US 3597863 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent  Inventors Marcus Luther Austin [56 mm 33 I M I UNITED STATES PATENTS I 2,697,288 12/1954 Wilcox 36/59 Avenue, both of Bedlord, Bedtordshire,
England [2| 1' Appl. No. 801.509 l22| Filed Feb. 24,1969  Patented Aug. 10, 197! I 3 2] Priority Feb. 26, 1968  Great Britain 3 l 1 9173/68  SPORTS SHOES 3.327,4l2 6/l967 Wilmannsetal. 3,410,005 ll/l968 Szerenyi Primary Examiner-Patrick D. Lawson Attorney-Sommers & Young ABSTRACT: A shoe, such as a golf shoe having a molded sole embodying a plurality of preformed molded members of higher mechanical strength than the main sole body each molded member comprising a receptacle portion for removably securing a spike, and an integral plate portion sandwiched within the thickness of the sole and performing the function of distributing ground pressure on a spike secured in the receptacle over a large area of the sole, the molded members being embodied in the sole as individual units or as a multiple unit or multiple units of interconnected preformed molded members.
Patented Aug. 10, 1971 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Patented Aug. 10, 1971 3,597,863
2 Sheets-Sheet 2 25 U 3 MARCUS LUTHER AUSTIN CLIVE JONATHAN AUSTIN SPORTS SHOES This invention relates to boots and shoes (hereafter referred tosimply as shoes) of the kind having a molded sole in which are incorporated receptacles adapted to receive studs or spikes (hereafter referred to simply as spikes) and has particular, but not exclusive, application to golf shoes.
Conventional spikes generally have flanges which lie against the underside of the sole in order to transmit the pressure of the ground on the spike point to a wider area of sole, so aiding lateral stability of the spike and reducing spike pressure on the underside of the foot. Conventional spike receptacles designed to receive such flanged spikes have the disadvantage that when mud and grass collects beneath the flange and hardens, the resulting misalignment of the spike eventually leads to loosening of the receptacle within the sole. With the invention of softer and more flexible sole materials (for example cellular materials) the problem of satisfactorily incorporating the spike receptacles in the soles has become more acute. 1
The initial object of this invention was to obviate the presence of spike flanges on the undersurface of the sole and so eliminate a main cause of the problem. However the invention in meeting this object provided, as will become apparent, an advantageous arrangement for use with conventional flanged spikes particularly in cases where the aforesaid softer and more flexible sole materials are used.
According to this invention in a shoe of the kind having a molded sole, a preformed molded member of higher mechanical strength than the main sole body is embodied in the main sole body and has a receptacle portion for securing a spike to the sole and an integral plate portion sandwiched within the thickness of the sole and extending over an area of the sole outside the confines of the receptacle portion to distribute the ground pressure on a spike secured in said receptacle over said area of the sole.
Said plate portion may extend as a flange surrounding said receptacle portion or it may be remote from said receptacle portion, said spike pressure being transmitted from the receptacle portion to the plate portion by an interconnecting portion.
Said plate portion may be concave on its upper surface and convex on its lower surface.
In one embodiment of the invention a plurality of said molded members are interconnected to form a multiple unit, the interconnecting portions serving to transmit spike pressure throughout the unit.
In another embodiment of the invention as a multiple unit, the plate portions also serve as interconnections between receptacle portions.
In a still further embodiment as a multiple unit a plurality of said molded members may be interconnected by a mesh.
In order that the invention may be readily understood, embodiments of the invention will now be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 shows a fragmentary section through a molded sole body according to one embodiment,
FIGS. 2 and 3 show modifications of the molded member embodying the spike receptacle shown in FIG. 1,
FIG. 4 shows a fragmentary perspective view of a molded sole body embodying two interconnected molded members of the form shown in FIG. 1,
FIGS. 5, 6 and 7 show molded members of the form shown in FIG. 4 interconnected in various ways to form multiple units of spike receptacles,
FIG. 8 shows in elevation a further form of multiple unit,
FIGS. 9 and I show respectively a plan view and elevational view of a still further form of multiple unit,
FIG. II shows a sectional view through yet another form of multiple unit, and
FIG. 12 is a fragmentary section through a molded sole body in which the receptacle portion of the molded member extends to the underside surface of the sole, the molded member being of slightly different form from that shown in FIG. 1.
In the different embodiments corresponding parts have been given the same reference numerals.
Referring now to the drawings, there is shown in FIG. I a portion of a molded sole body I having embedded wholly within its thickness a member 2 of molded material. The member 2 has a central boss forming a spike receptacle portion 3 with threaded bore 4 into which a spike 5 is screwed to secure the latter to the sole 1. In the specifically illustrated embodiment, the spike 5 is shown as being detachably secured to bore 4; however, it will be apparent to one skilled in the art that the concepts of this invention are equally applicable to an arrangement wherein the spike 5 is formed integrally with member 2. Extending from the receptacle portion 3 is a plate portion 6 defining a circular flange around the receptacle portion 3 and curved to give the member 2 a dished or concave upper surface and a convex lower surface which renders it compatible with the contours of the sole when the latter is flexed during walking. The spike 5 shown in full line in FIG. 1 is a flangeless spike having flats at 7 for engagement by a tool to fit or remove the spike 5. The plate portion 6 serves to distribute upward pressure on the point of the spike 5 over a wider area of the sole and aids lateral stability of the spike S. It thus serves the function of the flange of a flanged spike. In order to perform this junction effectively it must have greater mechanical strength than the main sole body 1 in which it is embedded, that is to say greater tensile, compressive and shear resistance than the sole body 1. Nevertheless the sole body I and molded member 2 can be selected to be chemically compatible so as to achieve a'satisfactory chemical bond between them; for example the sble body I could be soft P.V.C. and the molded member 2 hard P.V.C. Another suitable material for the molded member 2 is nylon.
The molded members 2 are formed by a premolding operation and are embedded in the sole body 1 during the molding of the latter. Conveniently said members 2 are preassembled with spikes 5 or with plugs. The plugs, like the spikes are screwed into the receptacle portions 3 but in the finished sole do not protrude from but are flush with the underside of the sole body 1. Such plugs provide an interchangeable fitting with the spikes for use on hard ground and would be provided with slots or depressions in their lower ends to enable removal by a key.
While the receptacle arrangement shown in FIG. 1 is particularly suitable for flangeless spikes, it is equally adapted to take flanged spikes which would be of the same general form as the spikes 5 with the addition of a flange as shown in dotted line at 8 in FIG. 1.
It is not essential for the receptacle portion 3 to be concentric with the plate portion 6. It could for example be eccentric as shown in FIG. 2 or even outside it and connected to it by an interconnecting portion 9 as shown in FIG. 3, the interconnecting portion serving to transmit spike pressure to the plate portion 6.
In FIG. 4 two of the members 2 shown in FIG. 1 are interconnected by limb II, which is integrally formed with the members 2 during the molding thereof. The limb I] will also serve to distribute local stresses over a wider area of the sole. 'Ihc limb II has holes 12 through which molding material flows during molding of the sole body 1 in order to provide a keying effect.
end of a sole body. In the multiple unit 17 one member 2 is shown with an elliptical plate portion 6, one with a circular plate portion 6 and the third with an hexagonal plate portion. These varying shapes may be chosen for any particular member 2 in the sole to suit various functional requirements.
In FIG. 7 a multiple unit 18 incorporating all the spike receptacles'for the forcpart of the sole comprises a plurality of the member 2 interconnected by a mesh 19. The mesh 19 may be molded in one with the members 2, or it could be prefabricated and the members 2 then cemented, welded or otherwise affixed to it. During the molding of the sole body 1 the material would be able to flow through the mesh 19 so that the mesh 19 becomes fully integrated with the sole body 1.
FIG. 8 shows another multiple unit in which the spike receptacle portions 3 are remote from the plate portions 6 the latter being of circular form with dished upper surfaces and convex lower surfaces. The spike receptacle portions 3 are provided as the downturned ends of molded rod 20 on which the plate portions 6 are provided during molding. This form of multiple unit is useful for mounting spikes close to the outside edge of the sole, the plate portions 6 being disposed so that they lie beneath the weight-bearing portions of the foot In the multiple unit shown in FIGS. 9 and 10 the interconnections between the spike receptacles 3 also serve as the plate portions 6 for distributing the loading pressure of spikes over a wide area of the sole. The molded plate member 21 performing this dual function is thickened at places to define the receptacle portions 3 and the plate portions 6. The plate member 21 is provided with flow holes 12 through which molding material flows during molding of the sole body 1.
In FIG. 11 the receptacle portions 3 are provided in a plate member 22 in somewhat similar manner to FIGS. 9 and 10. However the plate member 22 is thickened at the spike receptacle portions 3 so that the spike receptacles lie in different predetermined horizontal planes. This enables flangeless spikes of the same length as each other to be fitted and protrude different lengths from the underside of the sole as is desirable in certain types of sports footwear. Further the angle at which flangeless spikes protrude from the sole can be made different from each other by suitably inclining the threaded bores of the receptacle portions 3.
The spike receptacle portions 3 in any of the above embodiments may be wholly within the thickness of the sole body 1 as shown for example in FIG. 1 or they may extend to the under surface of the sole. When they do extend to the undersurface of the sole they may be provided there, as shown in FIG. 12, with a flange 23 to effect additional keying to the sole body 1.
I. A shoe having a sole comprising,
a main sole body of molded material,
a plurality of preformed molded members of higher mechanical strength than the main sole body embodied in the main sole body,
each preformed molded member having a retaining portion for a spike and an integral plate portion sandwiched within the thickness of the main sole body for distributing the ground pressure on a spike over a larger area of the sole than that occupied by the retaining portion,
said plate portion being convex on its lower surface.
2. A shoe as claimed in claim 1, wherein said plate portion is concave on its upper surface.
3. A shoe having a sole comprising,
a main sole body of molded material,
a plurality of preformed molded members of higher mechanical strength than the main sole body interconnected as a preformed multiple unit embodied in the main sole body,
each preformed molded member having a retaining portion for a spike and an integral plate portion sandwiched within the thickness of the main sole body for distributing the ground pressure on a spike over a larger area of the sole than that occupied by the retainingjportion. 4. A shoe as cla|med in claim 3, wherein t e interconnecting of said molded members to form said multiple unit is by portions formed integrally with said molded members during the molding thereof.
5. A shoe as claimed in claim 3, wherein the interconnecting of said molded members to form said multiple unit is by a mesh.
6. A shoe as claimed in claim 3, wherein the plate portions of said molded members also serve to interconnect the retaining portions to form the multiple unit.
7. A shoe as claimed in claim 3, wherein the retaining portions of the multiple unit lie in different horizontal planes and flangeless spikes of equal length are located in said retaining portions whereby they project by different lengths from the underside ofsaid sole.
8 A shoe as claimed in claim 6, wherein said retaining portions have their spike receiving axes inclined at different angles to the underside of the sole and flangeless spikes are secured in said retaining portions.
9. A shoe as claimed in claim 3, wherein all the molded members in the forcpart of the sole are interconnected as a multiple unit.
I0. A shoe as claimed in claim 3, wherein all the molded members in the heel part of the sole are interconnected as a multiple unit.
11. A shoe as claimed in claim 1, wherein said retaining portion extends to the underside of the sole and is there provided with a flange which thus lies flush with the underside surface I of the sole.
12. A shoe having a sole comprising,
a main sole body formed ofa soft polyvinyl chloride,
at least one preformed molded member formed of a hard polyvinyl chloride and having a higher mechanical strength than the main sole body and bondable to said main sole body,
each said molded member being embedded within and bonded to said main sole body and having a retaining portion for a spike and an integral plate portion sandwiched within the thickness of the main sole body for distributing the ground pressure on a spike over a larger area of the sole than that occupied by said retaining portion.
13. The shoe of claim I which further includes a spike which is detachably secured to said retained portion.