly, let us assume that there has been a lecture recorded on a magnetic tape and now the tape is being rerun for the purpose of recording, on a second track, stop and start signals which will be used to energize certain lamps, motors, etc. of the planetarium.

As the lecture starts, the voice on the tape tells the observers that the lights will now be dimmed and at that point we will want to provide a control signal on the second track of the magnetic tape, in order to start thedimming of the lights. in order to accomplish this the switch 1198 (FIG. 6C) is depressed and an AC hum signal is recorded on the second track of the magnetic tape through the jack 199 which is plugged into the record jack" of the magnetic tape recorder. The way the for going is accomplished is as follows:

We have already discussed the energization of the primary winding 105 of transformer 201 when the switch 52 (points 97 in FIG. 6C) is closed. With the primary winding 105 energized, the secondary winding 200 of the transformer 201 is also energized providing an AC signal thereacross. The AC signal path from the secondary winding 200 is along the line 202 up and to the right to wire junction 306, along the line 203, into the circuitry of HG. 6C through the closed switch 198, back through the line 204 up and to the right into circuitry of FIG. 61'), down to the line 205, back to the wire junction 206, through the resistors 207 and 208, back along line 209, through the back-to-back diodes 210, to the other side of the secondary winding 200. The back-to-back diodes 210 are chosen to conduct current for an applied voltage at a value that is slightly less than the voltage applied by the secondary,

. hence there is an AC signal through the back-to-back diodes hereinafter described.

Now each time that the lecturer wants to provide a control signal to start some action, such as dimming the lights, or stop some action, he simply depresses the switch 198 and an AC hum signal is recorded on the second track of the magnetic tape as just described. At the same time that the AC hum signal is recorded on the second track there should be a removable plug inserted in the proper column of holes on the drum so that the correct microswitch will be energized in order to accomplish the desired operation. in other words, as will become apparent hereinafter, the AC hum signal only causes a relay to be activated which in turn causes the drum to rotate, but the closing of the respective microswitches by the inserted plugs on the drum actually causes the operations to be effected. We will assume that each of the positions on the microswitch array 215 shown in FIG. 6E is disposed opposite a column of holes on the drum into which removable plugs can be inserted. As mentioned earlier, when such plugs are inserted they serve to close the microswitches which lie opposite their position in response to the drum rotating the plugs into contact with the arms of microswitches.

Now studying the microswitch array 215 assume that when we want to dim the main lights of the planetarium we put a removable plug or plugs into the fifth column of holes (i.e., the fifth column from the left-hand side in the drawing) opposite the microswitch 216. The amount of dimming required will be controlled by the length of time the microswitch 216 is held closed. Accordingly, we want to run the drum so that the plugs come in contact with microswitch 216. This is accomplished by closing the switch 217 (FIG. 6C) which provides a circuit to close the relay points 218 (P16. 6D) as follows: There is a circuit path from the secondary winding 200, through the relay coil 219, along the line 220, up and to the right along the wire junction 307, up along the line 222, through the closed switch 217 (FIG. 6C), back along the line 223, through the wire junction 224, back along the line 225 to the other side of the secondary winding 200. Thus the relay 219 is energized thereby closing the relay points 218. When the relay points 218 are closed there is a circuit to energize the drum motor 234. The relay 219 is held closed by the synchronizer as will be explained later. The relay will stay closed until the timer microswitch 270 is made to first close by rotation of the drum and then as the drum continues to rotate microswitch 270 will slip off the control plug, opening the circuit, stopping the rotation of the drum, and at the same time preparing the synchronizer to receive the next signal.

The circuit path is from the electrical-plug 89, through the fuse along the line 94 into the wiring of P16. 6C, up and through the closed switch 97, back along the line 99 to the junction point 226, leftwards through the terminals 327, along the line 227, down and to the right through the closed relay points 218, back along return line 228, through the terminals 229 and board 102, up along the line 230, through the normally closed points 231 of the left-hand most switch on the switch indicator panel 69. The circuit path continues back along the line 331, to the right into the circuitry of FIGS. 6D and 6E, along the line 331, through the terminals 232 of terminal board 308, up and to the left along the line 233, then the right along the line 233, through the motor 234, back along the return line 235, back through the terminals 236 of terminal board 308 down and to the right and up along the line 237, to the left and through the terminal 109 of terminal board 102, back along the left to the middle wire 110 of the three prong electrical plug 89. Accordingly then, when relay points 218 are closed, the motor 234 is energized to rotate the drum. The drum has been made to rotate under these conditions by depressing the plug 217 and hence the removable drum plugs which were set in the drum along column five, will cause the microswitch 216 to close. it should be made clear at this point that relay 219 is an AC relay whose characteristics are chosen to also respond to a surge of DC current.

It will be recalled that the drum was rotated to test run" dimming the lights. Consider now what happens when the microswitch 216 closes. The reason for closing the microswitch 216 was to cause the motor 238 to rotate in a forward direction thus causing the dimmer pot 239 to be rotated and hence dim the lights. The circuit path to the motor 238 through the microswitch 216 is as follows: The circuit path starts in (FIG, 613) at the full voltage side of the secondary winding 115 and along the line 156 down through the female plug position 240. From the female plug position 241) the path continues through the male plug position 2411 (in FIG. 6C), therefrom along the line M2 into the circuitry of FIG. 60, further along the line 242, down into the circuitry of FIG. 6E, further along the line 242, through the terminals 243 of the terminal block 2 14, up and to the left along the line 245 which becomes a common bus to many of the microswitches. The circuit path goes on from the line 245, through the closed microswitch 216, back along the line 246, through the terminals 247 of terminal board 3118, to the wire junction 248, to the left along the line 249, through the terminals 250 of the terminal block 251, up and through the limiting switch 252, to the left and up along the line 253, through motor winding 254, out and along the line 255, back through the terminals 256 of the terminal block 251, along the line 257, to the right and up along line 257 into the circuitry of FIG. 6D, further along line 257, to the left and into the circuitry of FIG. 6C, finally up along the line 257 to the line junction 25%, out to the left and down to the male plug positions 259, 269 and 261. The male plug positions 259, 2611 and 261 connect up with the female plug positions 264, 263 and 262 which in turn connect to the common line 120 of the lower side of the secondary winding 115. Accordingly, it becomes apparent that when the microswitch 216 is closed the motor 238 will be energized by the winding 254 so as to drive the motor 238 in a forward direction and hence move the dimmer 239 by a mechanical linkage therewith, to dim the lights. Actually, the light connection for the overall lights, which are to be dimmed is at connector 339 which is connected at one point to the dimmer 239 by line 341). The other side 3311 of the dimmer 239 is connected through the terminals 341 of terminal board 251 to line 99. The other side of the light connector 339 is connected through terminals 312 to line 343. Line 3&3 can be traced through FIGS. 6D and 6E to the closed points 3% on the panel 69 in FIG. 6C. The circuit path continues through the closed points 34 3 and 345 to line 346. Line 3416 can be traced to the terminals 347 on board 251 in FIG. 6B and therefrom to the movable tap 3419 of dimmer 239. It will be recalled that line 99 which we have just determined is connected to the dimmer 239 at the end 338, is the line that is connected to switch points 97 (main switch) and through the points 97 to the electrical plug 119 via line 941. Accordingly, we have traced a circuit for the main lights at connector 339 from the main power source, through the switch points 97, through the dimmer pot 235, through the center tap 3411, through the light connector 339 to line junction 337. Line 3411 merely connects line junction 337 to the dimmer 239 to complete the variable voltage connection. However, the other side of the power circuit path commences at junction 337, through terminals 349, along line 237. It will be recalled that line 237 connects with the middle prong of electrical plug 839 and hence the power path to light connector 339 is complete.

When the microswitch 216 falls off the removable plug, the motor 238 will no longer be energized and hence the dimmer pot will stop at that location.

Now it should be borne in mine that we are contemplating an automatic operation at this juncture, so that removable plugs should be also inserted in the timer track. Hence when the AC hum is received at the jacl 199 during the automatic operation and the relay 219 is automatically energized, as will be described hereinafter, the removable plugs in the timing track will stop the drum motor each time the timer microswitch is activated. The circuitry to automatically energize relay 219 has not been considered at this time because the manually operable switch 217 was closed to determine if the dimmer pot was dimming the lights to the extent that we desired.

12 SYNCHRONIZER The energization of relay 219 initiates the automatic control. Hence consider how the relay 219 is energized automatically from the AC hum, or control signal, then thereafter all the operations of the planetarium can be considered as they automatically operate. Assume for the moment that there is an AC hum signal developed across the lines 212 and 213 (FIG. 6C) by virtue of the jack 199 being inserted into the reading position of the magnetic recorder. With the AC hum signal developed across the lines 212 and 213, there will be an AC signal developed across the resistor 203 (FIG. 6D). The diode 265 acts to rectify this AC signal and develop a DC bias across the resistor 266. The DC bias across the resistor 266 is sufficient to fire the silicon-controlled rectifier 267 and hence there is a surge of DC current to energize the relay 219. The current path is from the left-hand terminal of the secondary 201), through the relay 219, along the lines 220 and 221 to the junction point 268, down along the line 209, to the cathode side of the silicon-controlled rectifier 267, through the siliconcontrolled rectifier 267, back to the other side of the secondary 2911. Accordingly, the relay 219 is energized, thereby closing the relay points 218 which in turn, as seen previously, enables the motor 234 to be energized. It follows then that when there is an AC hum signal on the second track of the magnetic-recording, relay 219 is energized and this causes the motor 234 to be energized (as described earlier) thereby moving the drum.

Upon setting up a circuit through the silicon-controlled rectifier 267 a circuit is established through the winding of the relay 219. This circuit will remain in established condition until the microswitch 270 is no longer held closed by the plugs through the rotation of the drum motor 234 which in turn will cause the diode 267 to open the relay 219, thus stopping the motor 236.

Before studying the entire automatic operation, briefly consider the circuitry through the microswitch 270 which keeps the motor 234 energized. It has been determined above that if the relay points 218 are closed, the motor 234 will be energized so hence we need only define the circuitry to keep, or hold the relay 219 energized. The hold circuitry starts from the left-hand terminal of the secondary winding 2110, through the relay 219, along the line 220, down to the right along the line 271, up and through the terminals 272, down along the line 273 into the circuitry of FIG. 6E, through the terminals 274 of terminal board 308, further along the line 273, through the microswitch 270, back along the return line 275, through the terminals 276 of terminal board 308, continuing back along the line 275 up and through the circuitry in FIG. 6D to the terminals 277 of terminal board 102, back along the line 278, to the other side of the secondary winding 200. It should be understood that when the relay 219 is energized by the AC hum signal, the relay points 218 close thereby energizing the drum motor 23 DETAILS OF AUTOMATIC OPERATION Thus far we have studied the basic circuitry necessary for the automatic operation of the planetarium display. We have determined that the relay 219 can be energized by an AC hum signal which in turn closes the relay points 218 to automatically energize the drum motor 234. If the operator has predetermined from his lecture, how long he wants the drum motor to operate at any given time with respect to the lecture, he simply inserts the removable plugs in the track on the drum opposite the microswitch 270 in FIG. 6B and accordingly microswitch 270 will be held closed to make the drum continue in its rotation. If the drum is continually rotated then each of the microswitches on the microswitch array 215 which lies opposite inserted removable plugs will be closed and the operations which these microswitches control will be put into effect. Having thus established that this operation can take place, let us consider the various circuits through the microswitches on the microswitch display 215, and the operations which they accomplish when they are closed.

lid

sidered, the first circuitry that was studied was that which.

energized the auxiliary outlet M9 in FIG. 68. Let us examine the automatic circuitry to energize the auxiliary outlet 119 in FIG. 6B. The circuit path commences at the common line 120 of the secondary winding 11 45, goes along the line 120, up and to the right along the line 124, to the wire junction 182, to the left along the line R22, to the right-hand side of the auxiliary outlet lll'h. Commencing from the right-hand side of the auxiliary outlet llllh, the circuit path continues along the line 123 to the right to the wire junction 124. The automatic circuit path continues from the wire junction 124 downward and to the left along the line 441 to the female connector 402. The female connector 402 fits the male position 403,. in FIG. 6C, and the circuit continues therefrom along the line 404 to the right and upward to the wire junction 405. The circuit continues from the wire junction 405 to the right on line 406 into the circuitry of FIG. 41), downward on line 406 to the circuitry of FIG. 6E, through the terminals 407 of the tenninal board 244, further along the line 406 through the microswitch 408, back on the common line 409, through the terminals 410 of terminal board 308 and further along to the right on the line 409, upward along the line 449 into the circuitry of FIG. 60, through the line junction 4111 and further on line 409 into the circuitry of HG dc to the male position 412. The male position 412 fits into the female position 413 in FIG. 6B, and the path continues therefrom along the center tap line 124 to the center tap of the secondary winding H15 of the transformer 114. Hence it becomes apparent that if these is a removable plug opposite the microswitch 408 in FIG. 612, so that the microswitch 408 becomes closed, or held closed, the auxiliary outlet i119 will be energized by power from the secondary winding M5.

It will be recalled that earlier it was mentioned that there was a series of indicator lights on the indicator switch panel 69. The indicator lights act to tell the operator that the circuit that they respectively represent should be energized and if indeed it is not functioning correctly then it is normally the failure of the device itself, that is the particular lamp such as the stars lamp, rather than the power circuitry through the microswitch. For instance, in the circuitry for the auxiliary outlet l1 l9 we found that the circuitry path is through the wire junction 404 (MG. 6C) directly below the lamp 434. If we consider the circuitry to the lamp 414 we will find that it will be turned on when the microswitch 408 is closed. The power circuit path for the lamp 434 commences at the common line 120 of the secondary winding 11114 in FlG. 68, goes along line 120 through the wire junction 1187, to the female plug positions 262, 243 and 264. It will be recalled that these female positions fit the respective male positions 26ll, 260 and 259. The path continues from the last-mentioned male positions upwards and to the right to the wire junction 255. From the wire junction 254 the path goes along the line 415. Now, while it is not shown in the schematic, it is to be understood that on the backside of the switch and panel light board 69 there is a connection from each of the lamps to the wire 414 so that one side of the lamp circuit is connected to the power path 415. In the present situation the circuit path continues from the other side of the lamp 4E4 along the line 416 to the circuit junction 405 The circuit path from the circuit junction 405 along the line 406 is identical to the one described above and passes through the microswitch 404 eventually back to the middle tap of the secondary transformer 1H5. Hence, the microswitch 408 becomes the controlling factor in energizing the lamp 414 and if the microswitch 408 is closed the indicator lamp 414 will be illuminated. If at this time the device which should be operated from the auxiliary outlet 1149 is not operative, the lecturer hnows that there is power being fed to the auxiliary outlet and the trouble will lie in the auxiliary equipment.

Now the second item that we consider in the manual operation is the illumination of the eastern horizon lamp t30 found in FIG. 64. Let us follow the circuit path to illuminate the eastern horizon lump I130 automatically. It will be recalled that each of the lump circuits had a common circuit path to the ground terminal 132. This common circuit commenced with the common line from the secondary winding 115, upwards along the line 121, to the line 131 in FIG. 6A and finally to the ground terminal 132. In the case of the lamp the circuit path continues from the ground terminal 133, through the lamp 130, along the line 135 to the wire junction 417. In the automatic operation, the circuit path continues from the wire junction 417, leftward and downward along the line 4th to the female position 419. The female position 419 in FIG. 6B fits the male position 420 in FIG. 6C, and the circuit continues therefrom along the line 421 to the wire junction 422 below the indicator lamp 423. The power circuit for energizing the eastern horizon lamp 130 continues from the wire junction 422 to the right and along the line424, and downward along the line 424 through the circuitry of FIG. 6D into the circuitry of FIG. 6E. The circuit continues through the terminals 425 of the terminal board 244, further along the line 424 through the microswitch 426. From the microswitch 426 back along the common line 409 which circuit path we have just followed to the center tap of the secondary winding M5. Accordingly when the microswitch 426 is closed by the removable plugs, the eastern horizon lamp 130 will be illuminated.

We followed the circuitry for the eastern horizon lamp 130 to the wire junction 422 in FIG. 6C and the power to illuminate the indicator lamp 423 is similar to that which was described for the lamp 414. In other words, there is power from the common wire on the secondary winding 115 through the male plug positions 259, 260 and 261 in FIG. 6C along the line 415. One terminal of the indicator light 423 will be connected to the line 415 and the other terminal of the indicator light 423 is connected to the line 424 which we have traced through the microswitch 426. Hence, when the microswitch 426 is closed the indicator light 423 will be illuminated. If at this time the eastern horizon lamp 130 is not illuminated, then the operator knows that the problem is in the lamp 130 and not in the microswitch circuitry.

The third operation we studied in the manual operation was the illumination of the stars lamp 138 in FIG. 6A. The circuitry to automatically illuminate the stars lamp 138 commences initially along lines 120, 121 and 131 as did the circuitry for the lamp 130 and is traced to the ground terminal 132. The circuitry continues from the ground terminal 134 through the lamp 138, through the contact 140 to the right downward along the line 141 to the wire junction 427. The automatic circuit continues rightward and downward along the line 424 to the female position 429 in FIG. 6B. The female position 429 fits the male position 430 in FIG. 6C. The circuit continues from the male position 430 upwards to the right, along the line 431 to the wire junction 432 below the indicator lamp 433. The power path continues from the wire junction 432 rightward and downward along the line 434 into the circuitry of FIG. 61), into the circuitry of FIG. 6E to the terminals 435 of the terminal board 244. The circuit continues from the terminals 435 further along the line 434 through the microswitch 436 along the return line 409. The return line 409 has been previously traced back to the center tap of the secondary winding 115 and hence it becomes clear that when the microswitch 436 is closed, or held closed, by the insertion of the removable plugs into the drum, the stars lamp 138 will be energized and therefore illuminated. In tracing out the circuitry to automatically illuminate the lamp 138, we traced the power path from the wire junction 432 in FIG. 6C. The power circuit to illuminate the indicator light 433.is similar to that described in connection with the previous indicator lamps, in this instance the circuit is provided on the line 415, through the lamp 433, to the wire junction 432 and therefrom along the line 434 through the microswitch 436 as just described in connection with the automatic illumination of the stars lamp 438. Hence, it also becomes clear that when the microswitch 436 is closed the indicator light 433 will be illuminated and the operator will know that the stars lamp should be on." If it is not on, it is possible that it is burned out.

The next function that we considered in the manual operation was the energization of the lamps on the rack 117. When these lamps are illuminated they represent the sun, moon and planet lamps. The circuit path for energizing the lamps i9, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29 and Bi commences on the common line 120 and goes up along the line il2i, further along the line 131 to the ground terminal 132. The path continues from the ground terminal M4 along the left-hand common wire, through each of the lamps i9, 211, 23, 25, 27, 29 and 31! to the right-hand common line M5, to the right and along the line M6, to the wire junction 437 in FIG. 6B. In the automatic operation the circuit path continues from the wire junction 437 along the line 438 to the female position 139. The female position 339 fits the male position 440 in FIG. 6C and the circuitry continues therefrom along the line Mill, upward to the wire junction 442 which lies beneath the indicator lamp 443. The circuitry path continues from the wire junction 442 to the right, and downward along the line 444 of the circuitry of FIG. 6D into the circuitry of FlG. 6E, through the terminals MS of the terminal board 2%, further along the line 444i, through the microswitch M6, and back along the common line 4W9 which path we have previously traced to the center tap of the secondary winding 1115. Hence it follows that when the microswitch 446 is closed the lamps i9, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29 and 311 will be illuminated. in tracing out the circuitry to illuminate the lamps on the rack 37 we traced that circuitry from the wire junction 442 and accordingly it follows that the indicator lamp M3 is illuminated by power from the line 4115 through the indicator lamp M3 to the wire junction position 4 32 and on along the line 4 34 as previously described. Hence, it also becomes apparent that when the microswitch 446 is closed the indicator lamp 443 will be turned on indicating to the operator that the lamps on the rack 17 should be energized.

In the study of the manual operation we next considered the energization of the daily motion motor Mid and the annual motion motor M9. It will be recalled that the daily motion motor and the annual motion motor can be driven in both the forward and the reverse direction and the automatic control provides for driving the daily motion motor as well as the annual motion motor in both forward and reverse directions.

Examine first the automatic operation of the daily motion motor Md. Initially the switch 57 in MG. 55 will be placed in a neutral position, i.e., it will not be connected to either the terminal 157 or the terminal 357. The power circuit for the daily motion motor Mt; will be from the common line 1120 of the secondary winding H5, upward along the line 1152 in FIGS. 68 and 6A, to the wire junction 153, from the wire junction I153 through the winding 1154 (assuming that we are going to drive the motor in the forward direction) to the right and downward along the line 1155 to the switch terminal 357. The automatic operation continues downward along the line 447 to the female position M8 which fits into the male position 449 in FIG. 6C. The circuit continues from the male position M9, along the line 450 to the wire junction 45H lying directly below the indicator light 352. The circuit continues from the wire junction 45K, to the right along the line 353, through the circuitry of FIG. 6D and along the line 453 into the circuitry of FIG. 6E, through the terminals 456 of terminal board 244 and further along the line 453 to the microswitch 455. The circuitry continues through the microswitch 455 back along the common line 245. It will be recalled that when we discussed the operation of the dimmer motor 235, through the microswitch 216, that the common path, starting at the line 245, was traced back to the line 56 in FIG. @B to the full voltage side of the secondary winding 1115. The same circuit is in effect for the microswitch 455 and hence when the microswitch 455 is closed, the full voltage from the secondary winding M5 is applied to the winding 3156 of the motor M8 (FIG. 6A) to drive the motor M5 in the forward direction. The circuitry for driving the daily motion motor M5 in the reverse direction is similar to that just described excepting that the circuit is through the winding 11555, to the left and downward along the line R59, to the switch terminal 157 of the switch 159. The automatic circuitry continues to the left and down along the line ass downward to the female position 457. The female position 457 fits into the male position 458 from whence the circuit path continues to the wire junction 559. The wire junction 4359 is located directly below the indicator light 359. The circuitry continues from the wire junction 459, along the line 4161 into the circuitry of FIG. 6D, downward along the line 461 into the circuitry of FIG. 6E, through the terminals ass of the terminal board 244 and further along the line 4M to the microswitch position 463. The power path continues on the other side of the microswitch 463 back along the common line 245, which was previously traced out, to be connected to line I156 on the full voltage side of the secondary winding 115. Accordingly, the full voltage developed across the secondary winding M5 is applied to the motor winding 158 when the daily motion motor 148 is to be driven in the reverse direction.

Now it should be clear that when the operator is using the device and has inserted the plugs for the automatic operation of the drum, the plugs cannot be inserted to activate both microswitches 455 and 463 at the same time. If this were to happen both the windings 154 and H58 would be energized at the same time and the motor would be inoperative.

in tracing out the circuits for the forward and reverse energization of the daily motion motor 148, the circuits were traced from the wire junctions 451 and 459 in FlG. 6C. Connected to these wire junction positions are respectively the indicator lamps 552 and was. The indicator lamps 452 and 460 are respectively connected to the line M5 and as were the other indicator lamps, previously described, these lamps are energized when their associated microswitches are closed thereby indicating that the daily motion motor should be going in either the forward or reverse direction automatically.

Study, now, the circuitry for the annual motion motor and first let it be understood that the switch I151 will be in a neutral position, that is, it will not be connected to terminals 364 or 365. The circuitry for the annual motion motor commences at the common line 120, goes up along the line 152 into the circuitry of FIG. 6A to the bus 359. The circuitry continues from the bus 359 downward and to the right along the line 358, to the wire junction 360 and (assuming we are going to drive the annual motion motor in the forward direction) through the winding 3611, around a leftward loop, and downward along the line 353 to the switch terminal 364 in FIG. 6B. The automatic operation circuit continues downward along the line 464 to the female position 465. The female position M5 fits into the male position 466 and the circuitry continues therefrom along the line 467, upwards to the wire junction 468 which is located below the indicator light ass. The circuitry continues to the right from the wire junction $68, along the line 479 into the circuitry of FIG. 6D, further along the line 470 into the circuitry of FIG. 5E, through the terminals 373 and the terminal board 244, further along the iine 470, through the microswitch 472, to the common return line 245. It will be recalled that the common return line 245 has been traced out to the line 156 in FIG. 68 on the full voltage side of the secondary winding 1115. Accordingly, when the microswitch 472 is closed, the full voltage developed on the secondary winding will be applied to the forward movement winding 361 of the annual motion motor M9 in FIG. 6A. When the annual motion motor M9 is to be driven in the reverse direction the circuitry is the same, as just described, up to the wire junction 360. The path commences therefrom, through the winding 362, leftward around a loop and downward along the line 366 to the switch terminal 365 of the switch 511 in FIG. 6B. The automatic circuit path continues from the switch terminal 365, to the right and down along the line 473 to the female position 374i. The female position 4374 fits with the male position 375 and the circuit continues therefrom, along the line 4176 to the wire junction 4377 which is located below the in dicator light 4573. The circuit continues from the wire junction 477 to the right along the line 479 into the circuit of FIG. 61) and downward along the line 479 into the circuitry of FIG. 6B,

through the terminals 480 of the terminal board 244, up along line 479 to the microswitch 481. The other side of the microswitch 481 is connected to the common return line 244 which we have previously traced back to the line 156 in FIG. 6B which is the line connected to the full voltage terminal of the secondary winding 115. Hence it becomes apparent that when the microswitch 481 is closed the full voltage developed on the secondary winding 115 will be applied to the reverse direction winding 362 of the annual motion motor 149.

Now in tracing out the circuitry for the forward and reverse direction windings of the annual motion motor 149 we traced the circuits from the circuit junctions 468 and 477 in FIG. 6C. The illumination of the indicator lights 469 and 478 is effected by power from the line 415 through each of these respective lamps to the respective junctions 468 and 477. Hence if the microswitch 472 is closed the indicator light 469 will be illuminated and if the microswitch 481 is closed the indicator light 478 will be illuminated indicating to the operator that the annual motion motor should be moving in either the reverse or the forward direction depending upon which indicating lamp is illuminated. As was true with the daily motion motor, it should be apparent that if the annual motion motor is to be automatically operated the removable plugs cannot be inserted opposite both the microswitches 472 and 481 at the same time, otherwise each of the windings 362 and 361 in FIG. 6A would be energized and the motor would be inoperative.

In our discussion of the manual operation we considered the illumination of the lamp 160 which is the meridian lamp. The automatic circuitry for illuminating the lamp 160 commences with the familiar path starting at the common line 120, up

along the line 121, further along the line 131, to the ground terminal 132. It further continues from the ground terminal 133, through the lamp 160, down along the line 367 to the wire junction 368 in FIG. 6B. The automatic circuit continues from the wire junction 368 down along the line 482 to the female position 483. The female position 483 fits with the male position 484 and'the circuit continues therefrom, along the line 485 to the right and up to the wire junction 486. The wire junction 486 lies below the indicating light 487. The circuit continues from the wire junction 486 to the right, along the line 488 into the circuitry of FIG. 6D, down along the line 488 into the circuitry of FIG. 6E, up and through the terminals 489 of the terminal board 244 further along the line 488 to the microswitch 490. The other side of the microswitch 490 is connected to the terminal line 409 whose path we have traced back to the center tap line 128 which goes to the center tap of the secondary winding 115. Accordingly it becomes apparent that when the microswitch 490 is closed, or held closed, the meridian light 160 will be illuminated. At the same time the indicator light 486 will be illuminated by power from the line 415 through the lamp 487 to the wire junction 486 and on through the microswitch 490.

Next consider the illumination of the equator lamp 161. The power circuitry thereto commences at the common line 120 from secondary winding 115, up along the lines 121 and 131 to the ground terminal 132. The circuitry further continues from the ground terminal 163, through the lamp 161 to the left and down along the line 369 to the wire junction 370. The automatic circuit continues from the wire junction 470 along the line 491 to the female position 492. The female position 492 fits with the male position 493 and the circuit continues therefrom down and to the right along the line 494 up to the wire junction 495. The wire junction 495 is located below the indicator lamp 496. The circuit continues from the wire junction 495 to the right along the line 497 into the circuitry of FIG. 6D, down along the line 497 into the circuitry of FIG. 6E, up and through the terminals 498 of the terminal board 244, further along the line 497 to the microswitch 499. The other side of the microswitch 499 is connected to the common return line 409 which we have previously traced back to the middle tap line 128 in FIG. 6B and hence to the middle tap of the secondary winding 115. Accordingly, it becomes apparent that when the microswitch 499 is closed, or held closed, the equator lamp 161 in FIG. 6A is illuminated.

As was the case with similar indicating lights, the indicating light 496 in FIG. 6C will be energized by power from the line 415, through the lamp 496, to the wire junction 495 and further along the line 497 through the microswitch 499. When the microswitch 499 is closed, the indicating light 496 indicates to the operator that the equator lamp 161 should be illuminated.

Now consider the automatic illumination of the ecliptic lamp 32. Once again the initial circuitry is along the common line from secondary winding 115, up line 121, along line 131 to the ground terminal 132. The circuitry continues from the ground terminal 144, through the lamp 132, up and back to the left along the line 167 to the wire junction 371. The automatic circuit path continues from the wire junction 371, down along the line 500, to the female position 501. The female position 501 fits with the male position 502 and this circuit continues therefrom along to the right on line 502, up to the circuit wire junction 504, which is located below the indicating light 505. The circuit continues from the wire junction 504 to the right along the line 506, into the circuitry of FIG. 6D, down along line 506 into the circuitry of FIG. 6E, through the terminal 507 of the terminal board 244 on along the line 506, to the microswitch 508. The other side of the microswitch 508 is connected to the common return 409 which has been previously traced to a center tap line 128 in FIG. 6B and hence to the center tap of the secondary winding 115. Accordingly, when the microswitch 508 is closed, or held closed, the ecliptic lamp 32 will be illuminated. The indicator lamp 505 is also illuminated when the microswitch 508 is closed by power from the the line 415 through the indicating lamp 505 to the wire junction 504 and as just described from the wire junction 504 through the microswitch 508.

The next function that we considered in the manual operation discussion, which is automated, is the west horizon lamp in FIG. 6A. The automatic circuit path commences on the common line 120 from the secondary winding 115, goes up along the line 121, along the line 131, to the ground terminal 132. The circuit path continues from the ground terminal 176, through the lamp 175, down along the line 177 to the wire junction 372. The automatic circuit path continues from the wire junction 372, down along the line 509 to the female position 510. The female position 510 fits with the male position 511 and the circuit continues therefrom down and to the right on line 512, up along the line 512 to the wire junction 513 which is located below the indicator lamp 514. The circuit continues from the wire junction 513 to the right along the line 515, into the circuitry of FIG. 6D, down along the line 515 into the circuitry of-FIG. 6E, up and through the terminals 516 of the terminal board 244, further along the line 515 to the microswitch 517. The other side of the microswitch 517 is connected to the common return line 409 which we have previously traced back to the center tap line 128 and hence to the center tap of the secondary winding 115. Accordingly, when the microswitch 517 is closed, the west horizon lamp 175 will be illuminated. The indicating lamp 514 will also be illuminated when the microswitch 517 is closed by virtue of power from the line 415 through the lamp 514 to the wire junction 513, thus giving the operator an indication that the west horizon lamp should be illuminated.

In the description of the manual operation we next considered the circuitry for the pointer jack 181 in FIG. 6B. The automatic circuitry starts from the common line 120 of secondary winding 115 along the line 121 to the wire junction 182, leftward therefrom along the line 122, to the left-hand side of the pointer jack 181. The circuit continues from the righthand side of the pointer jack 181, downward along the line 518 to the female position 519. The female position 519 fits with the male position 520 and the circuitry continues therefrom to the right on line 521 to the wire junction 522. The circuit continues from the wire junction 522 downward and to the right, along the line 523 into the circuitry of FIG. 6D, downward along the line 523 into the circuitry of FIG. 6E, through the terminals 524 of the terminal board 244 and further along the line 523 to the microswitch 525. The other side of the microswitch 525 is connected to the common return line 409 which we have previously traced back to the middle tap line 128 in FIG. 6B and ultimately to the middle tap of secondary winding 115. Accordingly, when the microswitch 525 is closed there is power supplied to the pointerjaclt 1181.

As was true with the other functions there is an indicator light 526 which is energized when the microswitch 525 is closed by virtue of power from the line 515, through the in dicator 526, to the wirejunction 522, thereby indicating to the operator that there is power supplied in the pointer jack 181.

Next let us study the operation of the latitude motor I86 which is found in FIG. 6A. The latitude motor I86 can be driven in both the forward and reverse directions, hence the manual switch I85 which is found in FIG. 68 must be set in a neutral position when the circuit is to be operated automatically. The automatic circuit path for the latitude motor I86 commences in FIG. 68 at the common line I20 of the secondary winding US, through the wire junction I87, along the line I88 up to the wire junction H89 in FIG. 6A. If we are going to operate the latitude motor in the forward direction, the circuit is through the winding 190, to the right and up along the line 186, through the limit switch I91, back down the line 192 to the wire junction 373. The automatic circuit continues from the wire junction 373, downward along the line 527 to the female position 528. The female position 528 fits into the male position 529 and the circuit continues therefrom down and to the right along the line 530, upward to the wire junction 531. The wire junction 531 is located below the indicating lamp 532. The circuit continues from the wire junction 531 rightward, along the line 533 into the circuitry of FIG. 68, down along the line 533 into the circuitry of FIG. 6E, up and through the terminals 536 of the terminal board 264, further along the line 533 to the microswitch 535. The other side of the microswitch 535 is connected to the common line 245 which we earlier traced back to the line 156 in FIG. 6B and thence to the full voltage terminal of the secondary winding I15. Accordingly, it becomes apparent that when the microswitch 535 is closed, or held closed, there is the full volt age developed on the secondary winding applied to the winding 100 of the motor I86. The circuitry to drive the motor 106 in the reverse direction is similar to the circuitry just described excepting that from the wire junction I80 the circuit is through the winding I94, along the lines 304 and 196 and down to the wire junction I97 in FIG. 6B. The automatic circuitry continues from the wire junction I97 down along the line 536 to the female position 537. The female position 537 fits the male position 533 and the circuitry continues therefrom downward and to the right along the line 539, up to the wire junction 540. The wire junction 540 is located just below the indicating lamp 5M. The circuit continues from the wire junction 540 to the right along the line 542 into the circuitry of FIG. 6D, downward along the line 562 into the circuitry of FIG. 6E, upward and through the terminal 543 of the terminal board 246, further along the line 542 to the microswitch 544. The other side of the microswitch 544 is connected to the common line 245 which we have previously traced back to the line I56 of FIG. 6B and to the full voltage terminal of the secondary winding 1R5. Hence it becomes apparent that when the microswitch SM is closed, or held closed, the full voltage developed on the secondary winding IE5 is applied to the winding I96 of the latitude motor 186.

Now the two indicating lamps 532 and 5611 are respectively illuminated when the mieroswitches 535 and 544 are closed and this is accomplished by power from the line 615, through each of these respective lamps to the respective wire junctions 5311 and 560. Thus, the operator has an indication that the latitude motor should be operating in the forward or reverse direction depending upon which indicator lamp is illuminated. As was true with the other motors, the removable plugs cannot be inserted into the drum adjacent one another to operate the mieroswitches 535 and 5 14, otherwise both of the windings I90 and 194 of the latitude motor will be energized and the motor would be inoperative.

Thus far in our description we have covered all of the automatic operation of the lamps and the motors found in the planetarium and depicted schematically in FIGS. 6A and 68. There are some switches on the switch indicator panel 69 that have not been discussed and these should be considered at this time. It will be recalled that when we were tracing out the operation of the dimmer motor 236 we also traced out the power to the lamp connection 339 for the overall lamps of the room or planetarium. There is an override switch for these house lights on the switch and indicator panel 69 and that switch is located at switch position 601 in FIG. 6C. If the transfer point of the switch 601 is transferred from its position shown at 366 to be connected to the switch point 602 then there will be power from the wire junction 08 (which it will be recalled is connected directly to the main power switch) through the switch point 602 through the closed transfer point back and to the right along the line 363 into the circuitry of FIG. 6D, downwards through the circuitry of FIG. 6E, back to the terminals 342 of the terminal board 251 to the lamp 339. The other side of the lamp 339 has been traced out previously. Hence if the operator wants to turn on the lights despite the fact that the automatic control has dimmed the lights he simply closed the switch 601 (which opens up the points 344 and the points 365) and turns up the house lights."

It will be recalled that the system can be used in conjunction with a slide projector 603 which is shown in FIG. 6C. The slide projector 603 can also be programmed through the drum 73. The power to turn on the slide projector 603 is obtained from the electrical plug also found in FIG. 6C. In order to energize the electrical plug 90 and thereby turn on the projector 603, the switch 606 on the switch-indicator light panel 69 is turned on, thereby supplying power from the wire junction 98, along the common line 605, through the closed switch 604,, down along the line 606, to the right along the line 606 into the circuitry of FIG. 6D to the wire junction 607. From the wire junction 607 the circuit is to the left through the terminals 608, further along the line 609 into the circuitry of FIG. 6C and up and to the left along 609 to the other side of the plug 90. Hence, when the switch 606 in FIG. 6C is closed there is power supplied to the electrical plug 90 and hence the projector 603 is provided with power for its operation. Closing switch 606 provides power to the projector to start the fan and whatever is necessary for a projector operation. The projector 603 is also illuminated by closing the switch 604. The switch 610 controls the advancing or reversal of movement of the slides. The power to the projector 603 is provided from the plug 00, as just described, and instead of having to activate the projector from the projector location itself, as would ordinarily occur, there is literally a wire path to both turn the lamp on and advance the slides provided in the console. The three lines 611, 612 and 613 connected to the switch 610 can be traced through the terminal board I02 at the terminals 614, 6115 and 616 to the cable 617. The cable 617 is connected into the slide projector 603 for a proper interface so that when the switch 610 is moved to the right the slide is illuminated and projected and when the switch is instead moved to the left the slide is advanced.

The next switch to the left of the switch 6B0 on the panel 69 is the manual dimmer switch 620. If the circuitry is traced out from the switch 620 it will be found that the transfer position or the middle electrical element shown is connected back to the line 242 at the wire junction 62] (FIG. 6D). It will be recalled that there is power on the line 242 from the male position 261 which is further connected to the female position 240 and therefrom to the maximum voltage terminal of the secondary winding 115. Further, if either of the points to which the transfer point of switch 620 can be connected is traced out is will be determined that these lines are connected to the windings 256 and 622 of the dimmer pot motor 238. Hence, if the switch 620 is transferred to either its right or left side it will override the automatic control and cause the dimmer pot to be moved thereby dimming or intensifying the lights for as long as the switch is held on.

Finally, the last switch on the switch indicator-light panel 69 is the switch 625. it will be recalled that when the drum motor 234 is energized through the relay points 218 the path was through the closed switch points 231. The relay points 218 provided power from the wire junction 98 after the power had come through the main power switch 97 along the line 99 to the line 23% and thence through the closed points 231 to the motor 234. When the switch 625 is closed, the normally closed points 231 are open, and hence there is a circuit from the same wire junction 98 along the common line 605, through the closed switch points 625, along the line 331 and through the terminals 232 as described before to the motor 234. Hence the operator can either rapidly move the drum to advance the display to another portion of the program or prevent the drum from rotating.

The remaining feature in the circuitry shown in FIGS. 6A through 615 which has not been described is the panel lamp 630 shown in FIG. 615. This is a panel light to enable the lecturer to use and possibly locate his notes, etc. for the purpose of reading. The lamp 630 is normally a red shaded incandescent lamp which is connected through a rheostat 63] directly to one side of the power line 99, through the terminals 341 and directly to the other side of the power line 237 through the terminals 349. Accordingly. the lamp can be dimmed down by rotating the rheostat 6311 or brightened as the case may be and this is accomplished manually be moving the rheostat tap.

in summary, then, the present device provides a planetarium with the normal light projectors including the horizon phenomena, the ecliptic phenomena, the diurnal, annual and latitude movements as well as displays of the stars, the sun, the moon and the planets. The displays can be effected automatically in conjunction with a recorded lecture. The signals from the control channel of the recorded tape will automatically start the drum while the removable plugs which are inserted in the drum actually cause the display and motor movements to take efiect through the various microswitches associated with those inserted removable plugs.

lclaim:

1. A planetarium arrangement having a plurality of projectors, a source of electrical power and a control system comprising in combination means to mount each of said projectors so that when it is illuminated it projects a celestial object;

rotatable drum means having a surface upon which there can be selectively formed actuating means;

electrically activated driving means coupled to said rotatable drum means to rotate said drum means;

a plurality of electrical switches disposed in close proximity to said surface of said drum means;

each of said electrical switches having an associated responsive means which will provide electrical continuity through its switch in response to the presence of an actuating means on said surface of said drum;

first circuitry means connecting said source of electrical power through certain of said electrical switches to said electrical activated drive means to cause said electrically activated drive means to be selectively activated for variable lengths of the time in accordance with the presence or absence of said selectively formed actuating means on the surface of said rotatable drum, whereby said rotatable drum can be rotated intermittently and for variable lengths of time;

second circuitry means connecting said plurality of projectors to said source of electrical power through certain of said plurality of electrical switches so that said projectors can be selectively energized in response to various actuating means being rotated past said responsive means, a movable voice recording means capable of providing control signals as well as an oral description and synchronizer circuit means connected to said source of electrical power; and

third circuitry means connecting said synchronizer means to said rotatable drum means and said movable voice recording means to cause said rotatable drum means to move in response to control signals from said voice recording means and simultaneously with the movement of said voice recording means in order to have said drum in conjunction with certain of said electrical switches selectively energize certain of said projectors representing celestial objects in coordination with said oral description emanating from said voice recording means.

2. A planetarium arrangement according to claim 1 wherein said means to mount includes at least some electrically responsive movable means and wherein there is further included second circuitry means connecting said electrically responsive movable means through certain of said electrical switches in order that certain of said electrically responsive movable means will be energized in response to said control signals.

3. A planetarium arrangement according to claim 1 wherein said voice recording means is a magnetic tape recorder and wherein said synchronizing means includes a means to record control signals on tape used with said tape recorder and wherein said synchronizer means employs part of said recording means to receive control signals from said tape recorder.

4. A planetarium arrangement having a plurality of projectors, a source of electrical power and a control system comprising in combination;

means to mount each of said projectors so that when it is illuminated it projects a celestial object;

rotatable drum means having a surface upon which there can be selectively formed actuating means; electrically activated driving means coupled to said rotatable drum means to rotate said drum means;

a plurality of electrical switches disposed in close proximity to said surface of said drum means, each of said electrical switches having an associated responsive means which will provide electrical continuity through its switch in response to the presence of an actuating means on said surface of said drum;

first circuitry means connecting said source of electrical power through certain of said electrical switches to said electrical activated drive means to cause said electrically activated drive means to be selectively activated for variable lengths of time in accordance with the presence or absence of said selectively formed actuating means on the surface of said rotatable drum, whereby said rotatable drum can be rotated intermittently and for variable lengths of time;

second circuitry means connecting said plurality of projectors to said source of electrical power through certain of said plurality of electrical switches so that said projectors can be selectively energized in response to various actuating means being rotated past said responsive means;

said means to mount including at least some electrically responsive movable means;

third circuitry means connecting said electrically responsive movable means to said source of electrical power through certain others of said electrical switches so that said electrically responsive movable means can be selectively energized in response to various actuating means being rotated past said responsive means said rotatable drum means having a plurality of receiving means on its surface; and a plurality of insert means whereby said insert means can be located in said receiving means to force said actuating means;

a movable voice recording means capable of providing control signals as well as an oral description;

synchronizer circuit means connected to said source of electrical power; fourth circuitry means connecting said synchronizer means to said rotatable drum means and said movable voice recording means to cause said rotatable drum means to move in response to control signals from said movable voice recording means and simultaneously with the movement of said voice recording means in order to have said drum, in conjunction with certain or said electrical switches, selectively energize certain of said projectors representing celestial objects in coordination with said oral description emanating from said voice recording means.

5. A planetarium arrangement according to claim 4 wherein there is yet further included general light illumination means and fourth circuitry means connecting said general light illumination means to said source of electrical power through certain of said electrical switches so that said general light illumination means can be turned on or turned off in response to various actuating means being rotated past said responsive means.

6. A planetarium arrangement according to claim 4 wherein there is further yet included a plurality of indicating lamps with one each assigned to a different one of said celestial projectors of said planetarium and sixth circuitry means connecting each of said indicating lamps to said first circuitry means in order that each indicating lamp associated with a particular celestial projector will be illuminated when said celestial projector should be energized.

7. A planetarium arrangement according to claim 4 wherein there is further yet included a plurality of manually operable switches and wherein there is further included seventh circuitry means connecting said plurality of projectors through assigned ones of said plurality of manually operable switches to said source of electrical power in order that a plurality of projectors can be selectively energized in response to selectively operating said last-mentioned switches.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4579534 *Oct 31, 1984Apr 1, 1986Lipman Abby GManually indexed adjustable focal length planetarium
US5194009 *Jan 23, 1992Mar 16, 1993Carl Zeiss-StiftungProjection apparatus for planetariums
US8050777 *Nov 21, 2008Nov 1, 2011Production Resource Group, Inc.Gobo virtual machine
US8154667 *Dec 6, 2006Apr 10, 2012Konica Minolta Planetarium Co., Ltd.Digital planetarium picture-projecting apparatus
US8210686Jan 30, 2009Jul 3, 2012Old Dominion University Research FoundationProjection system
US8538557Nov 1, 2011Sep 17, 2013Production Resource Group, LlcGobo virtual machine
US8646918Jun 8, 2012Feb 11, 2014Old Dominion University Research FoundationProjection system
US20070132892 *Dec 6, 2006Jun 14, 2007Konica Minolta Planetarium Co., Ltd.Digital planetarium picture-projecting apparatus
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Classifications
U.S. Classification434/286, 318/162
International ClassificationG09B27/00, G09B27/02
Cooperative ClassificationG09B27/02
European ClassificationG09B27/02