US 3596755 A
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United States Patent  Inventors Albert J. Bundy; 3,415,365 12/l968 Faulkner 206/62 James L. Wilhms, both oiKlngspoi-t, 2,518,624 8/1950 Kraft..'. 211/13 [2H A I 3 :23- FORElGN PATENTS pp o. Filed Dec 17 1968 229,225 0/1963 Austria 211/41  Patented Aug. 3,1971 Primary Examiner-loseph R. Leclair [731 Assignee ASG Industries, Inc. Assistant Examiner-Steven E. Lipman KW T m, Atlorney-Pcnnic, Edmonds, Morton, Taylor and Adams ABSTRACT: A mass of flat glass sheets is divided into two  METHODAND APPARATUS FOR SHIPPING FLA sections standing in edgewise nearly upright position. The GLASS WITHOUT PACKING CASES outer face of each section is given lateral support at a small 9 Chlms,6 Drawing Figs. angle to the vertical, and substantially uniform pressures are lied in opposite directions to the adjacent inner angular ["52 us. 1 206/62 a,
105/369 UL, 211/13, 211/41 214/105 R, 2 R faces of the two SBFUOILS. This strengthens the laminated [5 n I. n 86 85/48 co umnar structure 0 eac section.
' The lateral support for the outer faces of each of the last two  Field of Search 206/62,
sections is provided by narrow A-frames which are arranged in 220/7 97 05/369 214/105 airs with the A-frames of each air 0 osite one another 2l1/13,4l,60A,49;2l7/7 P 8 A central angular spacing framework or adjustable wedge-  Rdermm Cm shaped locking device is placed between the inner faces of the UNITED STATES PATENTS two sections of standing glass sheets and these are forced apart 631,841 8/1899 Wood 214/ 10.5X by turnbuckles or the like which form part of the locking 1. 2. 8/1930 R min 214/1 X device. The shipping framework as described is assembled in a 1,942,639 1 1934 Engler et a]... 214/ 10.5 X truck trailer or railroad car. The framework may also be as- 2,839,l98 6/1958 Lefevre 214/ 10.5 X sembled in a container such as is shipped either by flat car 2,863,566 12/1958 White et al. 211/41 or by steamship. It will be understood that the term trailer" 2,973,089 2/ 1961 Brichard et al. 206/62 or the term railroad car as used in this specification is to in- 3,193,093 7/1965 Hansen. 206/62 clude such a container and that the term car" includes each 3,233,753 2/ 1966 Rich 206/62 X of these three ten-ns.
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l i i "8 PATENTEUAUB 3m 5 $595,755
SHEEI 1 0F 2 INVENTORS ALBERT J. BUNDY JAMES L. WILLIAMS BY ZWMLLZM,
77/ ATTORNEYS METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR SHIPPING FLAT GLASS WITHOUT'PACKING CASES SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention provides for the shipping of plate glass without the use of conventional wooden cases and employs shipping material which can be reused indefinitely. The shipping material is returnable if desired in the same truck trailer or railroad car in which the shipment of glass was delivered by the shipper to the user.
The quantity of glass sheets to be shipped is divided into two sections and the glass sheets of each section are arranged in edgewise standing and slightly leaning position with paper or other interleaving material between them. Each section may be subdivided to make loads that can be picked up and handled by a conventional crane. The normal crane load is about two tons so that three loads of 4,000 pounds each or less will make up a section.
The outside face of each section is supported at a small angle to the vertical and leaning towards the outside of the truck or car. The inside face of each section is approximately parallel to the outside face and therefore also leans towards the wall of the truck or car. The adjacent faces of the two sections, near the center of the car, are disposed at asmall angle to each other leaving an upwardly widening space between them. Lateral support is provided for the outer faces of the two sections of glass sheets, this support being in the form of narrow A-shaped triangular frames. A pair of these A-frames, rigidly interconnected, is placed near each end of the mass of glass and in substantially the same crosswise plane.
The two sections of the mass of .glass sheets are maintained in contact with their respective A-frames by their own weight and by means of a wedge-shaped locking device which desirably is in the form of an openwork faces frame which is placed in contact with the adjacent faces of the two sections of glass. This wedge device is provided with adjustment mechanisms in the form of tumbuckles or expansion screws, for example, by which the opposite faces of the wedge can be forced apart thereby applying pressures in opposite directions to the inner faces of the two masses of glass. Such pressures not only maintain the angular relationship between the :glass faces, but strengthen the columnar structure provided by the standing edgewise formation of each of the glass sections. This prevents lateral movement of the standing glass sheets and prevents breakage.
The lower ends of each pair of A-frames are firmly connected together, as also are their upper ends. That is to say, they are set at the proper spacing to accommodate the particular pack or mass of glass and this spacing will not be changed regardless of the lateral pressure which is applied by the adjustable wedge device acting on the inner faces of the glass sections in line with the pair of A-frames. After the adjustable wedge device is in place the structure as a whole might be defined as a bridge structure so that the whole framework or rig" and glass from .a very strong structure.
The .A-frames of each pair are interconnected by suitable brace members extending lengthwise of the glass mass and of the truck or car body. These members as well as the cross members interconnecting the bottoms and tops of the A- frames of each pair are removably secured .in position. When the shipment of glass reaches its destination and the glass has been unloaded all of these parts may be separated from one another and the hardware" comprising the A-frames and their interconnecting members together with the adjustable wedge devices are to be disassembled. They can be packed closely together, for example, at the front of the truck or car body, insuch a way as to occupy a small amount of space so that a comparatively full load of merchandise can be carried by the truck on its return trip. This hardware includes certain glass sheetsand which will be described later on.
The method and apparatus of our invention provides many advantages in shipping glass sheets. For example, sheets of various dimensions may be shipped, the weight can be properly distributed over the axles, and the glass can be loaded and unloaded by the use of a sling so that handling the glass one sheet at a time is avoided. Also the pack of glass, split into two sections which are locked together by the adjusta'ble wedge device, builds" a strong monolithic load with a minimum of padding. The weight of the leaning glass sections against the A-frames aids the adjustable wedge device in holding the glass against the A-frames.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is an exploded perspective view showing the various parts of the shipping apparatus or framework of the invention; FIG. .2 is a fragmentary section taken along line 2-2 in FIG.
FIG. 3 is :a rear end view of the shipping framework in position in a truck trailer bodyand loaded with glass;
FIG. 4 is a detailed fragmentary view to illustrate the stop members;
FIG. 5 is a view somewhat similar to FIG. 3 showing a modification; and
FIG. 6 is a view similar to FIG. 4 showing a further modification.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring first to FIG. 1 the shipping framework for a unit or pack of glass comprises a front pair of A-frames l0 and 11 and 'a rear pair of such frames 12 and 13. These four A-frames are substantially alike and they are made preferably of steel such :as channel members and flat bars. Front A-frame 10 for example .is constructed of a channel member 14 which is on the inside of the A-frame and an outer channel member 15. These members are joined near their tops along a sloping line 16 and maybe welded together, and at the bottom they are welded or bolted to an elongated base member 17 which serves to interconnect the two front A-frames 10 and 11.
The two rear A-frames 12 and 13 are similarly constructed and connected to a rear elongated base member 18. These two base members 17 and 18 serve to rigidly interconnect the bottoms of the respective pairs of A-frames in such manner that once assembled the distance separating these pairs of A- frames cannot be changed, although the base members may be lengthwise adjustable if desired. Front A-frames l0 and 11 are rigidly connected together at the top by means of a rigid tie bar 21, and the tops of the rear A-frames 12 and 13 are connected together in a similar manner. Each of the base members 17 and 18 as shown, is made of steel channel sections 19 and 20, their flanges meeting and being welded together (FIG. 4). The A-frames are placed in the body 25 of a truck, trailer or railroad freight car as indicated diagrammatically in FIG. 3, the two base members 17 and 18 being nailed as at 8, or otherwise secured, to the floor 27 of the truck or car body.
The front A-frames l0 and 11 and the rear frames 12 and 13 are interconnected by means of side rails. Various arrangements of these rails may be used. As shown there is a lower horizontal pair 28 and an upper horizontal pair 29. The opposite ends of these rails are removably secured to the outer A-frame members 15 in any convenient way such for example as by bolts 30. Also two diagonal crossing side rails 31 and 32 are provided on each side and these may be bolted to the A- frames. A series of bolt holes as illustrated may be provided in the end portions of all of the side rails in the interest of adjustablility in order that the assembly may receive long" or short glass.
The glass sheets are received on pairs of supporting pads 33 and 34 of appropriate cushioning material arranged on the base members 17 and 18. These protect the edges of the glass sheets. Also the inner vertical channel members 14 of each of the 4 A-frames have facing members 35 mounted thereon which may be of a cushioning material such as rubber felt, Celotex or the like.
After shipping framework has been set up as indicated in FIGS. 1 and 3, the framework is ready to receive the glass sheets constituting the unit or pack to be loaded. This pack is divided into two approximately equal portions or sections, one of which rests against the slightly inclined surface of the two left-hand A-frames l and 12 as shown in FIG. 3, and the other section rests against the surfaces of the right-hand A- frames 11 and 13.
Although these groups or sections of glass plates may all have the same dimensions, it frequently occurs that plates of different dimensions are to be transported, and as shown each of the two groups is divided into three subsections containing glass sheets 36, 37 and 38 on the left-hand side (FIG. 3) and sheets 39, 40 and 41 on the right-hand side. Although shown as having the same height the glass sheets of these subsections may be of different heights or lengths to a reasonable degree.
As shown it so happens that the glass plates of groups 36 and 39 are of the same height.'The right-hand section of glass plates (FIG. 3) rests upon pad 34 and the left-hand section on pad 33, the glass sheets all standing in edgewise position on these two pads. The outer subsection 38 on the left-hand side in FIG. 3 but on the right-hand side in FIG. 1 rests against the A-frames l0 and 12, and the outer section 41 on the righthand side rests against A-frames 11 and 13. The adjacent glass sheets of each subdivision are in flat contact with one another although interleaved with paper or other material and form a laminated columnar structure. However, spacers 42 of any suitable material may be placed between the adjacent subgroups of diflerent dimensions.
A sling passed around a desired number and weight of glass sheets may be used for lowering the glass into position as above described in an open truck trailer body. Also if desired, instead of first placing the shipping framework in the trailer or railroad car body, the framework may be assembled and the glass placed upon it as the glass is produced, or in other words the whole assembled hardware" and glass can be prepacked and the entire unit, glass and hardware then placed in the shipping vehicle. However before this is done the central angular locking device 43, or adjustable wedge device shown in FIGS. 1. and 3 is to be placed in position within the central angular space between the two main sections of glass sheets as shown in FIG. 3. One of these devices is to be placed between the front A-frames (FIG. 1) and 11 and a second such device between rear A-frames 12 and 13.
Each of these adjustable locking devices 43 consists of two rigid arms in the form of channel members 44 and 45 having facing members 46, similar to facings 35, mounted on their outside flat surfaces. These two members 44 and 45 are interconnected by turnbuckles or expansion screws 47 and 48 the function of which is to force the two members apart after they are placed in position as shown in FIG. 3 with the facing member of channel member 44 in contact with the left-hand section or group of glass and the facing member of channel .45 in contact with the surface of the right-hand glass section.
Each of the members 44 and 45 is provided at the bottom with a pin or finger 49, and these are received within a slot 9 in the upper faces of each of the base members 17 and 18.
At the top of locking device 43 there is the tie bar 21 which serves a double purpose. One is to maintain the upper ends of channel members 44 and 45 in alignment, and the other purpose is to rigidly interconnect the tops of the two A-frame members between which the particular angular locking device 43 is applied. The tie bar or crossbar 21 and the locking device 43 constitute a single assembly. Consequently the arrangement is such that the upper ends of members 44 and 45 are permanently but adjustably connected with crossbar 21.
Crossbar 21 is shown in cross section in FIG. 2 where it will be seen that the channel member which is the main member of the crossbar is in inverted position and the edges of its flanges are interconnected by means of a flat plate 22 which is welded to these flanges. Plate 22 has a longitudinal slot 23 and within this slot there is a T-shaped member 24 of the lower portion of which is welded to member 45. It will be understood that member 44 is similarly connected to crossbar 21. In order to removably connect the opposite ends of crossbar 21 with the tops of the associated A-frames, a downwardly facing slot 64 having a flange 65 at its outer end is provided at each end of member 21.
When it is desired to place the tie bar and locking member assembly 21, 43 in position, the assembly is lifted, utilizing a ring 66 at the center of the tie bar, and lowered into position such as shown for example in FIG. 3. Slots 64 receive the upper ends of the A-frames and flanges 65 engaging the outer portions thereof and holding the A-frames in rigidly spaced relation. After this is done the tumbuckles 47 and 48 are operated to force apart the two members 44 and 45 of the locking device or adjustable wedge 43.
This forces to the right-hand and left-hand hand the masses of glass so as to hold them firmly against the channel members 14 of the respective A-frames l3 and 12 as shown in FIG. 3. It will be understood that the turnbuckles 47 and 48 for the locking device 43 which is positioned between A-frames l0 and 11 are also operated as just described, with the result that the laminated columnar structures of the two glass masses are greatly strengthened to prevent breakage.
The details of the connections between each of the turnbuckle devices 47 and 48 and the members of the locking device 43 are illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 3. The turnbuckle rods, such as rod 67, are of T-shape and the crossmembers 68 thereof are received in apertures 69 in the flanges of the associated channel members, such as channel member 44.
To prevent the forward shifting of the edgewise standing groups of glass plates if the truck should make a panic stop, holders 50 and 51 are provided on the front end of the glass load. These may be formed in any desired way to provide rigid upstanding plates 52 to engage the front portions of the glass sheets somewhat as shown in FIG. 4. These plates may be adjustably fixed to a steel base member 53 by bolts 530 which may be secured to the floor 27, for example by means of spikes as indicated at 54 and also by welding at 53b to base member 17. FIG. 4 shows plate 52 of holder 51 in contact with a group of glass plates which may be subgroup 38, and plate 52 of holder 50 in contact with glass sheets of a different dimension which may be subgroup 37. When the glass is shipped in a railroad car the holders 50 and 51 are placed at the rear as well as the front of the glass load. The whole weight of the assemblage (glass and rig) acts to hold down the rig including the panic stop.
FIGS. 5 and 6 show a modification of the shipping framework when the glass is to be shipped in a trailer having a drop bottom. The arrangement and construction of the shipping framework is substantially as described above except that the base member 17a has a central dependent section 55 which conforms to the shape of the bottom of the trailer. Although not shown this base member may be made adjustable lengthwise as previously described.
The drop section 55 forms a well in which a central group or mass of glass plates of extra large size may be shipped. As
' shown this central group is divided into two subgroups 56 and 57 of somewhat different heights, but they both rest edgewise on their bottom edges on a pad 58 similar to pads 33 and 34.
The remainder of the pack or mass of glass sheets to be shipped is shown as being divided into two groups 59 and 60 which are mounted in leaning position against A-frames such as shown at 61 and 62. These A-frames are identical in construction with A-frames 10-13. v v
In the situation presented instead of using a single angular spacing framework or locking device 43, two of these devices 43 are employed, one on each side of the central vertical groups of glass 56 and 57. These devices are adjustable as previously described and provide pressures which consolidate the three groups of glass plates into a strong monolithic load, each of the groups of glass plates being in effect a laminated columnar structure.
FIG. 6 shows a modification of FIG. 5 where the two groups of glass plates 56 and 57, instead of being in vertical position, are arranged parallel to the outside groups 59 and 60 which lean against the respective A-frames. To accomplish this spacers 63 of built-up steel frames are employed to separate group 564 from group 59 and group 57a from group 60 and to maintain them in parallel relationship. Only a single angular spacing framework or locking device 43a is required, this being identical with device 43 previously described but mounted centrally of the load.
1. A framework for shipping in a car two sections of glass extending lengthwise of the car in opposed angular upright edgewise position and each section composed of a mass of flat glass sheets, said framework comprising:
a. two pairs of A-shaped frames, the frames of each pair being disposed in a common crosswise plane near the respective opposite ends of said glass, each pair of A- frames being removably secured in laterally spaced relation to each other crosswise of the car by,
1'. a rigid base member, and
2. a rigid tie member secured to the tops of said A-frames, one A-frame of each pair providing lateral support for the outer side of one of said lengthwise sections of glass leaning there-against at an angle to the vertical,
c. the inner surfaces of said lengthwise sections being angularly separated from each other at an upwardly widening angle, and
a frame device in V-shape disposed in the plane of each pair of said A-frames in the upwardly widening angle between the inner surfaces of said lengthwise sections of glass sheets, said framework including means for adjust-- ing the pressure thereof against said inner surfaces.
2. A shipping framework as set forth in claim 1 in which said V-shaped device has two rigid arms extending between said top tie member and said base member, the opposite ends of said rigid arms being slidably connected with said respective members.
3. A shipping framework as set forth in claim 1 in which the rigid tie member is provided with a crosswise slot adjacent each end, said respective slots receiving the upper ends of the respective A-frames for holding the A-frames in rigidly spaced relation.
4. A shipping framework as set forth in claim 1 in which the crosswise base member for each A-frame has two side sections at the same level for supporting two masses of glass and a central section disposed at a different level and adapted to receive a third mass of glass, and two wedge-shaped locking devices disposed one on each side of said third mass of glass and engaging the adjacent side surface of said mass and the surface of the glass mass on the adjacent side section of the base member.
5. A shipping framework as set forth in claim 4 in which the central section of the base member is disposed at a lower level than the side sections.
6. A shipping framework as set forth in claim 5 in which the central lower section of the base member supports two masses of glass disposed with their outer surfaces parallel and with the adjacent surface of the outer glass mass resting on the adjacent side section of the base member leaving an upwardly widening angular space between the two glass sections on the central lower section of the base member, a wedge-shaped locking device disposed in said angular space, and a spacing member having parallel side surfaces disposed between each of the outer glass masses and the adjacent central mass.
7. In a shipping framework for at least two similar sections of glass each composed of a mass of flat glass sheets separated only by interleaving material in upright edgewise position, said framework comprising two pairs of A-shaped frames, the
frames'of each pair being disposed in a common plane near the respective opposite ends of said sections, the A-frames for each of said sections being removably secured in laterally spaced'relation to each other by a crosswise base member, also the two A-frames of each pair which are on the same side of said framework being interconnected by a plurality of brace members which are removably secured to said A -frames, one of said sections of glass sheets caning against the inner surface of one of the A-frames of each pair and being supported by said base member, a similar section of flat glass sheets being similarly arranged with respect to the opposite A-frames of each pair, the inner surfaces of said two sections of glass sheets being disposed at an upwardly widening angle to each other, and means for maintaining said angular separation of said inner surfaces, the combination therewith in which the crosswise base member for each A-frame has two side portions at the same level for supporting two masses of glass and a central portion disposed at a different level and adapted to receive a third mass of glass, and two wedge-shaped locking devices disposed one on each side of said third mass of glass and engaging the adjacent side surface of said mass and the surface of the glass section on the adjacent side of the base member.
8. A shipping framework as set forth in claim 7 in which the central portion of the base member is disposed at a lower level than the side portions.
9. A shipping framework as set forth in claim 8 in which the central lower portion of the base member supports two masses of glass disposed with their respective outer surfaces parallel with the adjacent surface of the glass mass resting on the adjacent side portion of the base member leaving an upwardly widening angular space between the two glass masses on the central lower portion of the base member, a wedge-shaped locking device disposed in said angular space, and a spacing member having parallel side surfaces disposed between each of the side glass masses and the adjacent central mass.